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Encyclopedia > Paranthropus boisei
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Paranthropus boisei
Fossil range: Pliocene-Pleistocene

OH 5
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Family: Hominidae
Genus: Paranthropus
Species: P. boisei
Binomial name
Paranthropus boisei
(Mary Leakey, 1959)

Paranthropus boisei (originally called Zinjanthropus boisei and then Australopithecus boisei until recently) was an early hominid and described as the largest of the Paranthropus species. It lived from about 2.6 until about 1.2 million years ago during the Pliocene and Pleistocene eras in Eastern Africa. The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Image File history File links Zinj3. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... For the ecclesiastical use of this term, see primate (religion) Families 13, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, and apes, including humans. ... Genera The hominids are the members of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), which includes humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species †Paranthropus aethiopicus †Paranthropus boisei †Paranthropus robustus The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus, were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Mary Leakey (February 6, 1913 – December 9, 1996) was a British archaeologist, who, along with others, discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species †Paranthropus aethiopicus †Paranthropus boisei †Paranthropus robustus The robust australopithecines, members of the extinct hominin genus Paranthropus, were bipedal hominins that probably descended from the gracile australopithecine hominins (Australopithecus). ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Eastern Africa ...

Contents

Discovery

First discovered by anthropologist Mary Leakey in July 1959 at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, the well-preserved cranium OH 5 (nicknamed "Nutcracker Man") was dated to 1.75 million years old and had characteristics distinctive of the gracile australopithecines. Mary and her husband Louis Leakey classified the specimen as Zinjanthropus boisei: "Zinj" for the medieval East African region of Zanj, "anthropus" meaning ape or ape-human, and "boisei" for Charles Boise (the anthropologists team’s funder at the time). Paranthropus boisei (as the species was eventually categorized) proved to be a treasure especially when the anthropologists son Richard Leakey considered it to be the first hominid species to use stone tools. Another skull was unearthed in 1969 by Richard at Koobi Fora near the Lake Turkana region. Mary Leakey (February 6, 1913 – December 9, 1996) was a British archaeologist, who, along with others, discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Olduvai Gorge, February 2006 Olduvai Gorge from space Topography of Olduvai Gorge The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as The Cradle of Mankind. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Species A. afarensis (Lucy) A. africanus A. anamensis A. bahrelghazali A. garhi Formerly Australopithecus, now Paranthropus [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} The gracile australopithecines (members of the genus Australopithecus) are a group of extinct hominids that are closely... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zanj (Arabic and Persian زنج, Land of the Blacks) was a name used by medieval Arab geographers to refer to a portion of the East African coast. ... In 1977, Leaky sat next to the rare Half Monkey Half Man, who took a bite out of him, and made Leaky cry. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Koobi Fora is an archeological site on the east side of Lake Turkana in Eastern Africa. ... View over Lake Turkana Lake Turkana, formerly known as Lake Rudolf, is a lake in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya (although the far northern end of the lake crosses into Ethiopia), which covers a surface area of 6405 km² (2473 mi²), making it the worlds largest permanent desert...


Morphology and interpretations

The brain volume is quite small, about 500 and 550 cm³, not much larger in comparison to Australopithecus afarensis and Australopithecus africanus. It had a skull highly specialized for heavy chewing and several traits seen in modern day gorillas. P. boisei inhabited the dry savannah grasslands and woodland territories. Males weighed 68 kg (150 lb) and stood 4 feet 3 inches (1.3 m) tall, while females weighed 45 kg (100 lb) and stood 3 feet 5 inches (1.05 m) tall. The average adult males were almost twice the weight and height as the females, giving them the greatest sexual dimorphism recorded of all identified hominids. The back molar teeth were about 4 times larger than those of modern humans. Cranial capacity is a measure of the volume of the interior of the cranium (also called the braincase or brainpan) of those animals who have both a brain and a cranium. ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Binomial name †Australopithecus africanus Dart, 1925 Australopithecus africanus was an early hominid, an australopithecine, who lived between 3. ... Type species Troglodytes gorilla Savage, 1847 distribution of Gorilla Species Gorilla gorilla Gorilla beringei The gorilla, the largest of the living primates, is a ground-dwelling omnivore that inhabits the forests of Africa. ... Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. It was assigned to the United States in 1889 and is periodically recertified and traceable to the primary international standard, The Kilogram, held at the Bureau International des Poids et... The pound (abbreviations: lb or, sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass in a number of different systems, including various systems of units of mass that formed part of English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ...


No stone tool implements have been found in direct association with P. boisei; when first discovered Richard Leakey believed they had mastered tools. However, the first fossil of Homo habilis proved to be one of the first to acquire tool technology. Previously Richard Leakey believed the species was a direct ancestor of Homo sapiens but more modern analyses have changed the theory, and place it on a separate evolutionary route unrelated to the genus Homo. Presently it is assumed that this species was not remarkable as to acquiring unique intelligence compared with more modern hominids. Instead the dentition (especially observed in the back molars and pre-molars) was built for tough chewing materials such as ground tubers, nuts and likely leaves in the grasslands. This is supported by the correspondingly widened zygomatic arches and large sagittal ridge, similar to that found in modern gorillas. Binomial name †Homo habilis Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (IPA ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ...


Fossils

In 1993, A. Amzaye found fossils of P. boisei at Kronso, Ethiopia. The partial skull's designation is KGA10-525 and is dated to 1.4 million years ago. It is the biggest skull specimen ever found of P. boisei. It has been claimed as the only remains of the species found in Ethiopia; all others have been in other parts of Eastern Africa. The oldest specimen of P. boisei was found in Omo, Ethiopia and dates to 2.3 million years old classified as (L. 74a-21) while the youngest speciemen from Olduvai Gorge dates 1.2 million years old classified as OH 3 and OH 38. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Surf is the name of a laundry detergent, most commonly known by said name in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. ... Olduvai Gorge, February 2006 Olduvai Gorge from space Topography of Olduvai Gorge The Olduvai Gorge or Oldupai Gorge is commonly referred to as The Cradle of Mankind. ...


Other well preserved specimens

  • OH 5 "Nutcrackerman" is the first P. boisei found by Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania belonging to an adult male (circa. 1.75 mya).
  • KNM WT 17400 a partial cranium with similar characteristics as KNM WT 17000 "Black skull" belonging to Paranthropus aethiopicus. The skull was found at West Turkana, Kenya (circa. 1.7 mya).
  • ER 406 was found by Richard Leakey and H. Mutua in 1970 at Koobi Fora, Kenya is a partial cranium most likely identified as belonging to a female (circa. 1.7 mya).

OH 5 (also known as Zinj or nutcracker man) is a fossilized skull of the species Paranthropus boisei. ... KNM ER 406 is a fossilized skull of the species Paranthropus boisei. ... Koobi Fora is an archeological site on the east side of Lake Turkana in Eastern Africa. ... The zygomatic bone (also known as the zygoma; Os Zygomaticum; Malar Bone) is a paired bone of the human skull. ... Binomial name †Paranthropus aethiopicus (Olson, 1985) Paranthropus aethiopicus is an extinct species of Paranthropus. ... Turkana refers to: Turkana people of Kenya Turkana language of Kenya Lake Turkana the fictional world of Turkana IV in a Star Trek Next Generation episode This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

See also

List of fossil sites: // Afar Depression, Ethiopia, Pliocene Awash River, Afar Depression, Ethiopia, Australopithecus afarensis, Lucy, Pliocene, 3. ... The following charts give a brief overview of several notable fossil finds relating to human evolution. ... Chopper with a Simple edge. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Paranthropus (640 words)
Paranthropus is an extinct genus of bipedal hominid that is probably descended from the Australopithecine hominids (''Australopithecus'').
Paranthropus is thought to have lived in wooded areas rather than the grasslands of the Australopithecus.
The behavior of Paranthropus was quite different from that of the genus Homo, in that it was not as adaptable to its environment or as resourceful.
The Antiquity of Man Black Skull (7098 words)
In the late sixties and seventies, J.T. Robinson, allotted Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus boisei, often referred to as the 'robust' lineage, to the scientific genus name of Paranthropus, according to the morphological aspects of the mastication trend, to distinguish it from the Homo lineage.
boisei "represent two distinct fundamental structures of the facial architecture" (1983: 121) and thus are deserving of their separate species names but does not advocate the generic distinction of Paranthropus.
The entire face was "vintage A./P. boisei, large and dish shaped" (1992: 128), yet the brain was one of the smallest of all fossil specimens, at 410 cubic centimeters.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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