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Encyclopedia > Parami
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Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): "Perfection" or "Transcendent" (lit. "Having reached the other shore"). In Buddhism, the Paramitas refer to the perfection or culmination of certain practices. These practices are cultivated by Bodhisattvas for crossing from sensuous life (Samsara) to Enlightenment (Nirvana).

In Theravada Buddhism, the Ten Perfections (Paramis) are; (original terms in Pali)

  1. dana parami : generosity, giving of oneself
  2. sila parami : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. nekhamma parami : renunciation
  4. panna parami : transcendental wisdom, insight
  5. viriya parami : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  6. khanti parami : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  7. sacca parami : truthfulness, honesty
  8. aditthana parami : determination, resolution
  9. metta parami : loving-kindness
  10. upekkha parami : equanimity, serenity

In Mahayana Buddhism, the Perfection_of_Wisdom (Prajna-paramita) Sutra and Lotus (Saddharmapundarika) Sutra list the Six Perfections as; (original terms in Sanskrit)

  1. dana: generosity, giving of oneself
  2. sila paramita : virtue, morality, proper conduct
  3. shanti paramita : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance
  4. virya paramita : energy, diligence, vigour, effort
  5. dhyana paramita : meditation, concentration, contemplation
  6. prajna paramita : transcendental wisdom, insight

The later Ten Stages (Dasabhumika) Sutra lists another four;

7. upaya paramita: skillful means
8. pranidhana paramita: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination
9. bala paramita: spiritual power
10. jnana paramita: knowledge, wisdom

External links

  • Compassion and Bodhicitta (http://buddhism.kalachakranet.org/compassion.html)
  • Digital Dictionary of Buddhism (http://www.acmuller.net/cgi-bin/search-ddb4.pl?Terms=波羅蜜) (log in with userID "guest")
  • Renunciation by T. Prince (http://www.accesstoinsight.org/lib/bps/leaves/bl036.html), a free distribution article on the Buddhist conception of renunciation

  Results from FactBites:
Paramys - Wikipedia (102 words)
Paramys is een primitief knaagdier uit de familie Ischyromyidae dat voorkwam tijdens het Eoceen.
Paramys ontwikkelde zich in Noord-Amerika en vervolgens verspreidde dit dier zich naar andere continenten.
Paramys was een eekhoornachtig dier van 60 cm lang met een aantal typische knaagdierkenmerken.
AMNH Scientific Publications: Item 2246/2009 (214 words)
"The morphology of the external surface of the petrosal and its junction with the basioccipital in Paramys copei is described.
Sciuravus is set apart by the lack of a ventral petrosal sinus canal between the petrosal and basioccipital and by the facial nerve and stapedial artery sharing a common foramen in the petrosal.
European theridomyids, too, are not as primitive as Paramys but share with it and Sciuravus a ridge on the promontorium that separates the transpromontorial continuation of the internal carotid artery from the origin of the tensor tympani muscle.
  More results at FactBites »



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