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Encyclopedia > Parallax scrolling
This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please expand it to make it accessible to non-experts, without removing the technical details.

Parallax scrolling is a special scrolling technique in computer graphics. In short, it means a background that moves by slower than the foreground, creating an illusion of depth in a 2D video game and adding to the immersion. The technique grew out of the multiplane camera technique used in traditional animation since the 1940s. This article needs cleanup. ... Computer graphics (CG) is the field of visual computing, where one utilizes computers both to generate visual images synthetically and to integrate or alter visual and spatial information sampled from the real world. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... The multiplane camera is a special motion picture camera used in the traditional animation process that moves a number of pieces of artwork past the camera at various speeds and at various distances from one another. ... Traditional animation, sometimes also called cel animation or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. ...

There are three main methods of parallax scrolling used in titles for video game console systems. Parallax scrolling was first used in the 1982 arcade game Moon Patrol. Parallax (Greek: παραλλαγή (parallagé) = alteration) is the change of angular position of two stationary points relative to each other as seen by an observer, due to the motion of said observer. ... The Nintendo GameCube is an example of a video game console. ... 1982 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Centipede by Atari is a typical example of a 1980s era arcade game. ... Moon Patrol is a classic arcade game by Irem that was first released in 1982. ...

An interesting variation is to have the background and foreground move in opposite directions. This creates an effect of rotation. An early example is the scene in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs where the evil Queen drinks her potion, and her surroundings appear to spin around her. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is the first animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ...

The layer way

Some display systems support multiple background layers that can be scrolled independently in horizontal and vertical directions and composited on one another. On such a display system, a game can produce parallax by simply changing each layer's horizontal position by a different amount in the same direction. Layers that move more quickly are perceived to be closer to the virtual camera. However, placing too much in front of the playfield, the layer containing the objects with which the player interacts, obscures the action of the game and may distract the player. In visual effects post-production, compositing refers to creating complex images or moving images by combining images from different sources - such as real-world digital video, digitized film, synthetic 3-D imagery, 2-D animations, painted backdrops, digital still photographs, and text. ...

The raster way

In raster graphics, the lines of pixels in an image are typically composited and refreshed in top-to-bottom order, and there is a slight delay, called horizontal blank, between drawing one line and drawing the next line. Suppose the smiley face in the top left corner is an RGB bitmap image. ...

Some display systems have only one layer. These include most of the classic 8-bit systems (such as the Nintendo Entertainment System and the original Game Boy). Games on such systems generally divide the layer into horizontal strips, each with a different position and rate of scrolling. Typically, strips higher up the screen will represent things farther away from the virtual camera, or one strip will be held stationary to display status information. The program will then wait for horizontal blank and change the layer's scroll position just before the display system begins to draw each scanline. This is called a "raster effect" and is also useful for changing the system palette to provide a gradient background. The Nintendo Entertainment System (North America, Europe, and Australia) The Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, is an 8-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe and Australia. ... The original Game Boys design set the standard for handheld gaming consoles. ... An artists palette A palette is: A thin board that a painter holds and mixes colour pigments on. ...

Some platforms (Super NES, Sega Genesis, Game Boy Advance, Game Boy) provide a horizontal blank interrupt for automatically setting the registers independently of the rest of the program; others, such as the NES, require the use of cycle-timed code, which is specially written to take exactly as long to execute as the video chip takes to draw one scanline. Many NES games such as the classic Super Mario Bros. use this technique to draw their status bars, and Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles II: The Arcade Game and Vice: Project Doom for NES use it to scroll background layers at different rates. The North American Super Nintendo Entertainment System The Super Nintendo Entertainment System, also known as the Super NES or SNES for short, is a 16-bit video game console released by Nintendo in North America, Europe, and Australia. ... The Sega Genesis is a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in North America in 1989. ... The Game Boy line is the best-selling handheld. ... The original Game Boys design set the standard for handheld gaming consoles. ... A horizontal blank interrupt is a programming technique used in some systems, notably video games and consoles, to allow program code to be run in the periods when the display hardware is turned off, waiting for the TV to complete its horizontal blank, which takes about 10 uS. The technique... Super Mario Bros. ...

More advanced raster techniques can produce interesting effects. A system can achieve breathtaking depth of field if layers with rasters are combined; Sonic the Hedgehog 2, ActRaiser, and Street Fighter II used this effect well. If each scanline has its own layer, the Pole Position effect is produced, which creates a pseudo-3D road (or in the case of NBA Jam, a pseudo-3D ball court) on a 2D system. If the display system supports rotation and scaling in addition to scrolling, an effect popularly known as Mode 7, changing the rotation and scaling factors can draw a projection of a plane (F-Zero, Super Mario Kart) or can warp the playfield to create an extra challenge factor (Tetanus On Drugs). Sonic 2 title screen Sonic the Hedgehog 2, or simply Sonic 2, the sequel of Sonic the Hedgehog, is a side-scrolling platform video game made by Sega for the Mega Drive/Genesis. ... ActRaiser is a 1990 Super Nintendo Entertainment System side-scrolling platform game with a SimCity-esque urban planning simulation developed by Enix and Quintet. ... Street Fighter II: The World Warrior (1991) was a highly popular and immensely successful fighting game created by Capcom. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... NBA Jam is a basketball arcade game created by Midway Games in 1993. ... The term Mode 7 originated on the Super NES video game console, on which it describes a simple texture mapping graphics mode that allows a background layer to be rotated and scaled. ... F-Zero is a futuristic fast-paced racing game developed and published by Nintendo for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. ... Super Mario Kart is the first video game in the Mario Kart series, released in 1992 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System. ...

The sprite way

If there is much in the way of the sprites (individually controllable moving objects drawn by hardware on top of or behind the layers) available on the display system, the programmer may want to make a pseudo-layer out of sprites. Star Force, an overhead-view vertically-scrolling shooter for NES, used this for its starfield, and Final Fight for the Super NES used this technique for the layer immediately in front of the main playfield. The term sprite is used in computer graphics to refer to a two dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... Star Force is a vertical scrolling shooter made for the NES. In the game, the player pilots a starship, fighting various enemies and destroying enemy structures for points. ... Nes is: A municipality in the county of Akershus in Norway, see Nes, Akershus. ... Illustration of various Final Fight characters by former SNK artist Shinkiro. ...

  Results from FactBites:
scrolling: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (662 words)
Scrolling texts, also referred to as scrolltexts or scrollers, were an integral feature of the majority of the demos written for home computers in the 1980s.
Scrolling is also used in television news when a news ticker is employed, scrolling news stories horizontally across the bottom of the screen.
Parallax scrolling, which was first featured in Moon Patrol, involves several semi-transparent layers, which scroll on top of each other at varying rates in order to give the illusion of depth.
Parallax scrolling - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (738 words)
Parallax scrolling is a special scrolling technique in computer graphics.
Parallax scrolling was first used in the 1982 arcade game Moon Patrol.
Scrolling displays built up of individual tiles can be made to 'float' over a repeating background layer by animating the individual tiles' bitmaps in order to portray the parallax effect.
  More results at FactBites »



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