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Encyclopedia > Parallel universe (fiction)

Parallel universe or alternate reality in science fiction and fantasy is a self-contained separate reality coexisting with our own. A specific group of parallel universes is called a multiverse, although this term can also be used to describe the possible parallel universes that comprise physical reality. While the terms "parallel universe" and "alternate reality" are generally synonymous and can be used interchangeably in most cases, there is sometimes an additional connotation implied with the term "alternate reality" that implies that the reality is a variant of our own. The term "parallel universe" is more general, without any connotations implying a relationship (or lack thereof) with our own universe. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Introduction

Fantasy has long borrowed the idea of "another world" from myth, legend and religion. Heaven, Hell, Olympus, Valhalla are all “alternate universes” different from the familiar material realm. Modern fantasy often presents the concept as a series of planes of existence where the laws of nature differ, allowing magical phenomena of some sort on some planes. This concept was also found in ancient Hindu mythology, in texts such as the Puranas, which expressed an infinite number of universes, each with its own gods.[1] In other cases, in both fantasy and science fiction, a parallel universe is a single other material reality, and its co-existence with ours is a rationale to bring a protagonist from the author's reality into the fantasy's reality, such as in The Chronicles of Narnia by C.S. Lewis or even the beyond-the-reflection travel in the two main works of Lewis Carroll. Or this single other reality can invade our own, as when Margaret Cavendish's English heroine sends submarines and "birdmen" armed with "fire stones" back through the portal from the Blazing World to Earth and wreaks havoc on England's enemies. In dark fantasy or horror the parallel world is often a hiding place for unpleasant things, and often the protagonist is forced to confront effects of this other world leaking into his own, as in most of the work of H.P. Lovecraft and the Doom computer game series. In such stories, the nature of this other reality is often left mysterious, known only by its effect on our own world. The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Hell (disambiguation). ... This article refers to a mountain in Greece. ... “Valhall” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Look up Magic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary The term magic is a Persian loanword into English and may refer to: Magic (paranormal) deals with the manipulation of what the practitioner believes to be genuine paranormal phenomena. ... Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... “Narnia” redirects here. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) – believed to be a self-portrait Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Margaret Cavendish Segment of Frontispiece from The Blazing World The Blazing World Portrait Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle (1623-15 December 1673), was an English aristocrat and a prolific writer. ... Dark fantasy is a subgenre that combines elements of fantasy, including marvelous abilities, with those of horror. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author of fantasy, horror and science fiction, noted for combining these three genres within single narratives. ... Doom (or DOOM)[1] is a 1993 computer game by id Software that is a landmark title in the first-person shooter genre. ...


Often the alternate worlds theme in science fiction is framed by postulating that every historical event spawns a new universe for every possible outcome, resulting in a number of alternate histories. This literary interpretation is sometimes rooted in the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by the physicist Hugh Everett in 1957, an alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation originally formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg around 1927. (See: multiverse.) This kind of alternate universe is often the backdrop of stories involving time travel and is often used to rationalize the logical paradoxes that arise when an author allows characters to travel backward in time. (See: grandfather paradox.) The concept also arises outside the framework of quantum mechanics, as is found in Jorge Luis Borges short story El jardín de senderos que se bifurcan ("The Garden of Forking Paths"), published in 1941 before the many-worlds interpretation had been invented. In the story, a Sinologist discovers a manuscript by a Chinese writer where the same tale is recounted in several ways, often contradictory, and then explains to his visitor (the writer's grandson) that his relative conceived time as a "garden of forking paths", where things happen in parallel in infinitely branching ways. While this is a common treatment in SF, it is by no means the only presentation of the idea, even in hard science fiction. Sometimes the parallel universe bears no historical relationship to any other world; as in the novel Raft by Stephen Baxter, which posits a reality where the gravitational constant is much larger than in our universe. Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics or MWI (also known as the relative state formulation, theory of the universal wavefunction, many-universes interpretation, Oxford interpretation or many worlds), is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that claims to resolve all the paradoxes of quantum theory by allowing every possible outcome... Fig. ... Hugh Everett III (November 11, 1930 – July 19, 1982) was an American physicist who first proposed the many-worlds interpretation(MWI) of quantum physics, which he called his relative state formulation. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... The Copenhagen interpretation is an interpretation of quantum mechanics formulated by Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg while collaborating in Copenhagen around 1927. ... Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (October 7, 1885 – November 18, 1962) was a Danish physicist who made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics, for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1922. ... Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics and acknowledged to be one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... For other meanings of Paradox, see Paradox (disambiguation). ... The grandfather paradox is a paradox of time travel, first described by the science fiction writer René Barjavel in his 1943 book Le Voyageur Imprudent (The Imprudent Traveller).[1] The paradox is this: Suppose a man traveled back in time and killed his biological grandfather before the latter met the... Jorge Luis Borges (August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986) was an Argentine writer. ... The Garden of Forking Paths (Spanish: El Jardín de senderos que se bifurcan) is a short story by Argentine writer and poet Jorge Luis Borges. ... Sinology is the study of China, and things related to China, using a combination of Western and traditional Chinese methodologies, concepts, and theories. ... Hard science fiction is a category of science fiction characterized by an emphasis on scientific or technical detail, or on scientific accuracy, or on both. ... Raft is a 1991 science fiction book by author Stephen Baxter. ... Stephen Baxter (born in Liverpool, 13 November 1957) is a British hard science fiction author. ... According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. ...


One motif is that the time flow in a parallel universe may be very different, so that a character returning to one might find the time passed very differently for those he left behind. This is found in folklore: King Herla visited Fairy and returned three centuries later; although only some of his men crumbled to dust on dismounting, Herla and his men who did not dismount were trapped on horseback, this being one folkloric account of the origin of the Wild Hunt.[2] C.S. Lewis made use of this in the Chronicles of Narnia; indeed, a character points out to two skeptics that there is no need for the time between the worlds to match up, but it would be very odd for the girl who claims to have visited a parallel universe to have dreamed up such a different time flow.[3] The wild hunt: Ã…sgÃ¥rdsreien (1872) by Peter Nicolai Arbo The Wild Hunt was a folk myth prevalent in former times across Northern Scandinavia, Germany and Britain. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ...


It should be noted that the division between science fiction and fantasy becomes fuzzier than usual when dealing with stories that explicitly leave the universe we are familiar with, especially when our familiar universe is portrayed as a subset of a multiverse. Picking a genre becomes less a matter of setting, and more a matter of theme and emphasis; the parts of the story the author wishes to explain and how they are explained. Narnia is clearly a fantasy, and the TV series Sliders is clearly science fiction, but works like the World of Tiers series tend to occupy a much broader middle ground. Narnia is a fantasy world created by C. S. Lewis as a location for his Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels for children. ... Sliders is a science fiction television series that ran for five seasons from 1995 to 2000. ... World of Tiers is a series of connected science fiction/fantasy novels by Philip José Farmer. ...


Uses in science fiction

Other dimensions

While technically incorrect, and looked down upon by hard science-fiction fans and authors, the idea of another “dimension” has become synonymous with the term “parallel universe”. The usage is particularly common in movies, television and comic books and much less so in modern prose science fiction. 2-dimensional renderings (ie. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


In written science fiction, “new dimensions” more commonly — and more accurately — refer to additional coordinate axes, beyond the three spatial axes with which we are familiar. By proposing travel along these extra axes, which are not normally perceptible, the traveler can reach worlds that are otherwise unreachable and invisible. One of the first works of modern science fiction, The Time Machine by H. G. Wells used time as an additional “dimension” in this sense, taking the four-dimensional model of classical physics and interpreting time as a spatial dimension in which humans could travel with the right equipment. A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Classical physics is physics based on principles developed before the rise of quantum theory, usually including the special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity. ...


There are many examples where authors have explicitly created additional spatial dimensions for their characters to travel in, to reach parallel universes. Douglas Adams, in the last book of the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series, Mostly Harmless, uses the idea of probability as an extra axis in addition to the classical four dimensions of space and time. Though, according to the novel, they're not really parallel universes at all but only a model to capture the continuity of space, time and probability. Robert A. Heinlein, in The Number of the Beast, postulated a six-dimensional universe. In addition to the three spatial dimensions, he invoked symmetry to add two new temporal dimensions, so there would be two sets of three. Like the fourth dimension of H. G. Wells’ time traveler, these extra dimensions can be traveled by persons using the right equipment. Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ... The front cover of the US first hardcover edition of Mostly Harmless. ... Probability is the likelihood that something is the case or will happen. ... A coordinate axis is one of a set of vectors that defines a coordinate system. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Number of the Beast is a science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein published in 1980. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... The Time Traveller is the fictional protagonist in H. G. Wellss The Time Machine, a novel published in 1895. ...


Hyperspace

Perhaps the most common use of the concept of a parallel universe in science fiction is the concept of hyperspace. Used in science fiction, the concept of “hyperspace” often refers to a parallel universe that can be used as a faster-than-light shortcut for interstellar travel. Rationales for this form of hyperspace vary from work to work, but the two common elements are: Scene from Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope depicting the inside of the Millenium Falcon when entering hyperspace. ... Faster-than-light (also superluminal or FTL) communications and travel are staples of the science fiction genre. ... Artists depiction of a hypothetical Wormhole Induction Propelled Spacecraft, based loosely on the 1994 warp drive paper of Miguel Alcubierre. ...

  1. at least some (if not all) locations in the hyperspace universe map to locations in our universe, providing the "entry" and "exit" points for travelers.
  2. the travel time between two points in the hyperspace universe is much shorter than the time to travel to the analogous points in our universe. This can be because of a different speed of light, different speed at which time passes, or the analogous points in the hyperspace universe are just much closer to each other.

Sometimes "hyperspace" is used to refer to the concept of additional coordinate axes. In this model, the universe is thought to be "crumpled" in some higher spatial dimension and that traveling in this higher spatial dimension, a ship can move vast distances in the common spatial dimensions. An analogy is to crumple a newspaper into a ball and stick a needle straight through, the needle will make widely spaced holes in the two-dimensional surface of the paper. While this idea invokes a "new dimension", it is not an example of a parallel universe. It is a more scientifically plausible use of hyperspace. (See wormhole.) Analogy to a wormhole in a curved 2D space (see Embedding Diagram) Artists impression of a wormhole as seen by an observer crossing the event horizon of a Schwarzschild wormhole, which is similar to a Schwarzschild black hole but with the singularity replaced by an unstable path to a...


While use of hyperspace is common, it is mostly used as a plot device and thus of secondary importance. While a parallel universe may be invoked by the concept, the nature of the universe is not often explored. So, while stories involving hyperspace might be the most common use of the parallel universe concept in fiction, it is not the most common source of fiction about parallel universes. A plot device is a person or an object introduced to a story to affect or advance the plot. ...


Time travel and alternate history

The most common use of parallel universes in science fiction, when the concept is central to the story, is as a backdrop and/or consequence of time travel. A seminal example of this idea is in Fritz Leiber’s novel, The Big Time where there’s a war across time between two alternate futures each side manipulating history to create a timeline that results into their own world. Time-travelers in fiction often accidentally or deliberately create alternate histories, such as in The Guns of the South by Harry Turtledove where the Confederate Army is given the technology to produce AK-47 rifles and ends up winning the American Civil War. The alternate history novel 1632 by Eric Flint explicitly states, albeit briefly in a prologue, that the time travelers in the novel (an entire town from West Virginia) have created a new and separate universe when they're transported into the midst of the Thirty Years War in 17th century Germany. Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Time travel is a concept that has long fascinated humanity—whether it is Merlin experiencing time backwards, or religious traditions like Mohammeds trip to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, returning before a glass knocked over had spilt its contents. ... Fritz Reuter Leiber Jr. ... The Big Time (1957) is a short science fiction novel (or, arguably, novellette) by Fritz Leiber. ... In science fiction stories involving time travel, an alternate future or alternative future is a possible future which never comes to pass, typically because someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternate future cannot occur. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... The Guns of the South (1992, ISBN 0-345-37675-7) is a novel by writer Harry Turtledove. ... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Avtomat Kalashnikova model 1947 g. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Main articles: 1632 series and The Grantville Gazettes 1632 is the initial novel in the best selling alternate history genre 1632 book series set in the Holy Roman Empire by historian, writer and editor Eric Flint. ... Eric Flint (born California, USA, 1947) is an American science fiction and fantasy author and editor. ... Official language(s) English Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Area  Ranked 41st  - Total 24,244 sq mi (62,809 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ...


(However, Ward Moore reversed this staple of alternate history fiction in his Bring the Jubilee (1953), where an alternate world where the Confederate States of America won the battle of Gettysburg and the American Civil War is destroyed after an historian and time traveller from the defeated United States of that world travels back to the scene of the battle and inadvertently changes the result so that the North wins that battle.) Ward Moore (August 10, 1903 - January 28, 1978) was the working name of American author Joseph Ward Moore. ... Alternative history or alternate history can be: A History told from an alternative viewpoint, rather than from the view of imperialist, conqueror, or explorer. ... Bring the Jubilee, by Ward Moore is a 1953 alternate history novel set in a United States in which the Confederacy won the American Civil War (in the novel referred to as The War of Southern Independence). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Gettysburg may refer to: Battle of Gettysburg, a battle during the American Civil War that took place at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on July 1-3 in 1863. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


The concept of "sideways" time travel is often used to allow characters to pass through many different alternate histories, all descendant from some common branch point. Often worlds that are similar to each other are considered closer to each other in terms of this sideways travel. For example, a universe where World War II ended differently would be “closer” to us than one where Imperial China colonized the New World in the 15th century. H. Beam Piper used this concept, naming it "paratime" and writing a series of stories involving the Paratime Police who regulated travel between these alternate realities as well as the technology to do so. Keith Laumer used the same concept of "sideways" time travel in his 1962 novel Worlds of the Imperium. More recently, Frederik Pohl used the idea in his novel The Coming of the Quantum Cats which is explicitly based on upon a human-scale reading of the "many worlds" interpretation of quantum mechanics, postulating that every historical event spawns a new universe for every possible outcome. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A Plague of Demons typifies Laumers fast-paced approach, with a protagonist given super human powers by surgery battling against alien dog-creatures and their apparently human allies. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Frederik George Pohl, Jr. ... The Coming of the Quantum Cats is a 1986 science fiction novel by American writer Frederick Pohl. ... The many-worlds interpretation (or MWI) is an interpretation of quantum mechanics, based on Hugh Everetts relative-state formulation. ...


It can be argued that most modern alternate histories implicitly refer to parallel universes, based on the above reading of quantum theory. However, many of these works are presented as self-contained worlds in and of themselves, and can be read without resort to additional universes being present. For example, outside The Guns of the South, the large part of Turtledove’s work in alternate history makes no reference to any other universes other than the ones in which the stories take place. And Philip K. Dick's classic novel The Man in the High Castle features a universe in which the Axis won World War II, and the only other universe "present" is fictional, in a book whose author imagines an alternate world (different from our own) in which the Allies won. Such stories bear the same relationship to the reader's world as any fantasy (such as J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings novel) that contradicts the reader's reality. By extension all of fiction in general could, by this reasoning, be occurring in a subcreated "alternate reality."[4] While this definition might be useful in some critical contexts[citation needed] a more generally useful definition restricts the term to fiction where there are alternate realities presented in the work itself. Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... The Man in the High Castle is a 1962 alternate history novel by science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... John Ronald Reuel Tolkien CBE (3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English philologist, writer and university professor, best known as the author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... This article is about the novel. ... A rendered conworld, as would be seen from space by an observer. ...


Uses in fantasy

Stranger in a strange land

Oz and its surroundings -- still said to be on this planet

Fantasy authors often want to bring characters from the author's (and the reader's) reality into their created world. Before the mid-20th Century, this was most often done by hiding fantastic worlds within hidden parts of the author's own universe. Peasants who seldom if ever traveled far from their villages could not conclusively say that it was impossible that an ogre or other fantastical beings could live an hour away, but increasing geographical knowledge meant that such locations had to be farther and farther off.[5] Characters in the author's world could board a ship and find themselves on a fantastic island, as Jonathan Swift does in Gulliver's Travels or in the 1949 novel Silverlock by John Myers Myers, or be sucked up into a tornado and land in Oz. These "lost world" stories can be seen as geographic equivalents of a "parallel universe", as the worlds portrayed are separate from our own, and hidden to everyone except those who take the difficult journey there. The geographic "lost world" can blur into a more explicit "parallel universe" when the fantasy realm overlaps a section of the "real" world, but is much larger inside than out, as in Robert Holdstock's novel Mythago Wood. JPEG version of map. ... JPEG version of map. ... Oz is a fantasy region containing four countries under the rule of one monarch. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article is about the mythological creature. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Vol. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... Silverlock, (c) 1949, was written by John Myers Myers. ... John Myers Myers (1906 - October 30, 1988) was an American author best known for his fantasy novel, Silverlock. ... A tornado in central Oklahoma. ... Oz is a fantasy region containing four countries under the rule of one monarch. ... The Lost World literary genre is a fantasy or science fiction genre that involves the discovery of a new world out of time, place, or both. ... Robert Holdstock is an English fantasy author and was born in Kent in 1948 - he became a full-time writer in 1975 after studying Medical Zoology as a student. ... Spoiler warning: Mythago Wood was originally published in the UK in 1984 and was written by the award winning author Robert Holdstock. ...


After the mid-20th Century, perhaps influenced by ideas from science fiction, perhaps because exploration had made many places on the map too clear to write "Here there be dragons", many fantasy worlds became completely separate from the author's world.[6] A common trope is a portal or artifact that connects worlds together, prototypical examples being the wardrobe in C.S. Lewis' The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, or the sigil in James Branch Cabell's The Cream of the Jest. In Hayao Miyazaki's Spirited Away, Chihiro Ogino and her parents walk through a long tunnel into the spirit world. The main difference between this type of story and the "lost world" above, is that the fantasy realm can only be reached by certain people, or at certain times, or after following certain rituals, or with the proper artifact. The origin Old mapmakers formerly placed the phrase here be dragons (lt. ... In literature, a trope is a familiar and repeated symbol, meme, theme, motif, style, character or thing that permeates a particular type of literature. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis. ... James Branch Cabell photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1935 James Branch Cabell (April 14, 1879 - May 5, 1958) was an American author of fantasy fiction and belles lettres. ... Hayao Miyazaki ) (born January 5, 1941 in Tokyo, Japan) is the prominent director of many popular animated feature films. ... Spirited Away, originally known in Japan as Sen to Chihiro no Kamikakushi ), is an Academy Award winning 2001 film by the Japanese anime studio Studio Ghibli, written and directed by famed animator Hayao Miyazaki. ... Chihiro Ogino is the protagonist in the animated film, Spirited Away. ...


In some cases, physical travel is not even possible, and the character in our reality travels in a dream or some other altered state of consciousness. Examples include the Dream Cycle stories by H. P. Lovecraft or the Thomas Covenant stories of Stephen R. Donaldson. Often, stories of this type have as a major theme the nature of reality itself, questioning if the dream-world can have the same "reality" as the waking world. Science fiction often employs this theme (usually without the dream-world being "another" universe) in the ideas of cyberspace and virtual reality. An altered state of consciousness is any state which is significantly different from a normative waking beta wave state. ... H.P. Lovecrafts Dream-Cycle, although often overlooked for his Cthulhu Mythos, is a huge entity in a good number of this master of the macabres fictional works. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author from Providence, Rhode Island of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... The Chronicles of Thomas Covenant, the Unbeliever is a fantasy epic by Stephen R. Donaldson. ... Stephen Reeder Donaldson (born May 13, 1947 in Cleveland, Ohio) is an American fantasy, science fiction and mystery novelist. ... It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the simulation technology. ...

Through the Looking Glass -- and the parallel universe Alice found there
Through the Looking Glass -- and the parallel universe Alice found there

Image File history File links Å achovnice. ... Image File history File links Å achovnice. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), and is the sequel to Alices Adventures in Wonderland. ... John Tenniel illustrated the first editions of the Alice books. ...

Between the worlds

Most stories in this mold simply transport a character from the real world into the fantasy world where the bulk of the action takes place. Whatever gate is used (such as the tollbooth in The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster, or the mirror in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass) is left behind for the duration of the story, until the end, and then only if the protagonists will return. A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... The Phantom Tollbooth (1961) is a childrens book and a modern fairy tale full of wordplay and adventure. ... Norton Juster (born June 2, 1929) is an American architect and author. ... Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (Lewis Carroll) – believed to be a self-portrait Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (IPA: ) (January 27, 1832 – January 14, 1898), better known by the pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English author, mathematician, logician, Anglican clergyman and photographer. ... Through the Looking-Glass, and What Alice Found There (1871) is a work of childrens literature by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), and is the sequel to Alices Adventures in Wonderland. ...


However, in a few cases the interaction between the worlds is an important element, so that the focus is not on one world or the other, but on both, and their interaction. After Rick Cook introduced a computer programmer into a high fantasy world, his wizardry series steadily acquired more interactions between this world and ours. In Aaron Allston's Doc Sidhe our "grim world" is paralleled by a "fair world" where the elves live and history echoes ours. A major portion of the plot deals with preventing a change in interactions between the worlds. Margaret Ball, in No Earthly Sunne, depicts the interaction of our world with Faerie, and the efforts of the Queen of Faerie to deal with the slow drifting apart of Earth and Faerie. Poul Anderson depicts Hell as a parallel universe in Operation Chaos, and the need to transfer equivalent amounts of mass between the worlds explains why a changeling is left for a kidnapped child. Rick Cook (1944) is a light fantasy author from the United States, best known for his Wizardry series of books. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... Rick Cook (1944) is a light fantasy author from the United States, best known for his Wizardry series of books. ... Aaron Allston Aaron Allston (born 1960 in Corsicana, Texas) is an American novelist of many science fiction books, notably Star Wars novels. ... Aaron Allston Aaron Allston (born 1960 in Corsicana, Texas) is an American novelist of many science fiction books, notably Star Wars novels. ... Margaret Ball is a science fiction author. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... For the CIA intelligence project, see Operation CHAOS. Operation Chaos is a 1971 science fiction/fantasy fixup novel by Poul Anderson. ... Trolls with the changeling they have raised, John Bauer, 1913. ...


Multiple worlds, rather than a pair, increase the importance of the relationships. In The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe, there are only our world and Narnia, but in other of C. S. Lewis's works, there are hints of other worlds, and in The Magician's Nephew, the Wood between the Worlds shows many possibilities, and the plot is governed by transportation between worlds, and the effort to right problems stemming from them. In Andre Norton's Witch World, begun with a man from Earth being transported to this world, gates frequently lead to other worlds — or come from them. While an abundance of illusions, disguises, and magic that repells attention make certain parts of Witch World look like parallel worlds, some are clearly parallel in that time runs differently in them, and such gates pose a repeated problem in Witch World. The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe is a fantasy novel for children by C. S. Lewis. ... Narnia is a fantasy world created by C. S. Lewis as a location for his Chronicles of Narnia, a series of seven fantasy novels for children. ... The Magicians Nephew is a fantasy novel for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... Andre Alice Norton (February 17, 1912 – March 17, 2005), science fiction and fantasy author (with some works of historical fiction and contemporary fiction), was born Alice Mary Norton in Cleveland, Ohio, in the United States. ... The Witch World series by Andre Norton is a long series of fantasies laid in a parallel universe where magic works, and at the beginning at least, is the exclusive property of women. ...


Fantasy multiverses

The idea of a multiverse is as fertile a subject for fantasy as it is for science fiction, allowing for epic settings and godlike protagonists. Among the most epic and far-ranging fantasy "multiverses" is that of Michael Moorcock. Like many authors after him, Moorcock was inspired by the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics, saying: A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. ... Fig. ...

It was an idea in the air, as most of these are, and I would have come across a reference to it in New Scientist (one of my best friends was then editor) ... [or] physicist friends would have been talking about it. ... Sometimes what happens is that you are imagining these things in the context of fiction while the physicists and mathematicians are imagining them in terms of science. I suspect it is the romantic imagination working, as it often does, perfectly efficiently in both the arts and the sciences.[citation needed]

Unlike many science-fiction interpretations, Moorcock's Eternal Champion stories go far beyond alternate history to include mythic and sword and sorcery settings as well as some worlds more similar to our own. However, the Eternal Champion himself is incarnate in all of them. The Eternal Champion is a fictional creation of the author Michael Moorcock and is a recurrent feature in many of his novels. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... This article is about a fantasy sub-genre. ...


Roger Zelazny used a mythic cosmology in his Chronicles of Amber series. His protagonist is a member of the royal family of Amber, whose members represent a godlike pantheon ruling over a prototypical universe that represents Order. All other universes are increasingly distorted "shadows" of it, ending finally at the other extreme, Chaos, which is the complete negation of the prototype. Travel between these "shadow" universes is only possible by beings descended from the blood of this pantheon. Those "of the blood" can walk through Shadow, imagining any possible reality and then walk to it, making their environment more similar to their desire as they go. It is argued between the characters whether these "shadows" even exist before they're imagined by a member of the royal family of Amber, or if the "shadows'" existence can be seen as an act of godlike creation. Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... The Chronicles of Amber is a popular fantasy series by Roger Zelazny. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ...


In the World of Tiers novels by Philip José Farmer, the idea of godlike protagonists is even more explicit. The background of the stories is a multiverse where godlike beings have created a number of pocket universes that represent their own desires. Our own world is part of this series, but interestingly our own universe is revealed to be much smaller than it appears, ending at the edge of the solar system. World of Tiers is a series of connected science fiction/fantasy novels by Philip José Farmer. ... Philip José Farmer (born January 26, 1918) is an American author, principally known for his science fiction and fantasy novels and short stories. ... Pocket universes are a type of very small parallel universe sometimes found in science fiction and fantasy. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...


But even works that deal with lesser beings, the structure of the multiverse may be significiant. Piers Anthony depicts two worlds in the Apprentice Adept series, the SF Proton and the fantasy Phaze, such that every person born in either world has a physical duplicate on the other world. Only when one duplicate has died can the other cross between the worlds. Piers Anthony Dillingham Jacob (born August 6, 1934 in Oxford, England) is a writer in the science fiction and fantasy genres, publishing under the name Piers Anthony. ... The Apprentice Adept Series is a seven-book fantasy and science-fiction series by Piers Anthony. ...


Fictional universe as alternate universe

There are many examples of the meta-fictional idea of having the author's created universe (or any author's universe) rise to the same level of "reality" as the universe we're familiar with. The theme is present in works as diverse as Myers' Silverlock and Heinlein’s Number of the Beast. Fletcher Pratt and L. Sprague de Camp took the character Harold Shea in the Incompleat Enchanter series through the worlds of Norse myth, Edmund Spenser's Faerie Queene, Ludovico Ariosto's Orlando Furioso, and the Kalevala[7]— without ever quite settling whether writers created these parallel worlds by writing these works, or received impressions from the worlds and wrote them down. In an interlude set in "Xanadu", a character claims that the universe is dangerous because the poem went unfinished, but whether this was his misapprehension or not is not established. Metafiction is a kind of fiction which self-consciously addresses the devices of fiction. ... Murray Fletcher Pratt (1897–1956) was a science fiction and fantasy writer; he was also well-known as a writer on naval history and on the American Civil War. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... The Roaring Trumpet in Unknown, May 1940 The Harold Shea Stories is a name given to a series of five fantasy stories by the collaborative team of L. Sprague de Camp and Fletcher Pratt and to its later continuation by de Camp alone, Christopher Stasheff, Holly Lisle, John Maddox Roberts... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière The Faerie Queene is a poem by Edmund Spenser, first published in 1590 (the first half) with the more or less complete version being published in 1596. ... Statue of the poet in Reggio Emilia. ... Ruggiero Rescuing Angelica by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem which Elias Lönnrot compiled from Finnish folk lore in the 19th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Some fictional approaches definitively establish the independence of the parallel world, sometimes by having the world differ from the book's account; other approaches have works of fiction create and affect the parallel world: L. Sprague de Camp's Solomon's Stone, taking place on an astral plane, is populated by the daydreams of mundane people, and in Rebecca Lickiss's Eccentric Circles, an elf is grateful to Tolkien for transforming elves from dainty little creatures. These stories often place the author, or authors in general, in the same position as Zelazny's characters in Amber. Questioning, in a literal fashion, if writing is an act of creating a new world, or an act of discovery of a pre-existing world. Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Solomons Stone is a fantasy novel written by L. Sprague de Camp, first published in 1957. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform in a photograph from the middle years of WW1. ...


Occasionally, this approach becomes self-referential, treating the literary universe of the work itself as explicitly parallel to the universe where the work was created. Stephen King's seven-volume Dark Tower series hinges upon the existence of multiple parallel worlds, many of which are King's own literary creations. Ultimately the characters become aware that they are only "real" in King's literary universe, and even travel to a world — twice — in which (again, within the novel) they meet Stephen King and alter events in the real Stephen King's world outside of the books. Stephen Edwin King (born September 21, 1947) is an American author of over 200 stories including over 50 bestselling horror novels. ... The Dark Tower painting by Michael Whelan The Dark Tower is a series of seven books by American writer Stephen King that tells the tale of lead character Roland Deschains quest for the Dark Tower. ...


Elfland

Forest troll. (Theodor Kittelsen, 1906)
Forest troll. (Theodor Kittelsen, 1906)

Elfland, or Faerie, the otherworldly home not only of elves and fairies but goblins, trolls, and other folkloric creatures, has an ambiguous appearance in folklore. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x673, 63 KB) Theodor Kittelsen - Skogtroll, 1906 (Forest Troll) File links The following pages link to this file: Troll ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (468x673, 63 KB) Theodor Kittelsen - Skogtroll, 1906 (Forest Troll) File links The following pages link to this file: Troll ... Kittelsen is known for his drawings of trolls. ... Álfheim (Old Norse Álfheimr Elf-home) is the abode of the Álfar Elves in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame, sometimes modernized as Elfland or Elfenland. ... For other uses, see Elf (disambiguation). ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goblin (disambiguation). ... Trolls with an abducted princess (John Bauer, 1915). ...


On one hand, the land often appears to be continuous to ordinary land. Thomas the Rhymer might, on being taken by the Queen of Faerie, be taken on a road like one leading to Heaven or Hell: Thomas the Rhymer (also Thomas Rhymer or Thomas Rymer) is the better-known name of Thomas Learmonth of Erceldoune, a 13th century Scottish laird and reputed soothsayer. ...


'O see ye not yon narrow road,
So think beset with thorns and briers?
That is that path of righteousness,
Tho after it but few enquires.


'And see not ye that braid braid road
That lies across the lily leven?
That is the path of wickedness,
Tho some call it the road to heaven.


'And see not ye that bonny road,
That winds about the fernie brae?
That is the road to fair Elfland,
Where thou and I this night maun gae.


However, others have found fairies and elves with greater ease. Sir Orfeo discovered the king who had kidnapped his wife by wandering in wilderness. Others have found them in elf hills near the homes, which digging could violate. They have been found in fairy circles, dancing in apparently ordinary woods, or riding through ordinary lands. Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ...


While sometimes folklore seems to show fairy intrusion into human lands — "Tam Lin" does not show any otherworldly aspects about the land in which the confrontation takes place — at other times the otherworldly aspects are clear. Most frequently, time can flow differently for those trapped by the fairy dance than in the lands they come from; although, in an additional complication, it may only be an appearance, as many returning from Faerie, such as Oisín, have found that time "catches up" with them as soon as they have contact with ordinary lands. Tam Lin is the hero of a Borders legend about fairies and mortal men. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Fantasy writers have taken up the ambiguity. Some writers depict the land of the elves as a full-blown parallel universe, with portals the only entry — as in Josepha Sherman's Prince of the Sidhe series or Esther Friesner's Elf Defense — and others have depicted it as the next land over, possibly difficult to reach for magical reasons — Robin McKinley's "The Stolen Princess" in The Door in the Hedge, Hope Mirrlees's Lud-in-the-Mist, or Lord Dunsany's The King of Elfland's Daughter. In some cases, the boundary between Elfland and more ordinary lands is not fixed. Not only the inhabitants but Faerie itself can pour into more mundane regions. Josepha Sherman is an American author // Works Series Buffyverse Visitors (Buffy novel) (1999) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Deep Water (Buffy novel) (2000) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Find Your Fate Junior Transformers 9. ... Josepha Sherman is an American author // Works Series Buffyverse Visitors (Buffy novel) (1999) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Deep Water (Buffy novel) (2000) (with Laura Anne Gilman) Find Your Fate Junior Transformers 9. ... Esther Friesner is an American science fiction and fantasy author best known for her humorous pieces. ... Robin McKinley (born November 16, 1952 as Jennifer Carolyn Robin Turrell McKinley) is a fantasy author especially known for her Newbery Medal-winning novel The Hero and the Crown. ... The Door in the Hedge is a collection of fairy tales by Robin McKinley. ... Helen Hope Mirrlees (1887 – 1978) was a British translator, poet and novelist. ... Lud-in-the-Mist (1926) is the third novel by Hope Mirrlees, and the only one still in print as of 2005. ... Best known as Lord Dunsany, Edward John Moreton Drax Plunkett, 18th Baron of Dunsany (July 24, 1878–October 25, 1957) was an Irish writer and dramatist notable for his work in fantasy and horror. ... The King of Elflands Daughter is a 1924 fantasy novel written by Lord Dunsany. ...


This is not a new phenomenon concerning Elfland. In Norse mythology, Elfland (Alfheim) was also the name of what today is the Swedish province of Bohuslän. In the sagas, it said that the people of this petty kingdom were more beautiful than other people, as they were related to the elves, showing that not only the territory was associated with elves, but also the race of its people. Norse, Viking or Scandinavian mythology comprises the indigenous pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian peoples, including those who settled on Iceland, where most of the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... lfheim (Old Norse lfheimr Elf-home) is the abode of the lfar Elves in Norse mythology and appears also in northern English ballads under the forms Elfhame and Elphame. ... , (Latin: Bahusia; Norwegian: BÃ¥huslen) is a province (landskap) in West Sweden (Västsverige). ... For alternate meanings, see Lightning (disambiguation). ...


Other media

Television

The idea of parallel universes have received treatment in a number of television series, usually as a single story or episode in a more general science fiction or fantasy storyline. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...


The most widely known and imitated example is the original Star Trek episode entitled Mirror, Mirror. The episode introduced an alternate version of the Star Trek universe where the main characters were barbaric and cruel to the point of being evil. The way Star Trek executed the concept was deeply influential on subsequent treatments. Enough so, that when the parallel universe concept is parodied, it is often this Star Trek episode that's being referenced. Two recent examples are from South Park in the episode Spookyfish where the "evil" universe double of Cartman sports a beard, like the alternate version of Mr. Spock in the Mirror, Mirror episode. In addition, while the "good" universe's Cartman is the most obnoxious character, the "evil" one is pleasant and agreeable. Another animated series, Futurama, had an episode where the cast travels between "Universe A" and "Universe 1" via boxes containing each universe, and one of the major jokes is an extended argument between the two sets of characters over which set were the "evil" ones. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... Mirror, Mirror is an episode of Star Trek: The Original Series. ... In the Star Trek television series, the Mirror Universe is an alternate reality. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Spookyfish is the 28th episode of Comedy Centrals animated series South Park. ... Eric Cartman on his tricycle Eric Theodore Cartman, voiced by Trey Parker, is a fictional character in the animated series South Park. ... Spock, commonly called Mr. ... This article is about the television series. ... “The Farnsworth Parabox” is the fifteenth episode of the fourth production season of Futurama. ...



One of the earliest television plots to feature parallel time was a 1970 storyline on soap opera Dark Shadows. Vampire Barnabas Collins found a room in Collinwood which served as a portal to parallel time, and he entered the room in order to escape from his current problems. A year later, the show again traveled to parallel time, the setting this time being 1841. Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Sometimes a television series will use parallel universes as an on-going subplot. This happened as Star Trek: Deep Space Nine and Star Trek: Enterprise elaborated on the premise of the original series' "Mirror" universe and developed multi-episode story arcs based on the premise. Other examples are the science fiction series Stargate SG-1, the fantasy/horror series Buffy the Vampire Slayer and the romance/fantasy Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman. Following the precedent set by Star Trek these story arcs show alternate universes that have turned out "worse" than the "original" universe; in Stargate SG-1 the first encountered parallel reality featured Earth being overwhelmed by an unstoppable Goa'uld onslaught, in Buffy, the vampires had overrun Sunnydale and Buffy and Angel were both killed trying to prevent them from massacring the human populace, while in Lois & Clark an alternate universe is visited, repeatedly, that contains a Clark Kent whose parents, Jonathan and Martha Kent died when he was ten years of age, and whose Lois Lane is apparently dead. Clark eventually becames Superman, with help from the 'original' Lois Lane, but he is immediately revealed as Clark Kent and so has no life of his own. Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... The starship Enterprise (NX-01) Star Trek: Enterprise is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe. ... Stargate SG-1 (often abbreviated as SG-1) is a science fiction television series, part of the Stargate franchise. ... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman was a live-action television series based on the Superman comic books. ... Sunnydale Sunnydale, California, is the fictional suburban setting for the U.S. television drama Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... For other uses, see Clark Kent (disambiguation). ... Martha Clark Kent and Jonathan Kent, also known as Ma and Pa Kent, are fictional characters published by DC Comics. ... For the Dutch girl group, see Loïs Lane. ...


In addition to following Star Trek's lead, showing the "evil" variants of the main storyline gives the writers an opportunity to show what is at stake by portraying the worst that could happen and the consequences if the protagonists fail. The latter could also be seen as the point of the alternate reality portrayed in the movie It's a Wonderful Life (see below). Its a Wonderful Life is a 1946 film produced and directed by Frank Capra and based on the short story, The Greatest Gift written by Philip Van Doren Stern. ...


There have been relatively few series where parallel universes were central to the series itself. Two examples are the short-lived 1980s series Otherworld which transported a family from our world to an alternate Earth; and Sliders, where the characters travel across a series of "alternate" Earths, trying to get back to their home universe. In 1986, Disney planned to make an animated children's show about interdimentional travel called Fluppy Dogs, but only the pilot episode was ever produced. For Irish Mythology, see Other World. ... Sliders is a science fiction television series that ran for five seasons from 1995 to 2000. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... The Fluppy Dogs Disneys Fluppy Dogs was a one-hour animated television special which aired in November 27, 1986, and was intended to be a pilot for the third Walt Disney Television animated series. ...


The third season of the anime Yu-Gi-Oh! GX features multiple dimensions and the main protaganist plots to bring all of them together and rule them all. This article is about the Yu-Gi-Oh! GX anime. ...


Where In Time Is Carmen Sandiego featured a segment with a parallel universe in season 2. Where In Time Is Carmen Sandiego is a multiplaform video game where players have to travel through time to collect the clue and the warrant necessary to capture Carmen Sandiego or one of her henchmen. ...


Movies

The most famous treatment of the alternate universe concept in film could be considered the The Wizard of Oz, which portrays a parallel world, famously separating the magical realm of the Land of Oz from the mundane world by filming it in Technicolor while filming the scenes set in Kansas in sepia. The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ... Oz is a fantasy region containing four countries under the rule of one monarch. ... Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ... Official language(s) English[2] Capital Topeka Largest city Wichita Area  Ranked 15th  - Total 82,277 sq mi (213,096 km²)  - Width 211 miles (340 km)  - Length 417 miles (645 km)  - % water 0. ... Sepia tone is a type of digital photo in which the picture appears similar to a traditional black-and-white print toned with sepia. ...


A later example is the Frank Capra movie, It's a Wonderful Life where the main character George Bailey is shown by a guardian angel the city of Pottersville, which was George Bailey's hometown of Bedford Falls as it would have been if he had never existed. Another notable depiction of a parallel universe in movies is the second film in the Back to the Future trilogy (1985, 1989) by Robert Zemeckis, starring Michael J. Fox and Christopher Lloyd, showing an accidentally created alternate present and future. Like It's a Wonderful Life, The Big Time, and many other time travel stories using this conceit, it is clear that these alternate presents/futures are mutually exclusive with the protagonists' own — so, strictly speaking, the universes aren't parallel in that they cannot co-exist, rather they oscillate between one or the other. This article is about the film director. ... Its a Wonderful Life is a 1946 film produced and directed by Frank Capra and based on the short story, The Greatest Gift written by Philip Van Doren Stern. ... Its a Wonderful Life is a 1946 Frank Capra film, released originally by RKO Radio Pictures. ... A guardian angel is a spirit who is believed to protect and to guide a particular person. ... George Bailey stands in awe in front of the sign marking the alternate Bedford Falls. ... Bedford Falls is the fictional city in Frank Capras 1946 cinematic classic Its a Wonderful Life. ... Back to the Future is a 1985 science fiction–comedy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and produced by Steven Spielberg. ... A trilogy is a set of three works of art, usually literature or film, that are connected and can be seen as a single work, as well as three individual ones. ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Robert Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... For other persons named Michael Fox, see Michael Fox (disambiguation). ... Christopher Allen Lloyd (born October 22, 1938) is a three-time Emmy Award-winning American character actor. ... In discussion of counterfactual history, a point of divergence (POD) is a historical event, with two possible postulated outcomes. ... In science fiction stories involving time travel, an alternate future or alternative future is a possible future which never comes to pass, typically because someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternate future cannot occur. ...


Another common use of the theme is as a prison for villains or demons. The idea is used in the first two Superman movies starring Christopher Reeve where Kryptonian villains were sentenced to the Phantom Zone from where they eventually escaped. An almost exactly parallel use of the idea is presented in the campy cult film The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension, where the "8th dimension" is essentially a "phantom zone" used to imprison the villainous Red Lectroids. Uses in horror films include the 1986 film From Beyond (based on the H. P. Lovecraft story of the same name) where a scientific experiment induces the experimenters to perceive aliens from a parallel universe, with bad results. The 1987 John Carpenter film Prince of Darkness is based on the premise that the Christian Satan is actually an alien being that is the son of something even more evil and powerful, trapped in another universe. The protagonists accidentally free "Satan", who then attempts to release his "father." A stereotypical villain, common in early 20th century silent films, wears formal black clothes, exquisitely neat facial hair, and a maniacal demeanour. ... The demon Satan In folklore, mythology, and religion, a demon is a supernatural being that is generally described as an evil spirit, but is also depicted to be good in some instances. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Christopher DOlier Reeve[1] (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, director, producer and writer. ... Krypton is a fictional planet in the DC Comics universe. ... The Phantom Zone is a fictional prison dimension featured in the Superman comic books and related media. ... The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai Across the 8th Dimension! (sometimes just Buckaroo Banzai) is a science fiction film that has reached cult film status. ... DVD cover showing horror characters as depicted by Universal Studios. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... From Beyond was released in 1986. ... Howard Phillips Lovecraft (August 20, 1890 – March 15, 1937) was an American author from Providence, Rhode Island of fantasy, horror and science fiction. ... From Beyond is a short story by science fiction and horror fiction writer H.P. Lovecraft. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... John Howard Carpenter (born January 16, 1948) is an American film director, screenwriter, producer, film score composer and occasional actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of Satan. ...


Some films present parallel realities that are actually different contrasting versions of the narrative itself. Commonly this motif is presented as different points of view revolving around a central (but sometimes unknowable) "truth", the seminal example being Akira Kurosawa's Rashomon. Conversely, often in film noir and crime dramas, the alternate narrative is a fiction created by a central character, intentionally — as in The Usual Suspects — or unintentionally — as in Angel Heart. Less often, the alternate narratives are is given equal weight in the story, making them truly alternate universes, such as in the German film Run Lola Run, the short-lived British West End musical Our House and the British film Sliding Doors. Akira Kurosawa , 23 March 1910—6 September 1998) was a prominent Japanese film director, film producer, and screenwriter. ... This article or section cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... This still from The Big Combo (1955) demonstrates the visual style of film noir at its most extreme. ... A crime film, in its most general sense, is a film that deals with crime, criminal justice and the darker side of human nature. ... The Usual Suspects is a 1995 American film written by Christopher McQuarrie (who earned an Oscar for the screenplay) and directed by Bryan Singer. ... Angel Heart is a 1987 horror movie written and directed by Alan Parker, starring Mickey Rourke, Lisa Bonet and Robert De Niro. ... Run Lola Run (original German title Lola rennt, which translates to Lola Runs) is a 1998 film by German screenwriter and director Tom Tykwer, starring Franka Potente as Lola. ... West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre in London, England, or sometimes more specifically for shows staged in the large theatres of Londons Theatreland. Along with New Yorks Broadway theatre, West End theatre is usually considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre... Our House was a family-oriented drama which ran early on Sunday evening on NBC from 1986 to 1988. ... Sliding Doors is a 1998 film written and directed by former actor Peter Howitt. ...


Recent films that have more explicitly explored parallel universes are: the 2001 cult movie Donnie Darko, which deals with what it terms a "tangent universe" that erupts from our own universe; Super Mario Bros. (1993) has the eponymous heroes cross over into a parallel universe ruled by humanoids who evolved from dinosaurs; The One (2001) starring Jet Li, in which there is a complex system of realities in which Jet Li's character is a police officer in one universe and a serial killer in another, who travels to other universes to destroy versions of himself, so that he can become 'the one'; and FAQ: Frequently Asked Questions (2004), the main character runs away from a totalitarian nightmare, and he enters into a cyber-afterlife alternative reality. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... A cult film is a movie that attracts a small but devoted group of obsessive fans or one that has remained popular over successive years amongst a small group of followers. ... Donnie Darko is a 2001 drama/psychological thriller/science fiction cult film written and directed by Richard Kelly. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... The One was an action movie released in 2001, starring Jet Li and Carla Gugino. ... Jet Li (born Li Lianjie on April 26, 1963 in Beijing, China) is a Chinese martial artist, actor, Wushu champion, and international film star. ...


Comic books

Parallel universes in modern comics have become particularly rich and complex, in large part due to the continual problem of continuity faced by the major two publishers, Marvel Comics and DC Comics. The two publishers have used the multiverse concept to fix problems arising from integrating characters from other publishers into their own canon, and from having major serial protagonists having continuous histories lasting, as in the case of Superman, over 60 years. Additionally, both publishers have used new alternate universes to re-imagine their own characters. (See Multiverse (DC Comics) and Multiverse (Marvel Comics)) In fiction, continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events seen by the reader or viewer. ... Marvel Comics is an American comic book line published by Marvel Publishing, Inc. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Superman is a fictional character and comic book superhero , originally created by American writer Jerry Siegel and Canadian artist Joe Shuster and published by DC Comics. ... The Earths of the Multiverse and the different variations of the Flash inhabiting each one. ... Within Marvel Comics, most tales take place within the fictional Marvel Universe, this in turn is part of a larger multiverse. ...


Because of this, comic books in general are one of the few entertainment mediums where the concept of parallel universes are a major and ongoing theme. DC in particular periodically revisits the idea in major crossover storylines, such as Crisis on Infinite Earths and Infinite Crisis, where Marvel has a series called What If... that's devoted to exploring alternate realities, which sometime impact the "main" universe's continuity. It has been suggested that Gaming crossovers be merged into this article or section. ... Crisis on Infinite Earths was a 12-issue comic book limited series (identified as a 12-part maxi-series) and crossover event, produced by DC Comics in 1985 in order to simplify their fifty-year-old continuity. ... Infinite Crisis was a seven-issue limited series of comic books published by DC Comics, beginning in October of 2005. ... What If? Vol. ...


Recently DC Comics series 52 heralded the return of the Multiverse. 52 was a mega-crossover event tied to Infinite Crisis which was the sequel to the 1980s Crisis on Infinite Earths. The aim was to yet again address many of the problems and confusions brought on by the Multiverse in the DCU. Now 52 Earths exist and including some Elseworld tales such as Kingdom Come, DC's imprint Wildstorm Comics and an Earth devoted to the Charlton Comics heroes of DC. Countdown and Countdown Presents: The Search for Ray Palmer and the upcoming Tales of the Multiverse stories expand upon this new Multiverse. 52 is the title of a comic book limited series published by DC Comics, which debuted on May 10, 2006, one week after the conclusion of the seven-issue Infinite Crisis. ... Kingdom Come was a four-issue comic book limited series published in 1996 by DC Comics. ... This article is about imprints in publishing. ... WildStorm Productions, or simply WildStorm or Wildstorm, is a publishing imprint and studio of American comic book publisher DC Comics. ... Big C logo, used from Sept. ... Countdown is a comic book limited series published by DC Comics, which debuted on May 9, 2007, directly following the conclusion of the last issue of 52. ... The Atom introduced during the Silver Age of comic books in Showcase # 34 (Sep-Oct 1961) is physicist and university professor Ray Palmer (named for real-life science fiction writer Raymond A. Palmer, who was himself quite short). ...


Marvel has also had many large crossover events which depicted an alternate universe, each springing from events in the X-Men books, such as Days of Future Past, the seminal Age Of Apocalypse, and 2006's House Of M. In addition the Squadron Supreme is a DC inspired Marvel Universe that has been used several times, often crossing over into the mainstream Universe in the Avengers comic. Exiles is an offshoot of the X-Men franchsie that allows characters to hop from one alternate reality to another, leaving the original, main Marvel Universe intact. The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... Cover to Uncanny X-Men #141. ... The Age of Apocalypse is a popular X-Men story arc. ... House of M was an eight-part comic book crossover storyline published by Marvel Comics in 2005. ... The Squadron Supreme is a team of comic book superheroes in the Marvel Comics universe, a thinly disguised version of DC Comics Justice League of America. ... The Avengers is an elite fictional comic book superhero team in the Marvel Universe. ... The Exiles are a group of fictional comic book characters from Marvel Comics. ... The X-Men are a group of comic book superheroes featured in Marvel Comics. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Marvel Comics, as of 2000, launched their most popular parallel universe, the Ultimate Universe. It is a smaller subline to the mainstream titles and features Ultimate Spider-Man, Ultimate X-Men, Ultimate Fantastic Four and the Ultimates (their "Avengers"). The line in many ways mimics the new movie franchises in addition to creating younger versions of the modern heroes. Ultimate Marvel is an imprint of comic books published by Marvel Comics, featuring reimagined and updated versions of the companys most popular superhero characters, including Spider-Man, the X-Men, The Avengers and the Fantastic Four. ... For the video game of the same title, see: Ultimate Spider-Man (video game). ... Ultimate X-Men is a superhero comic book series published by Marvel Comics. ... Ultimate Fantastic Four is a comic book published by Marvel Comics, part of the Ultimate Marvel line featuring classic Marvel Universe characters re-imagined for a modern audience. ... The Ultimates are a fictional team of government-sponsored superheroes in the Ultimate Marvel Universe, appearing primarily in their self-titled comic book limited series The Ultimates and The Ultimates 2, published by Marvel Comics, written by Mark Millar, and drawn by Bryan Hitch. ...


Games

A small part of EarthBound involves traveling to Moonside, an alternate universe version of the town of Fourside. EarthBound, released in Japan as MOTHER 2: Gyiyg no Gyakushū , lit. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into EarthBound. ...


There is a secret level named "Out of this dimension" in the game Star Fox. The level is somewhat bizarre and confusing, with a slot machine boss waiting in the end. Star Fox ) (also known as Star Wing in Europe due to trademark issues) is the first game in the Star Fox series of video games. ...


The Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game has a thoroughly developed system of planes of existence. A popular campaign setting for the game, Planescape, centers around travelling between these planes. Ravenloft, a gothic horror setting for Dungeons & Dragons, is based entirely in a single demiplane. This article is about the role-playing game. ... This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... In the standard cosmology of the Dungeons and Dragons role-playing game, the planes of existence are alternate planes or alternate dimensions. ... A campaign setting is usually a fictional world which serves as a setting for a role-playing game or wargame campaign. ... Planescape is a campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons fantasy role-playing game, originally designed by Zeb Cook. ... Ravenloft is a fictional campaign setting for the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game. ... The gothic novel is an English literary genre, which can be said to have been born with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ... In the standard cosmology of the Dungeons and Dragons role-playing game, the planes of existence are alternate planes or alternate dimensions. ...


In the Magic: The Gathering, every plane is part of a multiverse. What effects one plane, may ultimately affect others, such as what happened when a great devastation occurred on the main plane, Dominaria. All the planes around were locked in a bubble, called the Shard, where no one could get in or out. The recent expansion, Planar Chaos, explores the idea of "what if?". The set looks back at the game's history, both mechanically and flavour-wise, and imagines what the game would be like today if certain decisions were made differently. The result is an alternate colour pie - some abilities that are generally only seen in one or two colours in "real Magic" are put in completely different colours. For example, the ability to tap creatures, traditionally white, is put in black. The ideals and philosophies behind the colours remain unchanged - just the abilities that represent them. White is generally a very organized, military-focused colour, and tapping creatures is generally represented as a military tactic of leading an opponent astray (as seen on cards like Master Decoy). In Planar Chaos black, however, it is more seen as either a numbing poison (Midnight Charm), leading a creature into a trap (Rathi Trapper), or flaring negative emotions like immense sadness, resulting in no will to fight (Melancholy). Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


In the computer game Myst a people known as D'ni colonized Earth from another universe, and kept traveling to other universes (known as Ages) through Linking Books. According to their cosmology, each universe is a leaf of the Terokh Jeruth, the Tree of Possibilities. Myst also includes the use of Trap Books as empty universes for storing criminals, although they were later retconned to be complete universes of their own, called Prison Ages. A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... Myst (or MYST) is a graphic adventure computer game designed and directed by the brothers Robyn and Rand Miller. ... This article is about the race of people. ... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Myst V: End of Ages Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Myst V: End of Ages Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni   Marrim Comic Books #0... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The Kingdom Hearts series makes frequent use of multiple worlds, implementing Disney properties used as source material as their own world the protagonists can travel to over the course of the game (such as Halloween Town (from The Nightmare Before Christmas) or Port Royal (from Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl). This does not cite its references or sources. ... Halloweentown Tim Burtons The Nightmare Before Christmas is a 1993 Academy Award-nominated, stop motion animated musical film about the inhabitants of Halloween Town who take over Christmas, directed by stop-motion animator Henry Selick. ... Port-Royal was a Cistercian convent in the Vallée de Chevreuse southwest of Paris that launched a number of culturally important institutions. ... Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl is a movie of adventure and romance set in the Caribbean during the seventeenth century. ...


The Squaresoft game Chrono Cross involves the world being split into two different dimensions, due to an accident involving the fate of a boy named Serge. Chrono Cross ) is a console role-playing game created by Square Co. ...


The 3do series Army Men constantly has its characters jumping from the plastic dimension to ours.


In the computer game Red Alert 2, or more specifically, its expansion, Yuri's Revenge, the player must utilise a time machine and travel back in time, to a parallel universe. Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 was the follow up to Red Alert. ... Command & Conquer: Red Alert 2 is the follow up to Command & Conquer: Red Alert, another real-time strategy computer game in the Command & Conquer series by Westwood Studios. ...


The Half-Life series strongly features the concept of parallel universes. In the original game, the player visits a 'border world' named Xen. In Half-Life 2, Earth has been taken over by an imperialistic, inter-dimensional alien race known as the Combine. Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Islands in Xen Xen (pronounced Zen) is the origin of the alien species that appear in the science fiction video game Half-Life (Valve Software, 1998); the expansion packs Half-Life: Opposing Force (Valve Software and Gearbox Software, 1999); Half-Life: Blue Shift (Valve/Gearbox, 2001); and Half-Life: Decay... Half-Life 2 (HL2) is a science fiction first-person shooter computer game that is the sequel to Half-Life. ... The Combine is a fictional powerful alien race and empire from Valve Corporations 2004 first-person shooter computer game Half-Life 2. ...


The Silent Hill horror video game series incorportates a concept of parallel worlds that are related to main character's emotions, memories, fears and other projections of his or her subconsciousness. The most common distinction is between the normal world (as the world is seen in reality) and the evil world (as the world is seen when it is devoured by evil powers). Characters are switching (i.e. altering) between these two worlds numerous times during the game's plot. There is a number of ways in which a character may switch between the worlds (for example, he or she may experience a pounding headache and, after this event, he or she "wakes up" in the evil world). The architecture of the evil world (also referred as an alternative world) is basically the same as the one of the normal, "real" world (for instance, a hospital in the normal world has its equivalent in the evil world). However, images of the evil world demonstrate how the real world would look like if it would be devoured by evil powers (for example, a hospital in the real world is no longer a hospital in the evil world - it is in fact a decent torture block full of hellish images of pain and suffering). This article is about the video game franchise. ...


The massively multiplayer online game Ultima Online used the parallel universe concept to rationalize the existence of multiple instances of the game world (called "shards"), so that players could be partitioned onto multiple servers for capacity reasons. “MMO” redirects here. ... Ultima Online (UO) is a popular graphical massively multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORPG), released on September 25, 1997, by Origin Systems. ... Shard, also called sherd or potsherd, is a term for broken pieces of pottery or glass, often used in archaeology. ...


The massively multiplayer online game City of Heroes makes extensive use of the parallel universe concept as part of the setting and storyline. The game features a fictional corporation known as Portal Corp, who develop and control technology necessary to "punch" a hole through the dimensional barriers and allow players to travel between worlds, though various groups are also shown to have stolen or copied versions of this technology to allow their own travel on a small scale. The various parallel versions of Earth tend to be depicted as having been overrun by one of the villain groups that exist in the game, or show that history has followed a different path, an example being an Earth were the Allies lost to the Axis forces in World War II. The most prominent version is similar to the concept of the Star Trek original series episode Mirror, Mirror featuring an evil and corrupt version of the Freedom Phalanx. The Rikti in perticular, a key villain group of the game, are presented as trans-dimensional invaders from their own version of Earth. “MMO” redirects here. ... City of Heroes (CoH) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCsoft. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word axis has several meanings: In mathematics, axis can mean: A straight line around which a geometric figure can be rotated. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The current Star Trek franchise logo Star Trek is an American science fiction entertainment series and media franchise. ... Mirror, Mirror is a popular title for works of fiction. ... The Freedom Phalanx is a fictional coalition of superheroes in the universe of the MMORPG City of Heroes. ...


References

  1. ^ Carl Sagan, Placido P D'Souza (1980s). Hindu cosmology's time-scale for the universe is in consonance with modern science.; Dick Teresi (2002). Lost Discoveries : The Ancient Roots of Modern Science - from the Babylonians to the Maya.
  2. ^ Briggs (1967) p.50-1
  3. ^ Gareth Matthews, "Plato in Narnia" p 171 Gregory Bassham ed. and Jerry L. Walls, ed. The Chronicles of Narnia and Philosophy ISBN 0-8126-9588-7
  4. ^ John H. Timmerman. "Tolkien’s Crucible of Faith: The Sub-Creation". First published June 5, 1974, retrieved October 31, 2006.
  5. ^ C. S. Lewis, "On Science Fiction", Of Other Worlds, p68 ISBN 0-15-667897-7
  6. ^ C. S. Lewis, "On Science Fiction", Of Other Worlds, p68 ISBN 0-15-667897-7
  7. ^ Michael Moorcock, Wizardry & Wild Romance: A Study of Epic Fantasy p 88 ISBN 1-932265-07-4
  • Clifford A. Pickover (August, 2005). Sex, Drugs, Einstein, and Elves: Sushi, Psychedelics, Parallel Universes, and the Quest for Transcendence (Discusses parallel universes in a variety of settings, from physics to psychedelic visions to Proust parallel worlds to Bonnet syndrome). Smart Publications. ISBN 1-890572-17-9. 
  • Michio Kaku (2004). Parallel Worlds: A Journey Through Creation, Higher Dimensions, and the Future of the Cosmos. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50986-3. 

The Game The Elder Scrolls: Oblivion has a main quest that requires you to enter diverent realms of oblivion that are different universes that are linked to the one main normal universe. Insert non-formatted text here Carl Edward Sagan (November 9, 1934 – December 20, 1996) was an American astronomer and astrobiologist and a highly successful popularizer of astronomy, astrophysics, and other natural sciences. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ... Michael John Moorcock (born December 18, 1939, in London, England) is a prolific English writer primarily of science fiction and fantasy who has also published a number of literary novels. ... Clifford A. Pickover is an author, editor, and columnist in the fields of science, mathematics, and science fiction. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Professor Michio Kaku Michio Kaku (born January 24, 1947 in the United States) is a theoretical physicist, tenured professor, and co-creator of string field theory, a branch of string theory. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

The following is a list of fiction employing parallel universes or alternate realities // Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle, wrote The Blazing World (1666), a book far ahead of its time, in which the heroine passes through a portal near the North Pole to a world with different stars in the... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... In science fiction stories involving time travel, an alternate future or alternative future is a possible future which never comes to pass, typically because someone travels back into the past and alters it so that the events of the alternate future cannot occur. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... An alternative universe (also known as alternate universe) is a type or form of fan fiction in which known, canonical facts about the universe being explored or written about, are deliberately changed. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... A fictional universe is an imaginary world that serves as the setting or backdrop for one or (more commonly) multiple works of fiction or translatable non-fiction. ... An imaginary world is a setting, place or event or scenario at variance with objective reality, ranging from the voluntary suspension of disbelief of fictional universes and the socially constructed consensus reality of the Social Imaginary, to alternate realities resulting from disinformation, misinformation or imaginative speculation, and the subjective universe... Pantheistic solipsism is a technical term that has been advanced for the World as Myth idea proposed by science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein in several of his books and stories, although the concept has nothing in common with either Pantheism (the universe is God) or Solipsism (nothing exists but...

External links

  • Max Tegmark's Parallel Universes paper (pdf)

 
 

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