FACTOID # 30: If Alaska were its own country, it would be the 26th largest in total area, slightly larger than Iran.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parama Kambojas

Ancient Sanskrit literature reveals that like the Madras/Uttara Madras and the Kurus/Uttara Kurus, the ancient Kambojas also had, at least two settlements. The great epic Mahabharata sufficiently attests two main divisions of the Kambojas which were named as Kamboja and the Parama-Kamboja. Besides Mahabharata, there are other ancient texts/sources which also indirectly support the existence of two Kamboja divisions in ancient times. The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ... Madra is the name of an ancient people, thought to belong to Iranian group, located in the north-west division of ancient Indian sub-continent. ... The Uttaramadra was the northern branch of the Madra people numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature. ... The Kurus are an ancient people of Indo-Aryans known from the early Vedic period. ... Uttarakuru was the name of ancient country and its people as numerously referenced in ancient Vedic, Brahmanical and the Buddhist texts and numerous other ancient Sanskrit texts. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Mahabharata (Devanagari: महाभारत, phonetically Mahābhārata - see note), sometimes just called Bharata, is one of the two major ancient Sanskrit epics of India, the other being the Ramayana. ... Look up Kamboja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Kamboja was the ancient name of a country and the Indo-Iranian warrior tribe, the Kambojas, settled therein. ...

Contents


Mahabharata Evidence

Kamboja

In Arjuna's Digvijaya compaign against the tribes of north, the direction presided over by the lord of treasures, Pandava hero Arjuna reduces the Bahlika (north-west Panjab) country, and then meets the Daradas (Gilgit) and the Kambojas (Paropamisadae to Rajauri) and obtains tribute from them (MBH II.27/22-23) In Hindu mythology, Arjuna is one of the heroes of the epic Mahabharata. ... In Hinduism, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu. ... Punjab, 1903 Punjab Province, 1909 The Punjab (sometimes spelt Panjab) is a region straddling the border between India and Pakistan. ... Gilgit is a region in the Northern Areas of Pakistan, bordering the Chinese region of Xinjiang. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ...

tatah.parama.vikranto Bahlikan.kurunandanah || II.27.22||
....................................................................
Daradan.saha Kambojai.rajayat.paka.shasanih || II.27.23||

This settlement of the Kambojas was in neighborhood of the Daradas and is located on the southern side of Hindu Kush in the region, which later formed parts of the Greek strapy of Paropamisadae. In the east, it is known to have extended as far as Rajapura (Rajauri) located in the south-west of Kashmir. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The capital city of Kamboja was at Rajauri (Dr B. C. Law). In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ...


Parama-Kamboja

After settling with the Daradas and the Kambojas, Arjuna fights with the robber tribes of the mountnainous frontiers and dasyus (barbarians) of the woods, and thereafter, taking select forces, Arjuna goes across Hindukush to fight with the allied tribes of the Lohas, Parama-Kambojas and northern Rishikas. In Hindu mythology, Arjuna is one of the heroes of the epic Mahabharata. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...

Lohan. Parama.Kambojan.Rishikan.uttaranapi ||II.27.25||

The Lohas, Param-Kambojas and the northern Rishikas were all neighborly tribes, and all were located in trans-Himalayan (i.e trans-Hindukush) territories. The northern Rishikas had another of their settlement, somewhere between river Tapti and Godavari, in western India. They were probably located on or south of river Tapti, west of Vidarbhas, north of the Mulakas, east of Soparka and south of Anupadesa (in modern Maharashtra). Himalayan can refer to: Himalaya, the mountains: Himalayan (cat), the type of cat This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... The Godavari River is a major waterway in India, next to the Ganges and Indus rivers. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is Indias third largest state in terms of area and second largest in terms of population after Uttar Pradesh. ...


The northern Rishikas were located apparently in Sogdiana/Fargana territories. The trans-Oxian territories were parts of what has been called Sakadvipa in ancient Sanskrit literature. Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


The Parama-Kambojas were located in Pamirs/Badakshan and as far as Zeravshan valley. The capital city of the Parama-Kamboja was probably at Darwaz in Badakshan. The Parama Kambojas were Iranian people, and apparently followed Irano-Scythian culture and customs than the Indo-Aryan. Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Look up Culture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Wikinews has news related to this article: Culture and entertainment Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Cultural Development in Antiquity Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Culture and Civilization in Modern Times Classificatory system for cultures and civilizations, by Dr. Sam Vaknin... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, thus belonging to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Further References to Parama-Kamboja

There are several more references in the Dronaparava, Sauptikaparava, Karanaparava of Mahabharata, which amply attest the excellent breed of horses from Parama-Kamboja. The Following is one illustrative example, picked up from Sauptikaparava of Mahabharata, which sufficently attests the Parama-Kamboja people as well as their foremost breed of horses.

yuktam Parama.Kambojaisturagairhemamalibhih ||10.14.1-2||

It is interesting to note that like Madras/Uttara Madras, Kurus/Uttara Kurus, Kambojas/ Parama Kambojas, there were also two settlements of the Yonas (Yavanas), called Yona and Parama Yonas (See: Mahaniddesa, pp 155, 415). Yona, Yonaka or Yavana are Pali words used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ...


The Yona probably referred to Archosian Yavanas while the Parama-Yona to the Bactrian Yavanas. Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh) in Afghanistan. ...


Etymology of Parama-Kamboja

The prefix Parama- can be interpretted in the sense of (1) Uttara or northern (2) beyond and (3) greater/supreme.


The Parama- with a sense of northern/Uttara sounds logical since the Parama- branch of the Kambojas was located in Uttara or north direction to Kambojas. Moreover, it also sounds similar to Uttara-Madra and Uttara-Kuru. The Parama- in the sense of greater also makes good sense since the trans-Hindukush branch the Kambojas was original and perhaps the bigger section of the Kambojas. Some scholars like Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi have interpretted Parama- in the sense of beyond, which also looks senseful since Parama-Kamboja was located beyond the Kamboja, when seen from India.


Two Kamboja Settlements: Evidence from Ptolemy

Ptolemy refers to a region located on the southern bank of Oxus in Badakshan, and calls it Tambyzoi. According to scholars like Dr S Levi, Tambyzoi is a Greek transliteration of Sanskrit Kamboja (Indian Antiquary, 1923, p 54). Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος; c. ... The Amu Darya (in Persian آمودریا; Darya means river in Persian) rises in the Pamirs and flows mainly north-west through the Hindu Kush, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan to join the Aral Sea in a large river delta. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


Ptolemy also refers to a people/region he calls Ambautai (Geography 6.18.3 ) which he locates on the southern side of Hindukush in the Paropamisadae. The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ...


Dr Michael Witzel opines that Ptolemian Ambautai is a variant of K’ambau.tai which he says is Ptolemian transliteration of the Sanskrit term Kamboja, with the typical Saka suffix -tai (Sauroma-tai) [1] [2] The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


Ptolemy also refers to Komoi people/region, whom he locates in the mountains of Sogdiana north of Bactria/Badakshan. Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. ... Bactria (Bactriana) was the ancient Greek name of the country between the range of the Hindu Kush (Caucasus Indicus) and the Amu Darya (Oxus), with the capital Bactra (now Balkh) in Afghanistan. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ...


The Komoi, as the name suggests, may be Ptolemian transtliteration of Kamboi. Kamboi comes from Kamboika or Kamboyka which is Sanskrit corruption of Kambojika. (Kambojika => Kamboyika => Kamboika =Kamboi). Kambojika is Pali equivalent of Sanskrit Kamboja. Pali texts numerously write Kamboja as well as Kambojaka/Kambojika. . Pāli (ISO 639-1: pi; ISO 639-2: pli) is a Middle Indo-Aryan dialect or prakrit. ... The Sanskrit language ( संस्कृता वाक्) is one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language family and is not only a classical language, but also an official language of India. ...


Thus, it looks likey that the Kamboja clans were spread in Kabol valley in Paropamisadae, in Badakshan/Pamir as well as up to the highlands of Sogdiana. The Yagnobi, a dialect of the modern Galcha language spoken in/around the head waters of river Zeravshan (in Zeravshan valley) still contains the relics of ancient Kamboji verb Shavti used in the sense to go (Linguistic Survey of India, G. A. Grierson). A clan is a group of people united by kinship and descent, which is defined by perceived descent from a common ancestor. ... Kabul (Kâbl, in Persian کابل) is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population variously estimated at 2 to 4 million. ... The Paropamisadae is an ancient area of the Hindu-Kush, in the Eastern part of Afghanistan. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... Sogdiana (Sugdiane, O. Pers. ... Yagnobi is a language spoken by abour two and a half thousand people in Tadjikistan. ... The Zeravshan or Zarafshan river, whilst smaller and less well-known than the two great rivers of Central Asia, the Oxus or Amu-Darya and the Jaxartes or Syr-Darya, is if anything more valuable as a source of irrigation in the region. ...


The foregoing references sufficiently demonstrate that the Kambojas were living on either side of the Hindukush. The cis-Hindukush division was called Kamboja. The trans-Hindukush Kamboja division was known as Parama Kamboja. Thus, like the Uttara-Kurus and Uttara-Madras, the Parama-Kambojas were also located in the trans-Himalayan (paren himavantam..) regions, and were neighbors, both to the Uttara Kurus as well as the Uttara Madras. The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ...


Aitareya Brahmana (VIII/14) also attests that the trans-Himalyan Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru nations were republican. As the Param-Kamboja (i.e the original Kamboja) was a close neighbor both to the Uttaramadras as wel as the Uttarakurus in trans-Himalyan territories, it can, therefore, be fairly conjectured that the Parama-Kambojas were also a republican people, most probably following a Rajashabdopajivin (king consul) type of republicanism, where the king was only a title for the commander-in-chief of the military confederation (Dr Kamboj, Dr K. P. Jayswal). Several republics of the Kambojas are attested in the Mahabharata (7/91/39). Kautiliya also attests the Kamboja Sanghas and corporations (11/1/1-4). Republican is a term used generally to describe a number of different organisations, principles, or political movements, and/or the persons supporting these. ... The Uttaramadra was the northern branch of the Madra people who are numerously referenced in ancient Sanskrit and Pali literature. ... Uttarakuru was the name of ancient country and its people as numerously referenced in ancient Vedic, Brahmanical and the Buddhist texts and numerous other ancient Sanskrit texts. ... ...


See also

This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The political process among the ancient Aryans appears to have originally started with semi-nomadic tribal units called Jana (meaning tribe). ...

References

  • Geographical Data in early Puranas, 1972, Dr M. R. Singh.
  • Problems of Ancient India, 2000, K. D. Sethna.
  • The Puranas, Vol VI, , No 1, 1964.
  • Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  • These Kamboj People, 1979, K. S Dardi
  • Mahabharata
  • Ptolemy’s Geography
  • Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World: Map-By-Map Directory (2 Volume Set) , 2000, Richard J. A. Talbert.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parama Kamboja Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (580 words)
Parama Kamboja Kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata to be on the far north west along with the Bahlika, Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru countries.
Parama Kambojas), borne by golden chariots pulled by the foremost (shreshthai) steeds of the Parama Kamboja breed of the varigated hue.
These 6000 soldiers are from the Parama Kamboja group who had sided with Pandavas against the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m