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Encyclopedia > Paralysis
Paralysed redirects here. For other uses see Paralysed (disambiguation)

Paralysis is the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups. Paralysis often includes loss of feeling in the affected area. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Paralysed may refer to: the state of paralysis, the complete loss of muscle function for one or more muscle groups Paralysed, a song by Gang of Four from their 1981 album Solid Gold Paralysed, a song by Ride from their 1990 album Nowhere Paralysed, book by Sherry Ashworth. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ...

Contents

Causes

Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. Partial paralysis can also occur in the REM stage of sleep. Major causes are stroke, trauma, poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), botulism, spina bifida, multiple sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Poisons that interfere with nerve function, such as curare, can also cause paralysis. The Human Nervous System. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Polysomnographic record of REM Sleep. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... This article is about the disease. ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs Disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, fatal, neurodegenerative disease caused by the degeneration of motor neurons, the nerve cells in the central nervous system that control voluntary muscle movement. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) (IPA pronunciation: is an acute, autoimmune, polyradiculoneuropathy affecting the peripheral nervous system, usually triggered by an acute infectious process. ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ... Strychnos toxifera by Koehler 1887 This page is about the plant toxins. ...


Variations

Paralysis may be localized, or generalized, or it may follow a certain pattern. For example, localized paralysis occurs in Bell's palsy where one side of the face may be paralyzed due to inflammation of the facial nerve on that side. Patients with stroke may be weak throughout their body (global paralysis) or have hemiplegia (weakness on one side of the body) or other patterns of paralysis depending on the area of damage in the brain. Other patterns of paralysis arise due to different lesions and their sequelae. For example, lower spinal cord damage from a severe back injury may result in paraplegia, while an injury higher up on the spinal cord, such as a neck injury, can cause quadriplegia. Patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia often use equipment such as a wheelchair or standing frame for mobility and to regain some independence. Bells palsy (or facial palsy) is characterised by facial drooping on the affected half, due to malfunction of the facial nerve (VII cranial nerve), which controls the muscles of the face. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Skin lesions caused by Chickenpox A lesion is any abnormal tissue found on or in an organism, usually damaged by disease or trauma. ... A sequela, (IPA ) (plural sequelæ) is a pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury, or other trauma. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ... Paraplegia is an impairment in motor and/or sensory function of the lower extremities. ... Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a symptom in which a human experiences paralysis of all four limbs, although not necessarily total paralysis. ... Paraplegia is an impairment in motor and/or sensory function of the lower extremities. ... Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a symptom in which a human experiences paralysis of all four limbs, although not necessarily total paralysis. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A standing frame (also known as a stand, stander, standing technology, standing aid, standing device, standing box, tilt table) is assistive technology used by a child or adult who uses a wheelchair for mobility. ...


Most paralyses caused by nervous system damage are constant in nature; however, there are forms of periodic paralysis, including sleep paralysis, which are caused by other factors. Periodic paralysis is a rare group of genetic diseases that lead to weakness or paralysis (rarely death) from common triggers such as cold, heat, high carbohydrate meals, not eating, stress or excitement and physical activity of any kind. ... The Nightmare, by Henry Fuseli (1781) is thought to be one of the classic depictions of sleep paralysis perceived as a demonic visitation. ...


Paralysis in the celebrity world

Famous people with paralysis include the late actor Christopher Reeve; film director Michelangelo Antonioni; singer/songwriter Curtis Mayfield; the architect Michael Graves; Sam Sullivan, mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; actor Jesse Billauer and professional wrestling star Hayabusa. American football player Mike Utley of the Detroit Lions was paralyzed during a 1991 NFL game. American football legend Nick Buoniconti, formerly of the Miami Dolphins, is a staunch supporter of research to cure paralysis. His son, Marc Buoniconti, was paralyzed in a football game at the age of 19. The Buoniconti family funds The Miami Project to Cure Paralysis [1] at the University of Miami. Singer Gloria Estefan was temporarily paralyzed after a traffic accident. After regaining mobility she became a supporter of The Miami Project.Mary Todd Lincoln the first lady of President Lincoln had peralysis written on her death cerficate. For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Christopher DOlier Reeve[1] (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, director, producer and writer. ... Michelangelo Antonioni (September 29, 1912 - July 30, 2007) was an Italian modernist film director whose films are widely considered as some of the most influential in film aesthetics. ... Curtis Mayfield (June 3, 1942 – December 26, 1999) was an American soul, funk and R&B singer, songwriter and guitarist best known for his anthemic music with The Impressions and composing the soundtrack to the blaxploitation film Superfly. ... -1... Sam Sullivan, CM (born 1960) is the Mayor of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735 km... For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Jesse Billauer (born February 24, 1979) is a well known surfer from Pacific Palisades, California. ... For the video game, see Pro Wrestling (video game). ... Eiji Ezaki was a Japanese professional wrestler better known as the masked Hayabusa (Falcon/Phoenix), who competed primarily for Atsushi Onitas Frontier Martial Arts promotion. ... Michael Mike Utley (b. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nicholas Anthony Buoniconti is a former AFL and NFL Hall of Fame linebacker, who played for the Boston Patriots and Miami Dolphins. ... City Miami Gardens, Florida Other nicknames The Fins Team colors Aqua, Coral, White and Navy Head Coach liljimjim Owner Wayne Huizenga General manager Randy Mueller Mascot T.D. League/Conference affiliations American Football League (1966-1969) Eastern Division (1966-1969) National Football League (1970–present) American Football Conference (1970-present... This article is about the university in Coral Gables, Florida. ... Gloria Estefan (born Gloria María Fajardo on September 1, 1957 in Havana, Cuba) is a three-time Grammy Award-winning Cuban American singer and songwriter. ...


Paralysis in the animal world

Many species of animals use paralyzing toxins in order to capture prey, evade predation, or both. One famous example is the tetrodotoxin of fish species such as Takifugu rubripes, the famously lethal pufferfish of Japanese fugu. This toxin works by binding to sodium channels in nerve cells, preventing the cells' proper function. A non-lethal dose of this toxin results in temporary paralysis. This toxin is also present in many other species ranging from toads to nemerteans. Another interesting use of paralysis in the natural world is the behavior of some species of wasp. In order to complete the reproductive cycle, the female wasp first paralyzes a prey item such as a grasshopper and then places it into her nest. Eggs are then laid on the paralyzed insect, which is devoured by the larvae after they hatch. Many snakes also exhibit powerful neurotoxins that can cause non-permanent paralysis or death. Tetrodotoxin (anhydrotetrodotoxin 4-epitetrodotoxin, tetrodonic acid, TTX) is a potent neurotoxin with no known antidote, which blocks action potentials in nerves by binding to the pores of the voltage-gated, fast sodium channels in nerve cell membranes. ... This article is about the genus of pufferfish Takifugu; for the Japanese dish, see fugu. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ... For other uses, see Fugu (disambiguation). ... Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that exist in a cells plasma membrane and regulate the flow of sodium (Na+) ions into it. ... Classes Anopla Enopla The phylum Nemertea (also Rhynchocoela, Nemertina, Nemertinea or Nemertini) contains the ribbon worms or proboscis worms, which are a group of unsegmented marine invertebrates. ... For other uses, see Wasp (disambiguation). ... Larvae are the plural of larva, juvenile form of animals with indirect development. ... A neurotoxin is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells, or neurons, usually by interacting with membrane proteins and ion channels. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ...


Paralysis can be seen in breeds of dogs that are chondrodysplastic. These dogs have short legs, and may also have short muzzles. Their intervertebral disc material can calcify and become more brittle. In such cases, the disc may rupture, with disc material ending up in the spinal canal, or rupturing more laterally to press on spinal nerves. A minor rupture may only result in paresis, but a major rupture can cause enough damage to result in complete paralysis. If no signs of pain can be elicited, surgery should be performed within 24 hours of the incident, to remove the disc material and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. After 24 hours, the chance of recovery declines rapidly, since with continued pressure, the spinal cord tissue deteriorates and dies. Paresis is a condition typified by partial loss of movement, or impaired movement. ... The Spinal cord nested in the vertebral column. ...


Another type of paralysis is caused by a fibrocartilaginous embolism. This is a microscopic piece of disc material that breaks off and becomes lodged in a spinal artery. Nerves served by the artery will die when deprived of blood. The German Shepherd is especially prone to developing degenerative myelopathy. This is a deterioration of nerves in the spinal cord, starting in the posterior part of the cord. Dogs so affected will become gradually weaker in the hind legs as nerves die off. Eventually their hind legs become useless. They often also exhibit fecal and urinary incontinence. As the disease progresses, the paresis and paralysis gradually move forward. This disease also affects other large breeds of dogs. It is suspected to be an autoimmune problem. Country of origin Germany Classification Breed standards (external links) FCI, AKC, ANKC, CKC KC(UK), NZKC, UKC The German Shepherd Dog (known also as the Alsatian or Schäfer(hund)) is an intelligent breed of dog. ... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and mobility. ...


Cats with heart murmurs may develop blood clots which travel through arteries. If the clot is large enough to block one or both femoral arteries, there may be hind leg paralysis because the major source of blood flow to the hind leg is blocked. Murmurs are abnormal heart sounds that are produced as a result of turbulent blood flow, which is sufficient to produce audible noise. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - paralysis (Pathology) - Encyclopedia (273 words)
The nervous tissue that is injured may be in the brain, the spinal cord, or in the muscles themselves.
Accordingly there may be general paralysis, involvement of only one side (hemiplegia), paralysis on both sides at one level (paraplegia or quadriplegia), or localized paralysis in a small group of nerves or muscles.
One of the most frequent causes of paralysis is stroke, in which hemorrhage, thrombosis, or obstruction of a cerebral vessel interferes with nerve function.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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