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Encyclopedia > Paramecium
Paramecium
Paramecium aureli
Paramecium aureli
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Protista
(unranked) Alveolata
Phylum: Ciliophora
Class: Oligohymenophorea
Order: Peniculida
Family: Parameciidae
Genus: Paramecium
Müller, 1773
Species

Paramecium tetraurelia
Paramecium aurelia
Paramecium caudatum Download high resolution version (751x738, 186 KB)Paramecium aurelia, the best known of all ciliates. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Chromalveolata Protista Alternative phylogeny Unikonta Opisthokonta Metazoa Choanozoa Eumycota Amoebozoa Bikonta Apusozoa Cabozoa Rhizaria Excavata Corticata Archaeplastida Chromalveolata Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes (IPA: ), organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. ... Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all... The alveolates are a major line of protists. ... Classes Karyorelictea Heterotrichea Spirotrichea Litostomatea Phyllopharyngea Nassophorea Colpodea Prostomatea Oligohymenophorea Plagiopylea See text for subclasses. ... Typical orders Subclass Peniculia     Peniculida Subclass Hymenostomatia     Hymenostomatida Subclass Scuticociliatia     Philasterida     Pleuronematida     Thigmotrichida Subclass Astomatia     Astomatida Subclass Apostomatia     Apostomatida     Astomatophorida     Pilisuctorida Subclass Peritrichia     Sessilida     Mobilida The Oligohymenophorea are a large class of ciliate protozoa. ... Typical families Suborder Frontoniina     Clathrostomatidae     Frontoniidae     Lembadionidae     Maritujidae     Stokesiidae Suborder Parameciina     Parameciidae     Neobursaridiidae     Urocentridae The peniculids are an order of ciliate protozoa, including the well-known Paramecium and its close relatives. ... Otto Friedrich Müller Otto Friedrich Müller (March 11, 1730 - December 26, 1784) was a Danish naturalist. ... Binomial name Ehr. ...

The Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape. They are commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group. Paramecia range from about 50 to 350 μm in length, depending on species. Simple cilia cover the body which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion. There is also a deep oral groove containing inconspicuous compound oral cilia (as found in other peniculids) that is used to draw food inside. They generally feed upon bacteria and other small cells. Osmoregulation is carried out by a pair of contractile vacuoles, which actively expel water absorbed by osmosis from their surroundings. A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... Classes Karyorelictea Heterotrichea Spirotrichea Litostomatea Phyllopharyngea Nassophorea Colpodea Prostomatea Oligohymenophorea Plagiopylea See text for subclasses. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Protozoa Protozoa (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. ... Animalcule is an older term for a microscopic animal or protozoan. ... A pair of open-heeled slippers. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... Typical families Suborder Frontoniina     Clathrostomatidae     Frontoniidae     Lembadionidae     Maritujidae     Stokesiidae Suborder Parameciina     Parameciidae     Neobursaridiidae     Urocentridae The peniculids are an order of ciliate protozoa, including the well-known Paramecium and its close relatives. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the bodys water content; that is it keeps the bodys fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. ... Figure 1: A paramecium. ... Osmosis is the net movement of water across a partially permeable membrane from a region of high solvent potential to an area of low solvent potential, up a solute concentration gradient. ...


Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments, and are especially common in scums. Paramecia are attracted by acidic conditions. Certain single-celled eukaryotes, such as Paramecium, are examples for exceptions to the universality of the genetic code (translation systems where a few codons differ from the standard ones). For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Freshwater, Isle of Wight. ... Look up Scum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Physiology

The paramecium is a prolate spheroid, rounded at the front and pointed at the back. The pellicle is a stiff but elastic membrane that gives the paramecium its definite shape. Covering the pellicle are many tiny hairs, called cilia. On the side beginning near the front end and continuing down half way is the oral groove, which collects food until it is swept into the cell mouth. There is an opening near the back end called the anal pore. The contractile vacuole and the radiating canals are also found on the outside of a paramecium. A spheroid is a quadric surface in three dimensions obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes. ... The pellicle is a thin layer supporting the cell membrane in various protozoa, protecting them and allowing them to retain their shape. ...


The paramecium contains cytoplasm, trichocysts, the gullet, food vacuoles, the macronucleus, and the micronucleus. These structures have the following functions: It has been suggested that Cytoplast be merged into this article or section. ... Vacuoles are large membrane-bound compartments within some eukaryotic cells where they serve a variety of different functions: capturing food materials or unwanted structural debris surrounding the cell, sequestering materials that might be toxic to the cell, maintaining fluid balance (called turgor) within the cell, exporting unwanted substances from the... A macronucleus (formerly also meganucleus) is the larger type of nucleus in ciliates. ... A micronucleus is the smaller nucleus in ciliate protozoans. ...

  • Cilia- enable the paramecium to move and sweep food into the oral groove
  • Oral Groove- where food enters
  • Anal Pore- disposes of waste
  • Contractile Vacuole- contracts and forces extra water out of the cell
  • Radiating Canals- paths to the contractile vacuole
  • Cytoplasm- intercellular fluid which helps the paramecium carry out functions
  • Trichocyst- used for defense
  • Gullet- forms food vacuoles
  • Food Vacuole- storage pocket for food
  • Macronucleus- larger nucleus which performs normal cell functions
  • Micronucleus- smaller nucleus which is responsible for cell division.

Locomotion

For the paramecium to move forward its cilia beat on an angle, backward. This means that the paramecium moves by spiralling through the water on an invisible axis. For the paramecium to move backward, the cilia simply beat forward on an angle.


If the paramecium should run into a solid object, the cilia change direction and beat forward, causing the paramecium to go backward. The paramecium turns slightly and goes forward again. If it runs into the solid object again it will repeat this process until it can get past the object.


Gathering food

Paramecium feed on micro-organisms like bacteria, algae, and yeasts. In order to gather its food the paramecium uses its cilia to sweep the food along with some water into the cell mouth after it falls into the oral groove. The food goes through the cell mouth into the gullet, which is like the stomach. When there is enough food in it so that it has reached a certain size it breaks away and forms a food vacuole. The food vacuole travels through the cell, through the back end first. As it moves along enzymes from the cytoplasm enter the vacuole and digest it. The digested food then goes into the cytoplasm and the vacuole gets smaller and smaller. When the vacuole reaches the anal pore the remaining undigested waste is removed.


Symbiosis

One of the most interesting symbiosis relationships known to man is that of Paramecium aurelia and its bacterial endosymbionts. The bacteria infect the protozoa and they produce toxic particles that kill sensitive strains but not killer strains. Giant amoeba, for instance, have 2 types of endosymbiotes, which seem to function as mitochondria in these amoeba. Another example involves protozoa bacteria that produce cellulases that assist the protozoa in cellulose digestion.It is a cell that appears at quiet ponds.

This protist-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

Typical phyla Chromalveolata Chromista Heterokontophyta Haptophyta Cryptophyta (cryptomonads) Alveolata Dinoflagellata Apicomplexa Ciliophora (ciliates) Cabozoa Excavata Euglenozoa Percolozoa Metamonada Rhizaria Radiolaria Foraminifera Cercozoa Archaeplastida (in part) Rhodophyta (red algae) Glaucophyta (basal archaeplastids) Amoebozoa Choanozoa Many others; classification varies Protists (IPA: (RP); (GenAm)), Greek protiston -a meaning the (most) first of all...

Genome

The paramecium genome has been sequenced (species: Paramecium Tetraurelia), providing evidence for three whole genome duplication.


Reference: Aury, J. M., O. Jaillon, et al. (2006). "Global trends of whole-genome duplications revealed by the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia." Nature 444(7116): 171-8.


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Paramecium (1453 words)
The Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape.
Certain single-celled eukaryotes, such as Paramecium, are examples for exceptions to the universality of the genetic code (translation systems where a few codons differ from the standard ones).
Paramecium is a well-known genus of ciliate protozoa, formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape.
Paramecium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (220 words)
Paramecium is a well-known genus of ciliate protozoa, formerly known as slipper animalcules from their slipper shape.
In a popular computer program, Chip's Challenge, the main character encounters a cartoon paramecium, one of the many monsters that he must overcome.
In the Homestar Runner universe, the gang were a "bunch o' parameciums" before they were in middle school.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 
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