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Encyclopedia > Parallel evolution
Bee hovering in flight
Bee hovering in flight

In evolutionary biology, parallel evolution refers to the independent evolution of similar traits in closely related lineages of species, while convergent evolution refers to the appearance of striking similarities among lineages of organisms only very distantly related. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1411, 513 KB) A bee in mid air flight File links The following pages link to this file: Bee Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Bee flying ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1411, 513 KB) A bee in mid air flight File links The following pages link to this file: Bee Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Bee flying ... Evolutionary biology is a subfield of biology concerned with the origin and descent of species, as well as their change over time, i. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. ...


One of the most spectacular examples of parallel evolution is provided by the two main branches of the mammals, the placentals and marsupials, which have followed independent evolutionary pathways, after splitting off from some primitive mammalian common ancestor in the late Cretaceous. (Placentals bear their young fully developed, while marsupials give birth prematurely and nurture their young in a pouch.) The marsupials of Australia have evolved in isolation from placental mammals elsewhere yet have given rise to a whole range of similar forms: pouched versions of anteaters, moles, flying squirrels, cats, wolves, etc. Much the same phenomenon occurred in South America, where marsupials independently gave rise to a range of parallel forms. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Orders Superorder Xenarthra: Pilosa Cingulata Infraclass Epitheria: Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Golden mole and tenrec) Macroscelidea (Elephant shrew) Tubulidentata (Aardvark) Hyracoidea (Hyrax) Proboscidea (Elephant) Sirenia (Manatee, Dugong) Superorder Laurasiatheria: Chiroptera (Bats) Insectivora (Shrews, Moles) Cetacea (Whale, dolphin) Artiodactyla (Ruminants et al) Perissodactyla(Horse et al. ... Orders Superorder Ameridelphia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Superorder Australidelphia Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Marsupials are mammals in which the female typically has a pouch (called the marsupium, from which the name Marsupial derives) in which it rears its young through early infancy. ...


Parallel evolution is a different phenomenon than convergent evolution and evolutionary relay. In convergent evolution, unrelated lineages acquire similar characteristics (bird and bat wings). In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution describes the process whereby organisms not closely related independently acquire similar characteristics while evolving in separate and sometimes varying ecosystems. ... In evolutionary biology, evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics as a result of their evolution in similar ecosystems, but not at the same time. ... Aves redirects here. ... Families Craseonycteridae Emballonuridae Furipteridae Megadermatidae Miniopteridae Molossidae Mormoopidae Mystacinidae Myzopodidae Natalidae Noctilionidae Nycteridae Phyllostomidae Pteropodidae Rhinolophidae Rhinopomatidae Thyropteridae Vespertilionidae Bats are mammals in the order Chiroptera. ... The word wing or wings has more than one use: In aeronautics a wing is an apparatus used to create lift. ...


Similar to convergent evolution, evolutionary relay describes how independent species acquire similar characteristics through their evolution in similar ecosystems, but not at the same time (dorsal fins of sharks and ichthyosaurs). Dorsal Fin of the Orca A dorsal fin is a fin located on the backs of fishes, whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Orders see text Sharks are a group (superorder Selachimorpha) of fish, with a full cartilaginous skeleton, a streamlined body plan with between 5 and 7 gill slits along the sides (most often) or side of the head (the first modified slit is behind the eye and called a spiracle), dermal... Ichthyosaurs (Greek for fish lizards) were giant marine reptiles that resemble a dolphin with teeth (see convergent evolution). ...


Examples

In the plant kingdom, the most familiar examples of parallel evolution are the forms of leaves, where very similar patterns have appeared again and again in separate genera and families. Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ...


In butterflies, many close similarities are found in the patterns of wing colouration, both within and between families. For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ...


Old and New world porcupines shared a common ancestor, both evolved strikingly similar quill structures. Genera Family Erethizontidae   Coendou   Sphiggurus   Erethizon   Echinoprocta Family Hystricidae   Atherurus   Hystrix   Thecurus   Trichys The porcupine is a rodent known for its coat of sharp spines, or quills that defend it from predators. ...


Contemporaneous evolution of the extinct browsing-horses and extinct paleotheres both of which shared the same environmental space. In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ...


References

Mayr. 1997. What is Biology.Harvard University Press


Encylopedia Britannica on-line



Schluter, D., E. A. Clifford, M. Nemethy, and J. S. McKinnon. 2004. Parallel evolution and inheritance of quantitative traits. American Naturalist 163: 809–822.


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
DARWINISM-WATCH.com - Responding Evolutionist Propaganda in the Media (1579 words)
The parallel evolution claim assumes that any given feature (colour pattern, for instance) in species assumed to be descended from a common ancestor evolved from different branches, albeit in parallel, in other words through stages that brought about the same evolutionary feature.
Parallel evolution, regarding which the article in Science seeks to give the impression that it is backed up with this finding, actually consists of an invented scenario.
However, since evolutionists support evolution as a dogma, not because it is a scientific thesis that can be amended in the face of the evidence but for purely philosophical reasons, instead of admitting this dilemma they seek to cover it up with invented stories.
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