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Encyclopedia > Parables of Jesus
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The parables of Jesus, found in the synoptic gospels, embody much of Jesus' teaching. Jesus' parables are quite simple, memorable stories, often with humble imagery, each with a single message. Jesus, for example, likened the Kingdom of God to leaven (an image usually meant as corruption) or a mustard seed. Like his aphorisms, Jesus' parables were often surprising and paradoxical. The parable of the good Samaritan, for example, turned expectations on their head with the despised Samaritan proving to be the wounded man's neighbor. The parables were simple and memorable enough to survive in an oral tradition before being written down years after Jesus' death. The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... According to the Canonical Gospels, the Ministry of Jesus began when Jesus was around 30 years old, and lasted a period of 1-3 years, with the Synoptic Gospels generally being considered to argue for it having been a period of 1 year, and the Gospel of John arguing for... The Parable of the Leaven was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew and Luke). ... The Parable of the Mustard Seed is a parable that according to the Gospels of Luke (Luke 13:18-19), Mark (Mark 4:30-32), Matthew (Matthew 13:31-32), and Thomas (Thomas 20) was told by Jesus. ... The Good Samaritan. From a collection of public domain Christian clip art. ...


His parables are sometimes interpreted as allegories in the gospels themselves and in Christian tradition. In such an allegory, each element corresponds metaphorically to a class of people (e.g., false Christians), a heavenly reward, or some other topic. The gospel of John includes allegories but no parables. The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


In Western civilization, they are the best known examples of stories referred to as parables, and so form the prototype for the term parable. A parable is a story that is told to illustrate a religious, moral or philosophical idea. ... The Prototype is what a Stereotype is called in cognitive linguitics. ...

Contents

Occurrence

Parables are attributed to Jesus in the three synoptic gospels of the New Testament and the noncanonical Gospel of Thomas. According to some interpretations, the Gospel of John also contains a parable. The Synoptic Gospels is a term used by modern New Testament scholars for the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke of the New Testament in the Bible. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ...


According to one source[1] the Gospel of Luke contains both the largest total number of parables (24) and the largest number of unique parables found nowhere else (10). The Gospel of Matthew contains 23 parables of which six are unique. The noncanonical Gospel of Thomas contains 15 parables of which two are unique. The Gospel of Mark contains eight parables of which only one (the Parable of the Growing Seed) is unique. The Gospel of John contains only the story of the Vine, which some consider to be a parable. The Gospel of Luke is the third and longest of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is one of the four Gospel accounts of the New Testament. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ... The Parable of the Growing Seed is a parable by Jesus found only in the Gospel of Mark, chapter 4, verses 26-29: The Kingdom of God is as if someone would scatter seed on the ground, and would sleep and rise night and day, and the seed would sprout... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the canon of the New Testament, traditionally ascribed to John the Evangelist. ... The The Vine was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (John). ...


The parables are thought to have been transmitted orally for years before being written down. The hypothetical Q document is seen as a source for parables in Matthew and Luke. The Q document or Q (from the German Quelle, source) is a postulated lost textual source for the Gospel of Matthew and Gospel of Luke. ...


Parables also exist in the Old Testament and in many other writings, see parable. Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... // For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ...


Purpose

Mark 4:10-12, Matthew 13:10-17 and Luke 8:9-10 offer an explanation as to why Jesus would teach in parables. These verses say that whenever Jesus would go off by himself (away from the crowds of followers he attracted[2]), those close to him and the disciples would ask about the parables. He told them that they had been given the secret of the Kingdom of God (a concept commonly called the Messianic Secret[3]) but that outsiders did not have this secret, so everything to them is given in parables, never to be fully understood, otherwise they might find forgiveness, citing variations of Isaiah 6:9-10. Matthew 13:12 adds: "Whoever has will be given more, and he will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what he has will be taken from him." (NIV), a saying also found in the Gospel of Thomas 41 as well as Mark 4:25, Matthew 25:29 and Luke 8:18, 19:26. In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Kingdom of God or Reign of... In certain passages of the New Testament, notably in the Gospel of Mark, Jesus commands his followers not to reveal to others that he is the Messiah. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Gospel of Thomas is a New Testament-era apocryphon completely preserved in a papyrus Coptic manuscript discovered in 1945 at Nag Hammadi, Egypt. ...


Mark 4:33-34 and Matthew 13:34-35 repeat that Jesus would only speak to the "crowds" in parables, while secretly, in private, explaining everything to his disciples.


Historians, on the other hand, surmise that Jesus used parables because they provoked thought and coaxed the listeners into participating more actively as they considered the parables' ambiguous content. The belief that Jesus taught secret meanings to his disciples, by this understanding, is a product of the early Christian tradition and does not originate with Jesus himself.


The Jewish Encyclopedia article on New Testament: The Sayings: Parables states: The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ...

"The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark 4:11, 4:34; Matt 13:1-52, especially 13:35 and 13:39). Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark 13:28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark 11:13-14, 11:20-23)."

In Judaism and Jewish eschatology, the Messiah (Hebrew: משיח; Mashiah, Mashiach, or Moshiach, anointed [one]) is a term traditionally referring to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line who will be anointed (the meaning of the Hebrew word משיח) with holy anointing oil and inducted to rule the Jewish people during... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Julius Wellhausen (May 17, 1844 - January 17, 1918), was a German biblical scholar and Orientalist. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... The symbols of the four Evangelists are here depicted in the Book of Kells The Four Evangelists are the four followers of Jesus to whom are ascribed the writings forming the four Gospels of the New Testament: the Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... For the plant species, see Ficus. ...

Framing material

Some parables are unadorned. Other include framing material, often an explanation at the end of the parable explaining its meaning. Historians often consider the short, memorable parables authentic and the explanatory framing material as a later addition.


Examples

According to Catholic Encyclopedia: Parables: "There are no parables in St. John's Gospel. In the Synoptics ... we reckon thirty-three in all; but some have raised the number even to sixty, by including proverbial expressions."

  1. The Wise and the Foolish Builders, Matt 7:24-27
  2. The Sower, Matt 13:3-23 Mark 4:1-20 Luke 8:5-15
  3. The Tares, Matt 13:24-30
  4. The Mustard Seed, Matt 13:31-32 Mark 4:30-32 Luke 13:18-19
  5. The Leaven, Matt 13:33, Luke 13:20-21
  6. The Hidden Treasure, Matt 13:44
  7. The Pearl, Matt 13:45-46
  8. Drawing in the Net, Matt 13:47-50
  9. The Lost Sheep, Matt 18:12-14, Luke 15:1-7
  10. Unmerciful Servant, Matt 18:23-35
  11. Laborers in the Vineyard, Matt 20:1-16
  12. The Two Sons, Matt 21:28-32
  13. The Wicked Husbandmen, Matt 21:33-46, Mark 12:1-12, Luke 20:9-19
  14. The Wedding Feast, Matt 22:1-14, Luke 14:16-24
  15. The Fig Tree, Matt 24:32-36, Mark 13:28-32, Luke 21:29-33
  16. The Ten Virgins, Matt 25:1-13
  17. Ten Talents, Matt 25:14-30, Luke 19:11-27
  18. The Seed Growing Secretly, Mark 4:26-29
  19. The Two Debtors, Luke 7:41-47
  20. The Good Samaritan, Luke 10:30-37
  21. The Friend at Night, Luke 11:5-8
  22. The Rich Fool, Luke 12:16-21
  23. The Faithful Servant, Luke 12:35-48
  24. The Barren Fig Tree, Luke 13:6-9
  25. The Guests, Luke 14:7-15
  26. Building a tower and waging war, Luke 14:28-33
  27. Lost Money, Luke 15:8-10
  28. The Prodigal Son, Luke 15:11-32
  29. The Unjust Steward, Luke 16:1-9
  30. The Rich Man and the Beggar Lazarus, Luke 16:19-31
  31. The Master and Servant, Luke 17:7-10
  32. The Importunate Widow, Luke 18:1-8
  33. Pharisee and the Publican, Luke 18:9-14

The Parable of the Wise and the Foolish Builders was given by Jesus in the New Testament. ... The Parable of the Sower is a parable attributed to Jesus, and found in all of the Synoptic Gospels (at Mark 4:1-20, Matthew 13:1-23, and Luke 8:1-15) as well as in the Gospel of Thomas (Thomas 9). ... The Parable of the Tares (Parable of the Weeds in the Grain) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... The Parable of the Mustard Seed is a parable that according to the Gospels of Luke (Luke 13:18-19), Mark (Mark 4:30-32), Matthew (Matthew 13:31-32), and Thomas (Thomas 20) was told by Jesus. ... The Parable of the Leaven was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew and Luke). ... The Parable of the Hidden Treasure was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... Illustration of the Parable of the Pearl of Great Price, by John Everett Millais, from Parables of our lord (1864) The Parable of the Pearl or the Pearl of Great Price is a parable told by Jesus in explaining the value of the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 13... The Parable of the Drawing in the Net was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... The Parable of the Lost Sheep is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament of the Christian Bible, Matthew 18:12-14 and Luke 15:3-7. ... The Parable of the Unmerciful Servant (Parable of the Unforgiving Official) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... The Parable of the Laborers in the Vineyard (Parable of the Generous Employer) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... The Parable of the Two Sons was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew). ... The parable of The Wicked Husbandmen is a story that, according to Luke 20:9-19, Mark 12:1-12, and Matthew 21:33-46, Jesus told to the people and/or the Jewish chief priests and other members of the Sanhedrin in the Temple in Jerusalem during the final... The Parable of the Wedding Feast (or the Marriage of the Kings Son, or the Great Supper) was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew, Luke). ... For the plant species, see Ficus. ... Three foolish virgins showing their sorrow at Magdeburg cathedral Three wise virgins showing their joy at Magdeburg cathedral Virgins at Notre Dame de Strasbourg The Ten Virgins is a Parable told by Jesus in the New Testament (Matthew 25:1-13). ... The Parable of the Talents (sometimes just The Parable of Talents) is a New Testament parable. ... The Parable of the Growing Seed is a parable by Jesus found only in the Gospel of Mark, chapter 4, verses 26-29: The Kingdom of God is as if someone would scatter seed on the ground, and would sleep and rise night and day, and the seed would sprout... The Parable of the Two Debtors was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Good Samaritan. From a collection of public domain Christian clip art. ... The Parable of the Friend at Night (The Sons Request) was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Parable of the Rich Fool was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Parable of the Faithful Servant is a parable attributed to Jesus in the Gospels of Mark, of Thomas, of Matthew, and of Luke. ... The Parable of the Lost Coin is a parable told by Jesus in the New Testament of the Christian Bible. ... The Return of the Prodigy & Havocs Son (1773) by Pompeo Batoni The Prodigal Son, also known as the Lost Son, is one of the best known parables of Jesus of Nazareth. ... The Unjust Steward was a parable given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Parable of the Rich Man was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Parable of the Master and Servant was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ... The Unjust Judge is a story found in the Gospel of Luke, 18:1-9. ... The Parable of the Pharisee and the Publican was given by Jesus in the New Testament (Luke). ...

See also

// For a comparison of parable with other kinds of stories, see Myth, legend, fairy tale, and fable. ... List of New Testament stories are stories from the New Testament of Christianity. ... According to the canonical Gospels, Jesus worked many miracles in the course of his ministry. ...

Reference

  1. ^ Parables of Jesus in the canonical gospels and the Gospel of Thomas, edited by Robert Nguyen Cramer
  2. ^ The Complete Gospels, Robert J. Miller, ed., notes for Mark 1:35-38: "...Jesus is often shown trying to avoid the presence of the crowds, sometimes seeking privacy in order to perform miracles or impart special instruction (e.g., 1:45; 5:37; 6:31; 7:17; 24, 33; 8:23; 9:28, 30; 10:10, 32b)."
  3. ^ Complete Gospels, note for Mark 1:43-45: "Jesus' anger (v.41) and stern warning not to make him known, conveyed by snapping (literally "snorting") at the cured leper, is connected to a key narrative theme in Mark's gospel, the mandated "secret" of Jesus' true identity. Jesus repreatedly attempts to hide his actions, at least until he reaches Jerusalem, but usually without much apparent success (see also 1:25-28, 34; 3:12; 5:43; 7:36; 8:26)..."

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Parables of Jesus
Parables of Jesus - edit
Assassin | Drawing in the Net | Empty Jar | Faithful Servant | Fig Tree | Friend at Night | Good Samaritan | Good Shepherd | Growing Seed | Hidden Treasure | Lazarus and Dives | Leaven | Lost Coin | Lost Sheep | Master and Servant | Mustard Seed | New Wine into Old Wineskins | Pearl | Pharisee and the Publican | Prodigal Son | Rich Fool | Sower | Strong Man | Talents | Tares | Ten Virgins | Two Debtors | Two Sons | Unjust Judge | Unjust Steward | Unmerciful Servant | Vine | Wedding Feast | Wicked Husbandmen | Wise and Foolish Builders | Workers in the Vineyard

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Noting that the parable is not always absolutely clear, Lagrange explained this by saying that the purpose of a parable is to strike the imagination, to pique the curiosity, to make the listener reflect and work to arrive at the meaning, but only so that the lesson will be more deeply engraved on the mind.
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