Papillomaviruses are viruses that commonly cause warts. In most cases, these do not cause malignant change leading to cancer but some types of papilloma viruses, especially type 16 and 18 in humans have been known to be strongly related to cervical cancer. They were formerly included with Polyomavirus.
Papillomaviridae are a family of small dsDNA viruses that infect warm-blooded vertebrates .
Despite the obvious absence of a sexual link in the PV cycle to ensure cohesiveness of the genome, stable PV types are identified, reflecting a sustained molecular selection through continuity in the ecological conditions and in the virus-host interactions.
Members of Papillomaviridae are associated to virtually all clinical cases of cervical cancer [3,4].
Papillomaviridae are a family of small double-stranded DNA viruses that infect stratified squamous epithelia in vertebrates.
However, evidence has accumulated indicating a discontinuity in the evolutionary history of the L1 and L2 genes of many PVs, giving rise to differences in the phylogenetic reconstructions of the early and of the late genes.
Neither the oncogenes E5, E6 and E7 nor the upstream regulatory region are suitable for phylogenetic inference due to the poor conservation along the Papillomaviridae family.
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