FACTOID # 16: In the 2000 Presidential Election, Texas gave Ralph Nader the 3rd highest popular vote count of any US state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Parade (military)
The Queen's Guard on parade outside Buckingham Palace
The Queen's Guard on parade outside Buckingham Palace

A parade refers to any times soldiers are in formation with restriction of movement. The American usage is "formation." Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with parade (military). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1977x1317, 544 KB) Guards march out of Buckingham Palace (London, England) at the end of the Changing of the Guard ceremony. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1977x1317, 544 KB) Guards march out of Buckingham Palace (London, England) at the end of the Changing of the Guard ceremony. ... Sentry of the Grenadier Guards posted outside St Jamess Palace The Queens Guard and Queens Life Guard are the names given to contingents of cavalry and infantry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal residences in London. ...


This comes from the old tradition of formation combat, in which soldiers were held in very strict formations as to maximize their combat effectiveness. Formation combat was seen as an alternative to mêlée combat, which required strict soldier discipline and competent commanders. As long as the formations could be maintained, the 'civilized' soldiers would maintain a significant advantage over their less organized opponents. Mêlée generally refers to disorganized hand-to-hand combat involving a group of fighters. ...


Although modern warfare has shirked this in favour of guerilla combat and loose formations, modern militaries still use parades for ceremonial purposes or in noncombat environments for their efficiency, ease of organization and encouragement of discipline. Roughly synonymous are "drill" and "march". Drilling started in the 16th century with the Dutch army of prince Maurice of Orange. The English word drill is from Middle Dutch origin. Recruits are taught drill to teach them how to work and move as a team. In addition, formations are still used in riot control situations. Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567 – 23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ...


The U.S. drill is based on the contributions of Baron von Steuben, a Prussian Army officer who served as a volunteer in the Continental Army. During the winter quarters in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, von Steuben taught a model company of 100 soldiers musket drill. These soldiers, in turn, taught the remainder of the Continental Army. Baron von Steuben Friedrich Wilhelm Augustus Steuben, Baron von Steuben (November 15, 1730-November 28, 1794) was a German army officer who served with George Washington in the American Revolutionary War and is credited with teaching American troops the essentials of military drill and discipline. ... Recreation of a cabin in which soldiers would have lived at Valley Forge Valley Forge was the site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777–1778 in the American Revolutionary War. ...

Contents

Four directions

Parades consist of four directions:

  1. Advance
  2. Retire
  3. Left
  4. Right

The Advance is the primary direction of movement, regardless of which direction the soldiers are actually facing (similar to a ship's bow.) A boat is a craft or vessel designed to float on, and provide transport over, water. ...


The Retire is opposite the advance, against the primary direction of movement (similar to a ship's stern.) Aft of the Soleil Royal, by Jean Bérain the Elder. ...


The Left is to the left of the Advance (similar to a ship's port.) Port is the nautical term (used on boats and ships) that refers to the left side of a ship, as perceived by a person facing towards the bow (the front of the vessel). ...


The Right is to the right of the Advance (similar to a ship's starboard.) A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ...


If the Advance is changed, then all other directions are changed to be based on the new Advance.


There is only one person in charge of a parade at a time. Changing this person is very ceremonious. This is to make it obvious to the soldiers who is currently in command, and therefore who to pay attention to.


During parades, unless explicitly told otherwise, soldiers have restricted movement, meaning they can only move exactly when they are told, and then only doing exactly what they are told to do. In most stances any movement at all is disallowed, and is held to such an extent as to have soldiers fainting on parade, (although anything short of plural hours standing still in the hot sun is considered a medical disability.)


American usage allows the service member to be at four states of alert:

  1. Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, chest out, knees straight but not locked, feet together at a 45-degree angle.
  2. Parade Rest: a modified position of attention in which the left foot is moved to shoulder width and the hands are placed in the small of the back
  3. At Ease: the service member is allowed to move all but the right foot, but may not speak (Navy may speak in this formation and also may move around)
  4. Rest: The service member may talk.

A formation must be brought to the position of attention before it can go to a lower state of alert.


British Commonwealth nations allow four states of alert: The Commonwealth of Nations (CN), usually known as the Commonwealth, is a voluntary association of 53 independent sovereign states, the majority of which are former colonies of the United Kingdom. ...

  1. Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, chest out, shoulders back and down, knees straight but not locked, heels together, feet at a 30-degree angle (540 mils). All muscles are rigid. The hands are held in tight fists with the thumbs aligned with the seam of the trousers.
  2. At Ease: a modified position of attention in which the left foot is moved to shoulder width and the hands are placed behind the member with arms fully extended. The right hand is placed inside the left with all fingers together and pointing rigidly downwards.
  3. Easy: Legs remain at At Ease position, arms are brought to the sides to a more natural standing position. Member may relax their muscles and make minimal movements.
  4. Relax: Legs remain at position at ease, member may make more significant movements or look around. Members may not move the feet. If the troops are not being addressed by a commander, they are generally allowed to talk quietly.

Four-part commands

The typical parade commands are spoken extremely clearly and emphatically, and consist of four major parts.

  1. Identifier, or who is to follow the command. This is typically (number) Section, (number) Platoon, (letter) Company, or (name) Regiment, although the prefixes are often dropped when there is no ambiguity (Section, Platoon, Company (Coy,) or Regiment.) Parade can only be given by the parade commander, and always refers to the entire parade, regardless of size.
  2. Precautionary, or what is to be done in an adstract sense: Move to the Advance, Move to the Retire, etc. (This is not always used in American usage)
  3. Cautionary, or the first part of what is to be done. In American usage, this is called the "preparatory command."
  4. Executive, or execution, a single syllable on which the soldiers actually move. This is as true in the United States armed forces as in other services; however, the accent of the commander often leads this to be heard as simply huh on commands such as "Present Arms" and "Order Arms." There is always a significant pause between the Cautionary and the Executive. In American usage, the executive command is always given a greater emphasis than the preparatory command.

i.e.

  • 4 Platoon (Identifier,) Moving to the Right in File (Precautionary,) Right (Cautionary,) Turn (Executive.)
  • B Coy (Identifier,) Advance (Precautionary,) Left (Cautionary,) Turn (Executive.)
  • (U.S. usage) Battalion (Identifier), Right (Cautionary), FACE.
  • Brigade (Identifier).

Often there is no chance of ambiguity, and much of the command can be unspoken. In such cases there must always be the Cautionary and the Executive.

  • Present Arms
  • Atten -Tion

Common Parade Commands

  • Fall In. Have the forementioned troops fall into formation.
  • Fall Out. Have the troops fall out. This is done with a right turn followed by either three steps or a Quick March in a straight line to the edge of the parade square, determined by context.
  • Dis -Missed. A fall-out where the soldiers have free time until their next designated work period (typically done at the end of a common day, although often is simply an erroneous substitution for Fall Out).
  • Atten -Tion. Have the soldiers uniformly adopt the Attention position, the most constrictive position (with feet together), but the only position where soldiers can actually be made to move. This also returns soldiers to the attention position actions such as a salute.

Alignment commands

  • Dress right, Dress
  • Cover
  • Close interval, March
  • Double interval, March

Rest positions

  • Stand at Ease (U.S.: PARADE REST). Have the soldiers adopt the more relaxed position At Ease position, with feet shoulder width apart, although still no movement is allowed. This is typically used when soldiers must wait a short duration. This is also the initial positions soldiers are in when they fall into formation. Changing from At Ease to Attention and back again, or the converse, is standard when the command of a parade is transferred (typically between the commanding officer and his Sergeant-Major), since command of a formation isn't actually transferred until the new commander makes a command.
  • Stand Ea-Sy. (U.S.: AT EASE) Have the soldiers adopt the next easiest stance, where hand are hung at the sides and the shoulders can actually be slacked. This is often, but not always, followed by an implicit Relax
  • relax (U.S.: REST) The only parade instruction given in an ordinary voice, rather than the raised, emphatic parade voice. This is the only position that actually offers soldiers freedom of movement. Soldier are typically allowed to do anything (within reason), other than moving their feet. Though, when it is given by a high ranking officer, soldiers typically move a minimal amount after a bit of stretching.

Marching with Weapons/Saluting

  • Shoulder Arms: If the soldiers have the weapons at the order, than it is brought up and carried on the right shoulder. Although Left and Right Shoulder Arms are both valid commands, right is assumed if it is unstated. Soldiers must be at attention to shoulder weapons. This is typically done through a throw rather than a carry.
  • Port Arms: The weapon is brought out in front of the soldier, and held by the right hand on small of the butt, or equivalent, and the left hand about the forestock, or equivalent.
  • Present Arms: The soldiers use the salute for their particular weapon. Soldiers without weapons use a salute appropriate for their headress. Often officers can salute on behalf of their troops, and any such ambiguity will be discussed with the troops before hand. This is often used with the precautionary General Salute or Royal Salute, when appropriate. In U.S. usage, all soldiers salute, either with the hand salute if the weapon is at sling arms or if there is no weapon, and with the appropriate salute for their weapon. Guidons and organizational colors are dipped to 90 degrees above the ground (but not touching the ground). The command for recovery is "Shoulder Arms!"
  • Order Arms: If the soldiers are carrying a weapon which can be ordered they will lower it so that is resting on the ground, touching the outer toes of the right boot, and being supported by a slightly bent right arm.

Marching with Colours

  • Order Colours: Essentially the same as Order Arms, except used exclusively for the Colour Party.
  • Carry Colours: This is equivalent to Shoulder Arms. The right arm lifts the colours up so they line up with the body's centre line, with the right arm held in front of the soldier, at mouth level parallel to the ground. It is caught and guided into its frog with left hand, which is then returned to its side.
  • Let Fly the Colours: The colours are normally held in a semi-taught position. This is a simple, ceremonial letting fly and catching of the colours.
  • Slant Colours: The colours are normally kept upright, but this can represent a problem both when dealing with standard doors. This slants the colours forward sufficiently to negate this, and they are brought back up afterwards.
  • Slope Colours: The normal method for carrying colours can be tiresome for the bearer. This has the colours taken out of their frogs and sloped over the right shoulder at about 45°.

Turning motions while marching

  • Right Turn (U.S.:Column right, MARCH): A 90° turn to the right done by rotating on the right heel and left ball. The left leg is then brought up to be parallel to the ground (although exceptions are made for kilted regiments,) and slammed into the ground in the position of attention. This motion is done at a particular fixed point.
  • Left Turn (U.S.:Column left, MARCH): A 90° turn to the left, done by rotation on the right ball and the left heel. The right leg is then brought up to be parallel to the ground and slammed down into attention. This motion is done at a particular fixed point.
  • About Turn(U.S.:To the Rear, MARCH): A 180° turn to the right, done as an exaggerated version of the right turn. United States units do not make exaggerated gestures with the legs or arms.
  • Right Flank MARCH: All members marching execute 90° turn to the right done by rotating on the right heel and left ball.
  • Left Flank MARCH: All members marching 90° turn to the left, done by rotation on the right ball and the left heel.

Turning motions while still

  • Right Face: The body is rotated on the ball of the right foot and the left heel is brought forward to meet the right heel in the position of attention.
  • Left Face: A mirror image of Right Face.
  • About Face: The right toe is brought back to behind the left heel; the body pivots on the right toe and left heel 180°. There is also "half-left, FACE" and "half-right, FACE".

British Commonwealth:

  • Right Turn: The body is rotated 90° to the right members shall bend the left knee, straighten it in double time and smartly place the left foot beside the right to assume the position of attention.
  • Left Turn: A mirror image of Right Face.
  • About Turn: The body is rotated 180° in a clockwise direction, knees locked. Members shall bend the left knee, straighten it in double time and smartly place the left foot beside the right to assume the position of attention.
  • Right Incline: A right turn of only 45°.
  • Left Incline: A left turn of only 45°.

Marching motions

  • Quick March: Begin marching at the Quick March speed with the left foot. The standard pace is 120 beats/minute with a 30in. step. There is also a Rifle Pace, 160 beats/minute and a Highland Pace, 80 beats/minute (typically done with a kilt.) The pace is based on the individual regiments, the pace given by the commander, and the speed of the band's rhythm. The way the march is performed is based on the regiment's nationality. Western bloc nations typically lift their opposite arm up to the breast pocket, kept straight and used similar to a guided pendulum. Eastern Bloc nations frequently goose step, or keep their legs straight during the entirety of the step. Both of these are actually functional, as they maintain individual pace, unit pace uniformity, and actually help the soldiers march is their relatively elevated pace. The United States command is "For-ward, MARCH." Arm movement is kept to 9 inches to the front and 6 inches to the rear while marching, while the interval between ranks and files is both 30 inches.
  • Slow March: This is a ceremonial pace, used for funeral marches and when a unit's colours are marched out in front of the troops. The feet are kept parallel to the ground and the arms are never used. In the United States forces, usually only the band executes a slow march.
  • Half Step March: This is a U.S. march pace. It is at the same tempo as Quick Time, but instead of 30 inches, the step is 15 inches.
  • Double March: This is essentially a moderate jog. It creates a travel speed of approximately double that of Quick Time, designed to be used even when carrying heavy burdens. This is often erroneously used to describe a sprint or an ordinary run. The U.S. command is "Double Time, MARCH."
  • Easy March: This is an unrestricted march at approximately Quick Time. This is designed for field marches and other rough conditions, though is not used in combat areas. The U.S. command is "Route Step, MARCH."
  • Mark Time: This is essentially a stationary march with the knees coming up parallel to the ground. The time of what they were previously marching is kept or Quick March is used if no time is supplied. This is designed to maintain the time of large parades when portions need no forward speed, but is also used as a common punishment for physical training because of its tiring nature. United States service members move the knees upward approximately 6 inches.
  • Step For -Ward: This causes troops marking time to resume a normal march. If it is implicitly used (as when the marking time is used to align formations or to wait for the former rank to pass when entering Column of Route from a depth-style formation) the (typically) Right Marker stomps his foot to signal it to the rest of the troops.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Parade (military) - definition of Parade (military) in Encyclopedia (1721 words)
Although modern warfare has shirked this in favour of guerilla combat and loose formations, modern militaries still use parades for ceremonial purposes or in noncombat environments for their efficiency and ease of organization.
During parades, unless explicitly told otherwise, soldiers have restricted movement, meaning they can only move exactly when they are told, and then only doing exactly what they are told to do.
The typical parade commands are spoken extremely clearly and emphatically, and consist of four major parts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m