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Encyclopedia > Parallel voting

Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. If one of the two election counts does have a substantial impact on the result of the other, then mixed member proportional voting may be a better description. A voting system is a process that allows a group of individuals to choose between a number of options, and determines the preferred or winning option based on the number of votes each option receives. ... The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ...

The Supplementary Member system (SM) is a parallel voting system that combines first past the post (FPP) with proportional representation. The plurality voting system, also known as first past the post, is a voting system used to elect a single winner in a given election. ... Proportional representation, also known as full representation, is an electoral system in which the overall votes are reflected in the overall outcome of the body or bodies of representatives. ...

## Procedure

Under SM, a proportion of seats in the legislature are filled by FPP, with single member constituencies. The remainder are filled from party lists, with parties often needing to have polled a certain amount, often 5 % of the vote, in order to achieve representation, as is common in many proportional systems. A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

Unlike Mixed Member Proportional, where party lists are used to achieve an overall proportional result in the legislature, under SM, proportionality is confined only to the list seats. Therefore, a party that secured say 5 % of the vote will have only 5 % of the list seats, and not 5 % of all the seats in the legislature. The Additional Member System (AMS) is a voting system where some representatives are elected from geographic constituencies and others are elected under proportional representation from party lists. ...

The proportion of constituency seats compared to list seats is often, but need not be, 50:50.

SM allows smaller parties who cannot win individual elections to secure some representation in the legislature, however unlike a proportional system they will have a substantially smaller delegation than their share of the total vote.

A criticism of proportional voting systems, is that the largest parties need to rely on the support of smaller ones in order to form a government. However, smaller parties are still disadvantaged as the larger parties still predominate. In countries where there is one dominant party and a divided opposition the proportional seats may be essential in allowing an effective opposition.

Since FPP in single member constituencies are likely to lead to clear majorities, and thus "strong government", the extra seats that the big parties are likely to win as well are unnecessary for strong government. The opposition, which may only win seats in the SM part of the election may be too weak to ensure that the government is accountable, leading to less than good government.

## Countries where used

The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Motto: None Anthem: National Anthem of the ROC Capital Taipei City (de facto) Nanjing (de jure) 1 Largest city Taipei City Official language(s) Mandarin (GuoyÃ¼) Government â€¢ President â€¢ Vice President â€¢ Premier Multiparty democracy Chen Shui-bian Annette Lu Su Tseng-chang Establishment â€¢ Xinhai Revolution Declared  October 10, 1911 Established  January...

### Formerly

• This entry is related to, but not included in the Elections and Voting series. Other related articles can be found at the Politics Portal.
• Voting system

Results from FactBites:

 Parallel voting - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (446 words) Parallel voting describes a mixed voting system where voters in effect participate in two separate elections using different systems, and where the results in one election have little or no impact on the results of the other. The Supplementary Member system (SM) is a parallel voting system that combines first past the post (FPP) with proportional representation. A criticism of proportional voting systems, is that the largest parties need to rely on the support of smaller ones in order to form a government.
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