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Encyclopedia > Paralympic Games
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The Paralympic Games are a multi-sport event for athletes with physical, mental and sensorial disabilities. This includes mobility disabilities, amputees, visual disabilities and those with cerebral palsy. The Paralympic Games are held every four years, following the Olympic Games, and are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). (The Paralympic Games are sometimes confused with the Special Olympics, which are only for people with intellectual disabilities.) Image File history File links Beschreibung: Silbermedalie Paralympics 2004 Ursprung: Selbst fotografiert von Steschke am 18. ... Image File history File links Beschreibung: Silbermedalie Paralympics 2004 Ursprung: Selbst fotografiert von Steschke am 18. ... Wheelchair tennis, a Paralympic sport Paralympic sport is the umbrella term for a wide range of sports for persons with physical disabilities. ... Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... The International Paralympic Committee (IPC) is an international non-profit organisation of elite sports for athletes with disabilities. ... Special Olympics is an international organization created to help people with intellectual disabilities develop self-confidence, social skills and a sense of personal accomplishment through sports training and competition. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe severe, life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairments, manifested before the age of 22. ...


The name derives from the Greek "para" ("beside" or "alongside") and thus refers to a competition held in parallel with the Olympic Games. No relation with paralysis or paraplegia is intended, however, the word Paralympic was originally a portmanteau combining 'paraplegic' and 'Olympic'. [1] The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Paraplegia is a condition in which the lower part of a persons body is paralyzed and cannot willfully function. ... This article is about blends. ...

Contents

History

Sir Ludwig Guttmann organized a sports competition in 1948 which became known as the Stoke Mandeville Games, involving World War II veterans with spinal cord injuries; in 1952 competitors from the Netherlands took part in the competition, giving an international notion to the movement. The first Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability were held in Rome in 1960; officially called the 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, these are considered to be the first Paralympic Games. [2] The first Winter Paralympics were held in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden in 1976. [3] Sir Ludwig Poppa Guttmann (July 3, 1899 - March 18, 1980) was a German neurologist who founded the Paralympics and is considered one of the founding fathers of organized physical activities for the disabled. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Wheelchair Games formally known as Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games or Stoke Mandeville Games, which gave birth to the Paralympics is an annual event held in Stoke Mandeville (except in the year when the Summer Paralympics are held and in 1999 when held in New Zealand). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Spinal cord injury, or myelopathy, is a disturbance of the spinal cord that results in loss of sensation and/or mobility. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Örnsköldsvik View towards the seaside Örnsköldsvik (pronounced Earnsholdsveek) is a town (pop. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Since 1988, the Summer Paralympics have been held in the conjunction with the Olympic Games in the same host city. This practice was adopted in 1992 for the Winter Paralympics, and became an official policy of the International Olympic Committee and the IPC following a June 19, 2001 agreement. The Games take place three weeks after the closing of the Olympics, in the same host city and using the same facilities. Cities bidding to host the Olympic Games must include the Paralympic Games in their bid, and typically both Games are now run by a single organizing committee. The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the 1996 Atlanta Games athletes with intellectual disabilities were allowed to participate for the first time. See also: 1996 Summer Olympics The 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, USA were the first Paralympics to get mass media sponsorship. ... Developmental disability is a term used to describe severe, life-long disabilities attributable to mental and/or physical impairments, manifested before the age of 22. ...


Cheating controversies

Main article: Cheating at the Paralympic Games

The Paralympic Games have seen damaging scandals regarding cheating in the events. The 2000 Sydney Games, in which non-disabled athletes were entered in the Spanish Basketball ID team [4], athletes with intellectual difficulties were banned by the IPC [5]. The IPC has stated that it will re-evaluate their participation following the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games.[6] Cheating at the Paralympic Games has caused scandals that have significantly changed the way in which the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) run the events. ... See also: 2000 Summer Olympics External links Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games - archived websites in PANDORA Categories: Summer Paralympic Games | Australian sport | 2000 in sports ... Spain have competed at the Paralympic Games since the 1968 Summer events and the country hosted the 1992 Summer Paralympics. ... See also: 2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, will be held in Beijing, China from September 6 - 17, 2008. ...


Summer Games

  Summer Paralympic Games
Year Games Host City Country
1960 Summer Paralympics I Rome Flag of Italy Italy
1964 Summer Paralympics II Tokyo Flag of Japan Japan
1968 Summer Paralympics III Tel Aviv Flag of Israel Israel
1972 Summer Paralympics IV Heidelberg Flag of West Germany West Germany
1976 Summer Paralympics V Toronto Flag of Canada Canada
1980 Summer Paralympics VI Arnhem Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
1984 Summer Paralympics VII Stoke Mandeville
New York
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
1988 Summer Paralympics VIII Seoul Flag of South Korea South Korea
1992 Summer Paralympics IX Barcelona Flag of Spain Spain
1996 Summer Paralympics X Atlanta Flag of the United States United States
2000 Summer Paralympics XI Sydney Flag of Australia Australia
2004 Summer Paralympics XII Athens Flag of Greece Greece
2008 Summer Paralympics XIII Beijing Flag of the People's Republic of China China
2012 Summer Paralympics XIV London Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom

See also: 1960 Summer Olympics The 1960 Summer Paralympic Games were the first Paralympics. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... See also: 1964 Summer Olympics The 1964 Summer Paralympics were the 2nd Paralympic Games to be held. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... See also: 1968 Summer Olympics The 1968 Summer Paralympics were the third Paralympic Games to be held. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... See also: 1972 Summer Olympics The 1972 Summer Paralympics were the fourth Paralympic Games to be held. ... Heidelberg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... See also: 1976 Summer Olympics The 1976 Summer Paralympics were the fifth Paralympic Games to be held. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: 1980 Summer Olympics The 1980 Summer Paralympics were the sixth Paralympic Games to be held. ... Arnhem ( ) (South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality in the east of the Netherlands, and capital of province Gelderland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... See also: 1984 Summer Olympics The 1984 Summer Paralympics were the seventh Paralympic Games to be held. ... Stoke Mandeville is a village to the south of Aylesbury in the county of Buckinghamshire. ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: 1988 Summer Olympics The 1988 Summer Paralympics were the first Paralympics in 24 years that were held concurrently with the Olympics. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... See also: 1992 Summer Olympics The 1992 Summer Paralympics were the ninth Paralympic Games to be held. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... See also: 1996 Summer Olympics The 1996 Paralympic Games in Atlanta, USA were the first Paralympics to get mass media sponsorship. ... Nickname: Location in Fulton County and the state of Georgia Coordinates: , Country State Counties Fulton, DeKalb Government  - Mayor Shirley Franklin (D) Area  - City  132. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: 2000 Summer Olympics External links Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games - archived websites in PANDORA Categories: Summer Paralympic Games | Australian sport | 2000 in sports ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Proteas: The official 2004 Summer Paralympics mascot The 2004 Summer Paralympics were held in Athens, Greece, from September 17 to September 28. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... See also: 2008 Summer Olympics The 2008 Summer Paralympic Games, the thirteenth Paralympics, will be held in Beijing, China from September 6 - 17, 2008. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... The 2012 Summer Paralympic Games will be the fourteenth Paralympics. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ...

Summer sports

The following sports are currently on the Summer Paralympic Games programme:

These sports will be part of the 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing, China. Paralympic archery is an adaptation of the sport of archery for athletes with a disability. ... Wheelchair racing is the racing of wheelchairs, typically by athletes who are unable to run. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Boccia is a competitive sport, similar to bowls (but closer to bocce as the balls are not biased), but designed to be played by people with disabilities _ specifically, cerebral palsy and other locomotor disabilities (those which affect motor skills). ... Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of football (soccer) for athletes with a disability. ... Paralympic football consists of adaptations of the sport of football (soccer) for athletes with a disability. ... Goalball is a team sport designed for blind athletes. ... Judo in the Paralympic Games is only very slightly different form normal Judo. ... Adaptive rowing is a special category of rowing races for those with physical disabilities. ... Shooting started in the Toronto Paralympic Games in 1976, and is practiced in at least 51 countries. ... Table Tennis in the Paralympics follow the rules set by the International Table Tennis Federation although there are slight modifications for wheelchair athletes. ... Paralympic Volleyball Matt Glowacki and 1998 USA Paralympic sit volleyball team Volleyball for disabled athletes entered the Paralympic Games as a demonstration Sport for amputees in 1976 in Toronto Canada. ... Wheelchair basketball is a sport played primarily by people with disabilities. ... Fencing advertisement for the 1900 Summer Olympic Games This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Wheelchair rugby Wheelchair rugby is a team sport for athletes with a disability. ... A wheelchair tennis player serving. ...


The following sports are not included in the Summer Paralympic Games programme, but are governed by the IPC:

Swifts Creek Bowls Club Bowls (also known as Lawn Bowls or Lawn Bowling) is a precision sport in which the goal is to roll slightly radially asymmetrical balls (called bowls) closer to a smaller white ball (the jack or kitty) than ones opponent is able to do. ... Wheelchair Dance Sport is dancing competitition when one of the partners dances and competes on a wheelchair. ...

Winter Games

  Winter Paralympic Games
Year Games Host City Country
1976 Winter Paralympics I Örnsköldsvik Flag of Sweden Sweden
1980 Winter Paralympics II Geilo Flag of Norway Norway
1984 Winter Paralympics III Innsbruck Flag of Austria Austria
1988 Winter Paralympics IV Innsbruck Flag of Austria Austria
1992 Winter Paralympics V Albertville Flag of France France
1994 Winter Paralympics VI Lillehammer Flag of Norway Norway
1998 Winter Paralympics VII Nagano Flag of Japan Japan
2002 Winter Paralympics VIII Salt Lake City Flag of the United States United States
2006 Winter Paralympics IX Turin Flag of Italy Italy
2010 Winter Paralympics X Vancouver Flag of Canada Canada
2014 Winter Paralympics XI Sochi Flag of Russia Russia
Main article: Paralympic sports

See also: 1976 Winter Olympics The 1976 Winter Paralympic Games were the first winter Paralympics. ... Örnsköldsvik View towards the seaside Örnsköldsvik (pronounced Earnsholdsveek) is a town (pop. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... See also: 1980 Winter Olympics The 1980 Winter Paralympic Games were the second winter Paralympics and they were held in Geilo, Norway. ...   is a centre in the municipality of Hol in Norway, in the valley of Hallingdal, with around 2,300 inhabitants. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... See also: 1984 Winter Olympics The 1984 Winter Paralympic Games were the third winter Paralympics and they were held in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... See also: 1988 Winter Olympics The 1988 Winter Paralympic Games were the fourth winter Paralympics and they were held in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... See also: 1992 Winter Olympics The 1992 Winter Paralympics were the first winter Paralympics to be held concurrently with the Olympics. ... Albertville is a town and commune in southeast France, in the Savoie département, in the French Alps. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... See also: 1994 Winter Olympics Categories: 1994 in sports | Norway | Winter Paralympic Games ... County Oppland District Gudbrandsdal Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... See also: 1998 Winter Olympics The Seventh Winter Paralympics were held alongside the Winter Olympics in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... See also: 2002 Winter Olympics The 2002 Olympic Winter Games, including the 2002 Winter Paralympics, were held in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 2006 Winter Paralympic Games, the ninth winter Paralympics, took place in Turin, Italy from 10 to 19 March, 2006. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... See also: 2010 Winter Olympics The 2010 Winter Paralympics will be held in the area surrounding Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, including the towns of Burnaby and Whistler. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 2014 Winter Paralympics will take place in the same city as the 2014 Winter Olympics. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Wheelchair tennis, a Paralympic sport Paralympic sport is the umbrella term for a wide range of sports for persons with physical disabilities. ...

Winter sports

The following sports are on the current Winter Paralympic Games programme:

Paralympic alpine skiing is an adaptation of alpine skiing for athletes with a disability. ... Ice Hockey Sledge Sledge hockey is a sport that was designed to allow participants who have a physical disability to play the game of ice hockey. ... Paralympic nordic skiing is a Winter Paralympic Games sport consisting of two disciplines: Biathlon Cross-country skiing It is governed by the International Paralympic Committee. ... Paralympic biathlon is an adaptation of biathlon for athletes with a disability. ... Paralympic cross-county skiing is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with a disability. ... Wheelchair curling is an adaptation of curling for athletes with a disability. ...

Disability categories

  • Amputee: An athlete with a partial or total loss of at least one limb.
  • Cerebral Palsy: People who have non-progressive brain damage, for example cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury, stroke or a similar problem affecting muscle control, balance or coordination.
  • Intellectual Disability: An athlete who has a significant impairment in intellectual functioning with associated limitations in adaptive behaviour. This category is currently suspended.
  • Wheelchair: For all athletes with spinal cord injuries and other disabilities which require them to compete in a wheelchair. Athletes must have at least 10 per cent loss of function to their lower limbs.
  • Vision-Impaired: Athletes who have a vision impairment ranging from partial vision (sufficient to be judged legally blind) to total blindness.
  • Les Autres: French for the others and includes competitors with a mobility impairment or other loss of physical function that does not fall strictly under one of the other five categories. Dwarfism, multiple sclerosis or birth deformities of the limbs such as that caused by thalidomide are examples of this.

The categories apply for both summer and winter paralympics. Look up Limb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ... Equilibrioception or sense of balance is one of the physiological senses. ... Gross motor coordination addresses the gross motor skills: walking, running, climbing, jumping, crawling, lifting ones head, sitting up, etc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Visual impairment is the functional loss of vision. ... Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking sight. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... The term disability, as it is applied to humans, refers to any condition that impedes the completion of daily tasks using traditional methods. ... This page is about the medical condition. ... A deformity, dysmorphism, or dysmorphic feature is a major difference in the shape of the body a body part, or a body organ (internal or external) compared to the average shape for the part in question. ... This article is about the drug. ...


Notes

The IPC has set up national Paralympic Games for competitions organized under the national Paralympic Committees. One or more images would improve this articles quality. ...


External links

  • Official Canadian Website
  • Official IPC Website
  • IMNO Interviews Curt Brinkman Five-time Paralympic Gold Medallist
  • CBC Digital Archives - Playing to Win: Canada at the Paralympics

See also

The Deaflympics (previously called World Games for the Deaf, and International Games for the Deaf) are an IOC-sanctioned event at which Deaf athletes compete at an elite level. ... Image:Part is Marathon 2006-Handbike. ... Special Olympics is an international organization created to help people with intellectual disabilities develop self-confidence, social skills and a sense of personal accomplishment through sports training and competition. ...

References

  • International Paralympic Committee
  • Australian Paralympic Committee - Classification System

  Results from FactBites:
 
Paralympic Games - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (654 words)
The Paralympic Games are an elite multi-sport event for athletes with a disability.
The first Olympic-style games for athletes with a disability were held in Rome in 1960; officially called the 9th Annual International Stoke Mandeville Games, these are considered to be the first Paralympic Games.
This practice was adopted in 1992 for the Winter Paralympics, and became an official policy of the International Olympic Committee and the IPC following a June 19, 2001 agreement.
Paralympic Games - definition of Paralympic Games in Encyclopedia (324 words)
The Paralympic Games are an official equivalent of the Olympics for athletes with physical disabilities.
The first Olympic Style games for athletes with a disability were held in Rome in 1960 which became the Paralympic Games.
The Games are now always held alongside the Olympic Games as of June 19, 2001 when an agreement was signed between the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) securing this practice for the future.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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