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Encyclopedia > Paragraph 175

Paragraph 175 (known formally as §175 StGB; also known as Section 175 in English) was a provision of the German Criminal Code from 15 May 1871 to 10 March 1994. It made homosexual acts between males a crime, and in early revisions the provision also criminalized bestiality. As in most countries, Germany has a standard way of citing its legal codes and case law; an essentially identical system of citation is also used in Austria. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A Criminal Code is a compilation of government laws that outline a nations criminal offenses, and the maximum and minimum punishments that courts can impose upon offenders when such crimes are committed. ... May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... a practice generally done by one named Roberto Soto ... This topic contains controversial issues which have been discussed and a consensus reached for approach and neutrality. ...


The statute was amended several times. The Nazis broadened the law in 1935 and increased §175 StGB prosecutions by an order of magnitude; thousands died in concentration camps, regardless of guilt or innocence. East Germany reverted to the old version of the law in 1950, limited its scope to sex with youths under 18 in 1968, and abolished it entirely in 1988. West Germany retained the Nazi-era statute until 1969, when it was limited to "qualified cases"; it was further attenuated in 1973 and finally revoked entirely in 1994 after German reunification. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR - in English often called East Germany) were incorporated into The Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) (FRG). ...

The drawing, published in Die Freundschaft, No. 3/1951, alludes to the suicides in Frankfurt in 1950–'51 due to prosecutions under Paragraph 175
The drawing, published in Die Freundschaft, No. 3/1951, alludes to the suicides in Frankfurt in 1950–'51 due to prosecutions under Paragraph 175

Contents

From: Die Freundschaft No. ... From: Die Freundschaft No. ... Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ...


Historical overview

In 1922 the left-wing journalist Kurt Hiller published a collection of essays protesting Paragraph 175. The title translates as The Ignominy of the Century.
In 1922 the left-wing journalist Kurt Hiller published a collection of essays protesting Paragraph 175. The title translates as The Ignominy of the Century.

Paragraph 175 was adopted in 1871. Beginning in the 1890s, sexual reformers fought against the "disgraceful paragraph," and soon won the support of August Bebel, head of the Social Democratic Party (SPD). But a petition in the Reichstag to abolish Paragraph 175 foundered in 1898. In 1929, a Reichstag Committee decided to repeal Paragraph 175 with the votes of the Social Democrats, the Communist Party (KPD) and the German Democratic Party (DDP); however, the rise of the Nazi Party prevented the implementation of the repeal. Although modified at various times, the paragraph remained part of German law until 1994. Kurt Hiller: § 175: Die Schmach des Jahrhunderts! (1922); photo of cover. ... Kurt Hiller: § 175: Die Schmach des Jahrhunderts! (1922); photo of cover. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Journalism is a discipline of collecting, verifying, analyzing and presenting information gathered regarding current events, including trends, issues and people. ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that color in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The sexual revolution was a substantial change in sexual morality and sexual behaviour throughout the West in the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the SPD. August Bebel Bebel was born on February 22, 1840 in Deutz, near Cologne; he founded the Sächsische Volkspartei (Saxon Peoples Party) in 1867 together with Wilhelm Liebknecht... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... The term Reichstag (   listen?) [ɹaɪçtak] (in English: Imperial Diet) is a composition of German Reich (Empire) and tag (which does not mean day here, but is a derivate of the verb tagen, which means to meet or assemble). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Communist Party of Germany (in German, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was formed in December of 1918 from the Spartacist League, which originated as a small factional grouping within the Social Democratic Party (SPD), and the International Communists of Germany (IKD). ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ...


In 1935, the Nazis broadened the law so that the courts could pursue any "lewd act" whatsoever, even one involving no physical contact, such as masturbating next to each other. Convictions multiplied by a factor of ten to about 8,000 per year. Furthermore, the Gestapo could transport suspected offenders to concentration camps without any legal justification at all (even if they had been acquitted or already served their sentence in jail). Thus, between 5,000 and 15,000 homosexual men were forced into concentration camps, where they were identified by the pink triangle. The majority of them died there. Masturbation is the manual excitation of the sexual organs, most often to the point of orgasm. ... The Gestapo was the official secret police force of Nazi Germany. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The pink triangle (rosa Winkel) was a symbol used by the Nazis to identify male prisoners in concentration camps who were sent there because of their homosexuality. ...


While the Nazi persecution of homosexuals is reasonably well-known today, far less attention had been given to the continuation of this persecution in post-war Germany. In 1945, when concentration camps were liberated, homosexual prisoners were not freed but were instead made to serve out their sentence under Paragraph 175. In 1950, East Germany abolished Nazi amendments to Paragraph 175, whereas West Germany kept them and even had them confirmed by its Constitutional Court. About 100,000 men were implicated in legal proceedings from 1945 to 1969, and about 50,000 were convicted (if they had not committed suicide before, as many did). In 1969, the government eased Paragraph 175 to an age of consent of 21. It was lowered to 18 in 1973, and finally repealed in 1994. East Germany had already reformed its more lenient version of the paragraph in 1968, and repealed it in 1988. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht, BVerfG) is a special court established by the German Constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ... 1969 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... In criminal law, the age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to sexual acts with another person. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Texts of the various versions of Paragraph 175

For the original German language texts of the statutes, as well as quotations from earlier sodomy statutes, see the equivalent German-language wikipedia article. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


Version of May 15, 1871

§ 175 Unnatural fornication
Unnatural fornication, whether between persons of the male sex or of humans with beasts, is to be punished by imprisonment; a sentence of loss of civil rights may also be passed. May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (136th in leap years). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...

Version of June 28, 1935

In the statute of 1935 (and that of 1969), there is a recurring phrase with minor variations: in its first appearance it is "...mit einem anderen Mann Unzucht treibt oder sich von ihm zur Unzucht missbrauchen lässt". The connotations of this are difficult to render into English for two reasons: (Some entries on this page have been duplicated on August 1. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

  1. English has no concise, non-obscene verbal phrase equivalent to Unzucht treiben: in a sexual context Unzucht treiben specifically suggests a person doing something to another.
  2. The issue is further complicated by the fact that the 1935 statute removed the previous qualifier widernatürlich ("against nature"). In the 1871 statute, in combination with widernatürlich, Unzucht clearly meant anal sex. However, Unzucht without the qualifier could be interpreted in a much broader sense simply as "lewdness", leading to the possibility of punishment for acts as mild as kissing, fondling, or mutual masturbation that previously would not have been considered criminal. This was not merely an aberration of the Nazi era: the courts in the Federal Republic (West Germany) understood the term similarly.

Hence, a relatively close rendering of the recurring phrase would be "commits lewdness (as the active partner) with another man or allows such an abuse to be done to him"; the translation below opts for a slightly less awkward "engages as the active or passive partner in lewdness with another man".

§ 175 Lewdness between men
I. A man who engages as the active or passive partner in lewdness with another man is to be punished by imprisonment.
II. With an involved party who at the time of the act had not yet reached the age of twenty-one years, the Court can refrain from punishment in mild cases.
§ 175a Severe lewdness (Schwere Unzucht)
A punishment of up to ten years in the penitentiary, and even with mitigating circumstances no less than three months imprisonment for:

1. a man, who by force or by threat of harm to life and limb forces another man to engage in such an act as either the active or passive partner;
2. a man, who by abusing a dependency founded in a service-, work-, or employment-based relationship coerces another man into engaging in such an act as either the active or passive partner;
3. a man over twenty-one years old who entices a male under twenty-one years old to engage in such an act as either the active or passive partner;
4. a man who professionally offers himself for such an act as either the active or passive partner.
§ 175b Bestiality
Unnatural fornication of a man with a beast is to be punished by imprisonment; a sentence of loss of civil rights may also be passed.

The German-language title of § 175b is "Sodomie", the modern German-language equivalent of "bestiality". In modern German, Sodomie does not carry the meaning anal intercourse at all. The now-dominant English-language meaning of the word "sodomy" has been lost during the past centuries and nowadays is completely unknown to a native speaker of German. (See German-language article Sodomie.) Leda and the Swan, a 16th century copy after a lost painting by Michelangelo, 1530 (National Gallery, London) Zoophilia (from the Greek Zoon, animal, and Philia, friendship or love) is a paraphilia, defined as an affinity or sexual attraction by a human to non-human animals. ... Anal sex or anal intercourse is human sexual behavior involving the anus and rectum, especially, but not limited to, the insertion of the erect penis into the anus. ... Sodomy is a term of religious origin to characterise certain sexual acts. ...


Version of June 25, 1969

§ 175 Fornication between men
(1) Imprisonment of up to five years shall be the punishment for: June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ...

1. a man over eighteen years old who engages as the active or passive partner in lewdness with another man under the age of eighteen;
2. a man, who by abusing a dependency founded in a service-, work-, or employment-based relationship coerces another man into engaging in such an act as either the active or passive partner;
3. a man who professionally offers himself for such an act as either the active or passive partner.
(2) In the case of paragraph 1 Number 2 the attempt is punishable.
(3) With an involved party who at the time of the act had not yet reached the age of twenty-one years, the Court can refrain from punishment.
§ 175b voided.

Version of November 23, 1973

Besides the reduction of the age of consent, the 1973 amendment to the statute changes the wording. In place of Unzucht, it refers to sexuelle Handlungen ("sexual acts"). The language, although much milder in its connotations, still carries an echo of the previous language about active and passive partners: "sexuelle Handlungen ... vornimmt oder ... an sich vornehmen lässt" ("commits sexual acts or allows them to be committed"). It also, by its vagueness, is almost as broad as the wording in the 1935 statute. November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ...

§ 175 Homosexual Acts
(1) A man over eighteen years old, who commits sexual acts with a man under eighteen years or allows a man under eighteen years to commit such acts with him, will be punished with imprisonment of up to five years. (2) the Court can refrain from punishment according to this regulation if

1. the person who committed the act was at the time of the act less than twenty-one years old or
2. taking into consideration the conduct of the victim, the wrong of the act is small.

Version of March 10, 1994

§ 175 Homosexual Acts voided March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ...

Background

Burning of Sodomites outside the walls of Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling)
Burning of Sodomites outside the walls of Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling)

In the second half of the 13th century the status of anal sex between men changed. Already certainly perceived as a sin, for the first time, legal acts were adopted that made it a crime. Almost everywhere in Europe, the act became punishable by death. Download high resolution version (500x623, 69 KB)The burning of the knight of Hohenberg with his servant before the walls of Zürich, 1482 Taken from the German-language Wikipedia (:de:Bild:Sodomie. ... Download high resolution version (500x623, 69 KB)The burning of the knight of Hohenberg with his servant before the walls of Zürich, 1482 Taken from the German-language Wikipedia (:de:Bild:Sodomie. ... Location within Switzerland Zürich (in English often Zurich, IPA ) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Spiezer Schilling (or Amtliche Chronik) is a chronicle of Diebold Schilling the Elder of Berne (1480s). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Roman men having anal sex. ... Sin has been a term most usually used in a religious context, and today describes any lack of conformity to the will of God; especially, any willful disregard for the norms revealed by God is a sin. ... World map showing location of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


In 1532, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor with the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina produced a foundation for this principle of law, which remained valid in the Holy Roman Empire until the end of the 17th century. In the words of Paragraph 116 of that code: Events May 16 - Sir Thomas More resigns as Lord Chancellor of England. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos I, Dutch: Karel V, German: Karl V.) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

The punishment for unchastity (Vnkeusch) that goes against nature. In the case of an unchaste act (Vnkeusch treibenn) of a human with a beast, a man with a man, a woman with a woman, they have also forfeited life. And they should be, according to the common custom, banished by fire from life into death.

In 1794, Prussia introduced the Allgemeines Landrecht (or Prussian Code), a major reform of laws that replaced the death penalty for this offense with a term of imprisonment. Paragraph 143 of that Code says: 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of...

Unnatural fornication, whether between persons of the male sex or of humans with beasts, is punished with imprisonment of six months to four years, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights.

Prussia was ahead of its time in this matter and was considered to be acting in the spirit of the Enlightenment, but they would soon be overtaken. In France, the Napoleonic code of 1804 punished acts of this nature only when someone's rights were injured (i.e. in the case of a non-consensual act), which had the effect of the complete legalization of homosexuality. (Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès, the primary author of the Napoleonic code, was himself a homosexual.) The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... The original Napoleonic Code, or Code Napoléon (originally called the Code civil des francais, or civil code of the French), was the French civil code, established at the behest of Napoléon. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Consent (as a term of jurisprudence) is a possible justification against civil or criminal liability. ... Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, Duke of Parma, (18 October 1753 - 8 March 1824), French lawyer and statesman, is best remembered as the author of the Code Napoléon, which still forms the basis of French law. ...


In the course of his conquests, Napoleon exported the Napoleonic code beyond France into a sequence of other states such as the Netherlands. Bavaria, too, adopted the French model and in 1813 removed from its lawbooks all prohibitions of consensual sexual acts. Bonaparte as general Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... With an area of (27,241 square miles) and 12. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In view of these developments, two years before the 1871 founding of the German Empire, the Prussian kingdom, worried over the future of the paragraph, sought a scientific basis for this piece of legislation. The Ministry of Justice assigned a Deputation für das Medizinalwesen ("Deputation for medical knowledge"), including, among others, the famous physicians Rudolf Virchow and Heinrich Adolf von Bardeleben, who, however, stated in their appraisal of March 24, 1869 that they were unable to give a scientific grounding for a law that outlawed zoophilia and male homosexual intercourse, distinguishing them from the many other sexual acts that were not even considered as matters of penal law. 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... A physician is a person who practices medicine. ... Dr. R.L.K. Virchow Rudolf Ludwig Karl Virchow (October 13, 1821, in Schivelbein, Pomerania – September 5, 1902, in Berlin) was a German doctor, pathologist, prehistorian, biologist, and politician. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Nevertheless, the draft penal law submitted by Bismarck in 1870 to the North German Confederation retained the relevant Prussian penal provisions, justifying this out of concern for "public opinion": Prince Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck-Schönhausen, Duke of Lauenburg (April 1, 1815 – July 30, 1898) was one of the most prominent European aristocrats and statesmen of the nineteenth century. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The North German Confederation (German Norddeutscher Bund), a transitional grouping which existed (1867 - 1871) between the dissolution of the German Confederation and the founding of the German Empire, cemented Prussian control over the 22 states of Northern Germany and emanated that same control (via the Zollverein) into southern Germany. ... For the book by Walter Lippmann, see Public Opinion. ...

Even though one can justify the omission of these penal provisions from the standpoint of Medicine as well as on grounds taken from certain theories of criminal law — the public's sense of justice (das Rechtsbewußtsein im Volke) views these acts not merely as vices but as crimes [...]". Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Dictionary Collection of links to free medical resources Categories: Medicine | Health ...

German Empire

Table 1: Prosecutions under § 175 (1902–1918)
Year    Charge  Convictions
1902 364  /  393 613
1903 332  /  289 600
1904 348  /  376 570
1905 379  /  381 605
1906 351  /  382 623
1907 404  /  367 612
1908 282  /  399 658
1909 510  /  331 677
1910 560  /  331 732
1911 526  /  342 708
1912 603  /  322 761
1913 512  /  341 698
1914 490  /  263 631
1915 233  /  120 294
1916 278  /  120 318
1917 131  /  70 166
1918 157  /  3 118
Middle column: Homosexuality / Bestiality

On January 1, 1872, exactly one year after it had first taken effect, the penal code of the North German Confederation became the penal code of the entire German Empire. By this change, sexual intercourse between men became again a punishable offence in Bavaria as well. Almost verbatim from its Prussian model from 1794, the new Paragraph 175 of the imperial penal code specified: January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1872 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Unnatural fornication, whether between persons of the male sex or of humans with beasts, is punished with imprisonment, with the further punishment of a prompt loss of civil rights.

Even in the 1860s, individuals such as Karl Heinrich Ulrichs and Karl Maria Kertbeny had unsuccessfully raised their voices against the Prussian paragraph 143. In the Empire, more organized opposition began with the 1897 founding of the sexual-reformist Wissenschaftlich-humanitäres Komitee (WhK, Scientific-Humanitarian Committee), an organization of notables rather than a mass movement, which tried to proceed against Paragraph 175 based on the thesis of the innate nature of homosexuality. Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs Karl-Heinrich Ulrichs (1825 – 1895), pioneer gay rights activist, was born in Westerfeld, in north-western Germany. ... Karl-Maria Kertbeny Karl-Maria Kertbeny or Károly Mária Kertbeny (born Karl-Maria Benkert) (1824 – 1882), Austrian-born Hungarian journalist, memoirist and human rights campaigner who coined the word homosexual, was born in Vienna, the son of a writer and a painter. ... Sexual orientation refers to the sex or gender of people who are the focus of a persons amorous or erotic desires, fantasies, and spontaneous feelings, the gender(s) one is primarily oriented towards. ...


This case was argued, for example, in an 1897 petition drafted by physician and WhK chairman Magnus Hirschfeld, urging the deletion of Paragraph 175; it gathered 6,000 signatories. One year later, SPD chairman August Bebel brought the petition into the Reichstag, but failed to achieve the desired effect. On the contrary, ten years later the government laid plans to extend Paragraph 175 to women as well. Part of their "Scheme for a German Penal Code" (E 1909) reads: Look up Petition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A petition is a request to an authority, most commonly a government official or public entity. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Koburg, May 14, 1868 - May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... August Ferdinand Bebel (February 22, 1840 – March 18, 1913) was a German social democrat and one of the founders of the SPD. August Bebel Bebel was born on February 22, 1840 in Deutz, near Cologne; he founded the Sächsische Volkspartei (Saxon Peoples Party) in 1867 together with Wilhelm Liebknecht...

The danger to family life and to youth is the same. The fact that there are more such cases in recent times is reliably testified. It lies therefore in the interest of morality as in that of the general welfare that penal provisions be expanded also to women. [Stümke 1989, p. 50]

Allowing time for the refinement of the draft, it was set to appear before the Reichstag no earlier than 1917. World War I and the defeat of the German Empire consigned it to the dustbin. World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ...


Weimar Republic

Table 2: Prosecutions under § 175 (1919–1933)
Year    Charge  Convictions
1919 110  /  10 89
1920 237  /  39 197
1921 485  /  86 425
1922 588  /  7 499
1923 503  /  31 445
1924 850  /  12 696
1925 1225  /  111 1107
1926 1126  /  135 1040
1927 911  /  118 848
1928 731  /  202 804
1929 786  /  223 837
1930 723  /  221 804
1931 618  /  139 665
1932 721  /  204 801
Middle column: Homosexuality / Bestiality

There was a vigourous grassroots campaign against Paragraph 175 between 1919 and 1929, led by an alliance of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen and the Wissenschaftlich-humanitäre Komitee. But, much as during the time of the Empire, during the Weimar Republic the parties of the left failed to achieve the abolition of Paragraph 175, because they lacked a parliamentary majority. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Adolf Brand (1874-1945) was a German journalist and school teacher who began publishing the first German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene (The Special), in 1896. ... Magnus Hirschfeld Magnus Hirschfeld (Koburg, May 14, 1868 - May 14, 1935) was a prominent German physician, sexologist, and gay rights advocate. ... The period of German history from 1919 to 1933 is known as the Weimar Republic IPA (German Weimarer Republik). ... The debating chamber or hemicycle of the European Parliament in Brussels. ...


The plans of a center-right regime in 1925 to increase the penalties of Paragraph 175 came closer to fruition; but they, too, failed. In addition to paragraph 296 (which corresponded to the old paragraph 175), their proposed reform draft provided for a paragraph 297 to be included. The plan was that so-called "qualified cases" such as homosexual prostitution, sex with young men under the age of 21, and sexual coercion of a man in a service or work situation would be classified as "severe cases", reclassified as felonies (Verbrechen) rather than misdemeanors (Vergehen). This act would have pertained not only to homosexual intercourse but also to other homosexual acts such as, for example, mutual masturbation. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the Right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services, such as oral sex or sexual intercourse, for money. ... A felony, in many common law legal systems, is the term for a very serious crime; misdemeanors are considered to be less serious. ... Misdemeanors (or misdemeanours) are lesser criminal acts which are generally punished less severely than felonies; but more so than infractions. ... Look up Act in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Act may refer to: in law, a written document that attests the legality of the transaction. ... Mutual masturbation is a sexual act where two or more people stimulate one another sexually, usually with the hands. ...


Both new paragraphs grounded themselves in protection of public health: Public health is an aspect of health services concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...

It is to be assumed that it is the German view that sexual relationships between men are an aberration liable to wreck the character and to destroy moral feeling. Clinging to this aberration leads to the degeneration of the people and to the decay of its strength. [Stümke 1989, p. 65]

When this draft was discussed in 1929 by the judiciary committee of the Reichstag, the SPD, the KPD, and the left-wing liberal DDP at first managed to mobilize a majority of 15 to 13 votes against Paragraph 296. This would have constituted legalization of consensual homosexuality between adult men. At the same time, a vast majority – with only three KPD votes dissenting – supported the introduction of the new Paragraph 297 (dealing with the so-called "qualified cases"). 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... The Communist Party of Germany (in German, Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was formed in December of 1918 from the Spartacist League, which originated as a small factional grouping within the Social Democratic Party (SPD), and the International Communists of Germany (IKD). ... The German Democratic Party, or Deutsche Demokratische Partei (DDP), was founded by leaders of the former Progressive Peoples Party (Fortschrittliche Volkspartei) and the left wing of the National Liberal Party (Nationalliberale Partei) in the early days of the Weimar Republic. ...


However, this partial success — which the WhK characterized as "one step forward and two steps back" — came to naught. In March 1930, the Inter-parliamentary Committee for the Coordination of Criminal Law Between Germany and Austria, by a vote of 23-to-21, placed back Paragraph 296 in the reform package. But the latter was never passed, because during the last years of the Weimar Republic, the years of the Präsidialkabinetts, the parliamentary legislative process generally ground to a halt.


The Nazi era

Table 3: Convictions under §§ 175, 175a and b (1933–1941)
Year    Adults    Youths under 18
1933  853 104
1934  948 121
1935 2106 257
1936 5320 481
1937 8271 973
1938 8562 974
1939 8274 689
1940 3773 427
1941 3739 687

In 1935 the Nazis exacerbated Paragraph 175 by redefining the crime as a felony and thus increasing the maximum penalty from six months' to five years' imprisonment. Further, by removing the adjective widernatürlich ("against nature") they removed the longtime tradition that the law applied only to penetrative intercourse. A criminal offense would now exist if "objectively the general sense of shame was offended" and subjectively "the debauched intention was present to excite sexual desire in one of the two men, or a third." [The quotations are from German case law, RGSt 73, 78, 80 f.] Mutual physical contact was no longer necessary. The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Case law - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Beyond that – much as had already been planned in 1925 – a new Paragraph 175a was created, punishing "qualified cases" as schwere Unzucht ("severe lewdness") with no less than one year and no more than ten years in the penitentiary. These included:

  • sexual relations with a subordinate or employee in a work situation,
  • homosexual acts with men under the age of 21,
  • male prostitution.

"Unnatural fornication with a beast" was moved to Paragraph 175b.


According to the official rationale, Paragraph 175 was amended in the interest of the moral health of the Volk – the German people – because "according to experience" homosexuality "inclines toward plague-like propagation" and exerts "a ruinous influence" on the "circles concerned". Volk is a German language word meaning people or folk. ...

A Gestapo telex about arranging preventive detention of an "incorrigible homosexual"
Enlarge
A Gestapo telex about arranging preventive detention of an "incorrigible homosexual"

This aggravation of the severity of Paragraph 175 in 1935 increased the number of convictions tenfold, to 8,000 annually. Only about half of the prosecutions resulted from police work; about 40 percent resulted from private accusations (Strafanzeige) by non-participating observers, and about 10 percent were denouncements by employers and institutions. So, for example, in 1938 the Gestapo received the following anonymous letter: Nazi Germany: Gestapo Telex about arranging preventive detention of an incorrigible homosexual From the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Einweisung. ... Nazi Germany: Gestapo Telex about arranging preventive detention of an incorrigible homosexual From the German Wikipedia (de:Bild:Einweisung. ... The Gestapo was the official secret police force of Nazi Germany. ... Teletype machines in World War II A teleprinter (teletypewriter, teletype or TTY) is a now largely obsolete electro-mechanical typewriter which can be used to communicate typed messages from point to point through a simple electrical communications channel, often just a pair of wires. ... The Gestapo was the official secret police force of Nazi Germany. ...

We – a large part of the artists' block [of flats or studios] at Barnayweg – ask you urgently to observe B., living with Mrs. F as a subtenant, who has remarkable daily visits from young men. This must not continue. [...] We ask you cordially to give the matter further observation. [Pretzel 2000, p. 23]

In contradistinction to normal police, the Gestapo were authorized to take gay men into preventive detention (Schutzhaft) of arbitrary duration without an accusation (or even after an acquittal). This was often the fate of so-called "repeat offenders": at the end of their sentences, they were not freed but sent for additional "reeducation" (Umerziehung) in a concentration camp. Only about 40 percent of these pink triangle prisoners – whose numbers amounted to an estimated 10,000 – survived the camps. Some of them, after their release by the Allied Forces, were placed back in prison, because they had not yet finished court-mandated terms of imprisonment for homosexual acts. In criminal law, an acquittal is the legal result of a verdict of not guilty, or some similar end of the proceeding that terminates it with prejudice without a verdict of guilty being entered against the accused. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... The pink triangle (rosa Winkel) was a symbol used by the Nazis to identify male prisoners in concentration camps who were sent there because of their homosexuality. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


After World War II

Development in East Germany

Invalidated OdF identity card: The Magistrate of East Berlin refused any pink-triangle prisoner the right to receive a pension as a "victim of fascism" ("Opfer des Faschismus", hence "OdF").
Invalidated OdF identity card: The Magistrate of East Berlin refused any pink-triangle prisoner the right to receive a pension as a "victim of fascism" ("Opfer des Faschismus", hence "OdF").

In the Soviet Occupied Zone that later became East Germany (see History of Germany since 1945), the development of law was not uniform. The government of Thuringia moderated Paragraphs 175 and 175a in a manner similar to that contemplated in the draft criminal code of 1925, while in the other states (Länder) the 1935 version of the statute remained in effect without changes. Although in 1946 the Committee for Law Examination of East Berlin specifically advised not to include § 175 StGB in a new criminal code, this recommendation had no consequences. The Provincial High Court in Halle (Oberlandesgericht Halle, or OLG Halle) decided for Saxony-Anhalt in 1948 that Paragraphs 175 and 175a were to be seen as typical National Socialist (Nazi) injustice, because a progressive juridical development had been broken off and even been reversed. Homosexual acts were to be tried only according to the laws of the Weimar Republic. Invalidated identity card of a victim of fascism License: Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Invalidated identity card of a victim of fascism License: Public Domain File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The pink triangle (rosa Winkel) was a symbol used by the Nazis to identify male prisoners in concentration camps who were sent there because of their homosexuality. ... After the beginning of the Cold War, following Germanys defeat in World War II, Germany was split for about 40 years, representing the focus of the two global blocks in the east and west. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German Freistaat Thüringen) lies in central Germany and is among the smaller of the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 sq. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bundesland (plural Bundesländer), also known as Land (plural Länder) is the German language name for the federal states of Austria and Germany. ... 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Map of Germany showing Halle Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Progressivism or political progressivism is any of several historically related political philosophies or political ideologies. ...


In 1950, one year after being reconstituted as the German Democratic Republic, the Berlin Appeal Court (Kammergericht Berlin) decided for all of East Germany to reinstate the validity of the old, pre-1935 form of Paragraph 175. However, in contrast to the earlier action of the OLG Halle, the new Paragraph 175a remained unchanged, because it was said to protect society against "socially harmful homosexual acts of qualified character". In 1954 the same court decided that Paragraph 175a in contrast to Paragraph 175 did not presuppose acts tantamount to sexual intercourse. Lewdness (Unzucht) was defined as any act that is performed to arouse sexual excitement and "violates the moral sentiment of our workers." 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a socialist country that existed from 1949 to 1990. ... East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR), German Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR), was a communist state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in the former Soviet occupation zone of Germany. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A revision of the criminal code in 1957 made it possible to put aside prosecution of an illegal action that represented no danger to socialist society because of lack of consequence. This removed Paragraph 175 from the effective body of the law, because at the same time the East Berlin Court of Appeal (Kammergericht) decided that all punishments deriving from the old form of Paragraph 175 should be suspended due to the insignificance of the acts to which it had been applied. On this basis, homosexual acts between consenting adults ceased to be punished, beginning in the late 1950s. 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... // Events and trends The 1950s in Western society was marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years and return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the height of the baby-boom from returning...


On July 1, 1968, the GDR adopted its own code of criminal law. In it § 151 StGB-DDR provided for a sentence up to three years' imprisonment or probation for an adult (18 and over) who engaged in sexual acts with a youth (under 18) of the same sex. This law applied not only to men who have sex with boys but equally to women who have sex with girls. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


On August 11, 1987 the Supreme Court of the GDR struck down a conviction under Paragraph 151 on the basis that "homosexuality, just like heterosexuality, represents a variant of sexual behavior. Homosexual people do therefore not stand outside socialist society, and the civil rights are warranted to them exactly as to all other citizens." One year later, the Volkskammer (the parliament of the GDR), in its fifth revision of the criminal code, brought the written law in line with what the court had ruled, striking Paragraph 151 without replacement. The act passed into law May 30, 1989. This removed all specific reference to homosexuality from East German criminal law. August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Volkskammer was the Parliament of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). ... May 30 is the 150th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (151st in leap years). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Development in West Germany

Table 4: Convictions under §§ 175, 175a (1950–1987)
Year  Number      Year  Number
1950: 1920 1969: 894
1951: 2167 1970: 340
1952: 2476 1971: 272
1953: 2388 1972: 362
1954: 2564 1973: 373
1955: 2612 1974: 235
1956: 2774 1975: 160
1957: 3124 1976: 200
1958: 3182 1977: 191
1959: 3530 1978: 177
1960: 3134 1979: 148
1961: 3005 1980: 164
1962: 3098 1981: 147
1963: 2803 1982: 163
1964: 2907 1983: 178
1965: 3538 1984: 153
1966: 3261 1985: 123
1967: 1783 1986: 118
1968: 1727 1987: 117

After World War II, West Germany (The Federal Republic of Germany) retained the 1935 version of Paragraph 175. On May 10, 1957 the Bundesverfassungsgericht upheld this decision, claiming that the paragraph was "not influenced by National Socialist [i.e., Nazi] politics to such a degree that it would have to be abolished in a free democratic state". [1] World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrinations, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons like the atom bomb. ... May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... The Federal Constitutional Court (in German: Bundesverfassungsgericht) is a special court established by the German constitution, the Grundgesetz (Basic Law). ...


Between 1945 and 1969 about 100,000 men were indicted and about 50,000 men sentenced to prison. A slew of arrests, lawsuits, and proceedings in Frankfurt in 1950–'51 had serious consequences:

"A nineteen-year-old jumped off the Goetheturm after having received a summons, another fled to South America, another to Switzerland, a dental technician and his friend poisoned themselves with coal gas. In total there were six known suicides. Many of the accused lost their jobs." [Kraushaar 1997, p. 62] A summons is a legal document issued by a court addressed to a defendant in a legal proceeding. ...

During the administration of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's government, a draft penal code for West Germany (known as Strafgesetzbuch E 1962; it was never adopted) justified retaining paragraph 175 as follows: The head of government in Germany has traditionally been called Kanzler (Chancellor). ... Konrad Adenauer (January 5, 1876 – April 19, 1967) was a conservative German statesman. ...

Concerning male homosexuality, the legal system must, more than in other areas, erect a bulwark againt the spreading of this vice, which otherwise would represent a serious danger for a healthy and natural life of the people. [Stümke 1989: p. 183]

On June 25, 1969, shortly before the end of the CDU – SPD Grand Coalition headed by CDU Chancellor Kurt Georg Kiesinger, Paragraph 175 was reformed, in that only the "qualified cases" that were previously handled in §175a — sex with a man less than 21 years old, homosexual prostitution, and the exploitation of a relationship of dependency (such as employing or supervising a person in a work situation) — were retained. Paragraph 175b (concerning bestiality) also was removed. June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany, founded after World War II by Konrad Adenauer, among others. ... Kurt Georg Kiesinger (April 6, 1904–March 9, 1988) was a conservative German politician and Chancellor of Germany from December 1, 1966 until October 21, 1969. ...


On November 23, 1973 the social-liberal coalition of the SPD and the FDP passed a complete reform of the laws concerning sex and sexuality. The paragraph was renamed from "Crimes and misdemeanors against morality" into "Offenses against sexual self-determination", and the word Unzucht ("lewdness") was replaced by the equivalent of the term "sexual acts". Paragraph 175 only retained sex with minors as a qualifying attribute; the age of consent was lowered to 18 (compared to 14 for heterosexual and lesbian sex). November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... In criminal law, the age of consent is the age at which a person is considered to be capable of legally giving informed consent to sexual acts with another person. ...


Developments after 1990

The deletion of Paragraph 175

"Down with §175"Since 1973 the gay movement had openly been demanding the deletion of Paragraph 175
"Down with §175"
Since 1973 the gay movement had openly been demanding the deletion of Paragraph 175

In the course of reconciling the legal codes of the two German states after 1990, the Bundestag had to decide whether Paragraph 175 should be stricken entirely (as in the former East Germany) or whether the remaining West German form of the law should be extended to what had now become the eastern portion of the Federal Republic. In 1994, at the end of the period of reconciliation of laws, it was decided – especially in view of the social changes that had occurred in the meantime – to strike Paragraph 175 entirely from the legal code. 1973 poster of Deutschen Aktionsgemeinschaft Homosexualität (DAH) against Paragraph 175. ... 1973 poster of Deutschen Aktionsgemeinschaft Homosexualität (DAH) against Paragraph 175. ... The Bundestag (Federal Diet) is the parliament of Germany. ...


According to § 176 StGB (See German-language article § 176 StGB) the absolute minimum age of consent is now 14 years for all sexual acts irrespective of gender; in special cases, covered in § 182 StGB, an age of 16 years applies (See German-language article § 182 StGB). § 182 (2) StGB allows for prosecution as an Antragsdelikt, a concept in German law that certain acts are treated as crimes only if the victim chooses to become a complainant. Further, § 182 (3) StGB allows the public prosecutor's office to pursue a case on the basis of its belief that there is a special public interest. Finally, § 182 (4) StGB allows the court to refrain from punishment if, taking into account the behavior of the victim, the wrongness of the accused's behavior appears small.


§ 182 StGB contains numerous terms without precise, clear legal definitions; critics have raised concerns that families can misuse this law to criminalize socially disapproved sexual relationships (e.g. a family that disapproved of a young person's homosexual relationship might be able to get that person's partner prosecuted). In Austria an analogous situation exists: like the German § 175 StGB, the Austrian § 209 StGB was stricken from the legal code; like the German § 182 StGB, the Austrian § 207b StGB is perceived by critics as having potential to be abused as a surrogate for the stricken law.


Partial rehabilitation of the victims

On May 17, 2002 — a date chosen symbolically as "17.5" — despite votes to the contrary from the CDU/CSU and FDP, the Bundestag passed a supplement to the Act of Abolition of National Socialism (NS-Aufhebungsgesetzes). [2] By this supplement to the act, Nazi-era convictions of homosexuals and of deserters from the Wehrmacht were vacated. The right-conservative CSU-politician Norbert Geis called this general amnesty a "dishonor". Louder criticism came from the lesbian and gay movement, because the Bundestag left post-1945 judgements untouched, although the legal basis from the end of the war to 1969 was the same as in the Nazi era. May 17 is the 137th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (138th in leap years). ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany, founded after World War II by Konrad Adenauer, among others. ... The Christian Social Union in Bavaria (CSU – ) is a conservative Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... Desertion is the act of abandoning or withdrawing support from an entity to which one has given an oath, or has claimed to owe allegiance, responsibility or loyalty. ... Wehrmacht   listen? was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the Right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... For conservatism in the United States and Canada, see Conservatism in North America. ...


See also

The documentary film Paragraph 175, a joint German–English–American production, publicized the effects of the law on concentration camp internees.
The documentary film Paragraph 175, a joint German–English–American production, publicized the effects of the law on concentration camp internees.

This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Documentary film is a broad category of cinematic expression united by the intent to remain factual or non-fictional. ... A documentary released in 2000, directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman, narrated by Rupert Everett. ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Heteronormativity is a term used in the discussion of sexual behavior, gender, and society, primarily within the field of gender theory. ... A sodomy law is a law which makes certain sexual acts into sex crimes. ... A documentary released in 2000, directed by Rob Epstein and Jeffrey Friedman, narrated by Rupert Everett. ... 1988 Sir Ian McKellen with Michael Cashman at the Gay Rights March on Manchester in protest of Section 28. ...

References

Much of the content of this article comes from the equivalent German-language wikipedia article (retrieved September 30, 2004). The following references are cited by that German-language article: September 30 is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 92 days remaining, as the final day of September. ...

  • Elmar Kraushaar: Unzucht vor Gericht : "Die 'Frankfurter Prozesse' und die Kontinuität des § 175 in den fünfziger Jahren." ("The 'Frankfurt Trials' and the continuity of § 175 in the Fifties") In Elmar Kraushaar (ed.): Hundert Jahre schwul : Eine Revue. (One Hundred years of Homosexuality: a revue) Berlin 1997. S. 60–69. ISBN 3871343072
  • Burkhard Jellonnek: Homosexuelle unter dem Hakenkreuz : Die Verfolgung von Homosexuellen im Dritten Reich. (Homosexuals under the Swastika: the pursuit of homosexuals in the Third Reich) Paderborn 1990. ISBN 3506774824
  • Andreas Pretzel: "Als Homosexueller in Erscheinung getreten." ("Going into combat as a homosexual") In Kulturring in Berlin e. V. (Hrsg.): "Wegen der zu erwartenden hohen Strafe" : Homosexuellenverfolgung in Berlin 1933 – 1945. (Because of the Severe Punishment that Can Be Expected: The pursuit of homosexuals in Berlin 1933 – 1945) Berlin 2000. ISBN 3861490951
  • Christian Schulz: § 175. (abgewickelt). : ... und die versäumte Wiedergutmachung. (§ 175. (abolished). : ... and the lack of compensation) Hamburg 1998. ISBN 3928983245
  • Andreas Sternweiler: Und alles wegen der Jungs : Pfadfinderführer und KZ-Häftling: Heinz Dörmer. Berlin 1994. ISBN 3861490307
  • Hans-Georg Stümke: Homosexuelle in Deutschland : Eine politische Geschichte. (Homosexuals in Germany: a political history) München 1989. ISBN 3406331300

 
 

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