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Encyclopedia > Paper shredder
Paper shredder with built-in wastebasket
Paper shredder with built-in wastebasket

Paper shredders are used to cut paper into very fine strips or tiny paper chips. Government organizations, businesses, and private individuals use shredders to destroy private, confidential, or sensitive documents. Privacy experts often recommend that individuals shred bills, credit card and bank account statements, and other documents that could be used by thieves to commit fraud or identity theft. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 215 KB) Summary Photo of paper shredder taken January 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 215 KB) Summary Photo of paper shredder taken January 2006. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... Confidentiality has been defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as ensuring that information is accessible only to those authorized to have access and is one of the cornerstones of Information security. ... Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ... Identity taker is a term first appearing in U.S. literature in the 1990s, leading to the drafting of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act. ...


After the Supreme Court decision in California v. Greenwood, in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Fourth Amendment does not prohibit the warrantless search and seizure of garbage left for collection outside of a home, paper shredders became more popular among US citizens with privacy concerns. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the... California v. ... The Bill of Rights in the National Archives Amendment IV (the Fourth amendment) to the United States Constitution is one of the provisions included in the Bill of Rights. ... Privacy has no definite boundaries and it has different meanings for different people. ...

Contents

Types of shredders

Shredders range in size and price from small and inexpensive units meant for a few pages, to large units used by commercial shredding services that costs hundreds of thousands of dollars and can shred millions of documents an hour. Some shredders used by a commercial shredding service are built into a shredding truck.


These machines are classified according to the size and shape of the shreds they produce.

  • Strip-cut shredders use rotating knives to cut narrow strips as long as the original sheet of paper. These strips can be reassembled by a determined investigator, so this type of shredder is the least secure. It also creates the highest volume of waste.
  • Cross-cut or confetti-cut shredders use two contra-rotating drums to cut rectangular, parallelogram, or diamond-shaped shreds.
  • Particle-cut shredders create tiny square or circular pieces.
  • Disintegrators and granulators repeatedly cut the paper at random until the particles are small enough to pass through a mesh.
  • Hammermills pound the paper through a screen.
  • Pierce and Tear Rotating blades pierce the paper and then tear it apart.
  • Grinders A rotating shaft with cutting blades grinds the paper until it is small enough to fall through a screen.

There are numerous standards for the security levels of paper shredders, including: Small boy trying to catch confetti at Folk Festival in Namur, Belgium. ...

  • DIN 32757
    • Level 1 = 12 mm strips
    • Level 2 = 6 mm strips
    • Level 3 = 2 mm strips (Confidential)
    • Level 4 = 2 x 15 mm particles (Commercially Sensitive)
    • Level 5 = 0.8 x 12 mm particles (Top Secret or Classified)
    • Level 6 = 0.8 x 4 mm particles (Top Secret or Classified)
  • United States Department of Defense (DoD)
  • United States NSA/CSS 02-01 = 1 × 4 mm

Historically, the US General Services Administration (GSA) set paper shredder guidance in the Interim Federal Specification FF-S-001169 dated 7/1971 which was superseded by standard A-A-2599 for classified material which was canceled in 2/2000. GSA has not published a new standard since. Look up din in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... A typical classified document. ... Lt. ...


There are also alternative shredders that use burning, chemical decomposition, or composting for disposing of the shreds. Immolation means a sacrificial killing by burning, such as: Animal sacrifice Human sacrifice Sati is a Hindu funeral custom involving immolation. ... “Spoilage” redirects here. ... An active compost heap, steaming on a cold winter morning. ...

Paper shredding can be contracted out
Paper shredding can be contracted out

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3587 KB) Summary Lorry of a paper shredding company. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2816x2112, 3587 KB) Summary Lorry of a paper shredding company. ... Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s and often refers to the delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specializing in the management of that operation. ...

Shredder trucks

A mobile shredding truck is a box truck with an industrial sized paper shredder mounted inside the box, typically in the front section of the box, closest to the cab. The box is divided into two sections: the shredding equipment area, and the payload area for storage of the shredded materials. These trucks have been designed to shred up to 5,000 lbs of paper an hour. Mobile shredding trucks can have a shredded material storage capacity of 6,000 to 15,000 pounds of shredded paper. Office paper is the typical material being shredded, but with increasing security concerns customers also request shredding of CDs, DVDs, hard drives, credit cards, and uniforms, among other things. A box truck, also known as a cube truck, cube van, or box van, is a truck with a cube-shaped cargo area. ... CD may stand for: Compact Disc Canadian Forces Decoration Cash Dispenser (at least used in Japan) CD LPMud Driver Centrum-Demokraterne (Centre Democrats of Denmark) Certificate of Deposit České Dráhy (Czech Railways) Chad (NATO country code) Chalmers Datorförening (computer club of the Chalmers University of Technology) a 1960s... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Typical hard drives of the mid-1990s. ... Credit cards A credit card is a system of payment named after the small plastic card issued to users of the system. ...


Shredding services

Due to information privacy laws like FACTA and HIPAA, the volume of shredding at the typical business has increased dramatically. To reduce costs many companies outsource their shredding to shredding services. These companies either shred on-site, usually with mobile shredder trucks, or off-site. All shredded paper is then sent to a paper mill. Under the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act of 2003 (FACT Act or FACTA, Pub. ... The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996. ... International Paper Companys Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. ...


Unshredding

In some cases, it may be possible to reassemble the pieces of shredded documents. If the shreds are not disturbed, the "noodles" or particles that belonged to the same document tend to stay close to each other. Furthermore, when the documents are fed to the shredder in a way that the lines of text are not perpendicular to the shredder blades, portions of text may remain legible on the stripes.


Shredded documents can be reassembled manually. After the Iranian Revolution and the takeover of the U.S. embassy in Tehran in 1979, Iranians enlisted local carpet weavers who reconstructed the pieces by hand. The recovered documents would be later released by the Iranian regime in a series of books called "Documents from the US espionage Den". The US government subsequently improved its shredding techniques, by adding pulverizing, pulping, and chemical decomposition. 1980 Iranian stamp commemorating the Islamic Revolution After Islamic Conquest  Modern (SSR = Soviet Socialist Republic) Afghanistan  Azerbaijan  Bahrain  Iran  Iraq  Tajikistan  Uzbekistan  This box:      The Iranian Revolution (also known as the Islamic Revolution,[1][2][3][4][5][6] Persian: انقلاب اسلامی, Enghelābe Eslāmi) was the revolution that transformed Iran... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For the song by the Smashing Pumpkins, see 1979 (song). ...


Modern computer technology considerably speeds up the process of reassembling shredded documents. The strips are scanned on both sides, and then the computer determines how the strips should be put together. Robert Johnson of the National Association for Information Destruction, has stated that there is a huge demand for document reconstruction. Several companies offer commercial document reconstruction services. For maximum security, documents should be shredded so that the words of the document go through the shredder horizontally (i.e. perpendicular to the blades). Many of the documents in the Enron accountancy scandal were fed through the shredder the wrong way, making them easier to reassemble. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation, formerly Enron Corporation, is a defunct America energy company based in Houston, Texas. ... Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives of large public corporations. ...


There is an effort underway to recovery the shredded archives of the Stasi, the East German secret police.[1] There are "millions of shreds of paper that panicked Stasi officials threw into garbage bags during the regime's final days in the fall of 1989". It took three dozen people six years to reconstruct 300 of the 16,000 bags so the German government is looking at modern computerized methods of reconstruction. Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ...


Forensic identification

Document shredders display certain device-specific characteristics, "fingerprints", like the exact spacing of the blades, the degree and pattern of their wear. These can be reconstructed from the minute variations of size of the paper strips and the microscopic marks on their edges, and by comparison with the strips produced by known shredders, the individual shredder that was used to destroy a given document may be determined. Jack Brassil, a researcher for Hewlett-Packard, works on a project for making shredders more easily traceable.[2] (Cf. the forensic identification of typewriters.) The tip of a finger showing the friction ridge structure. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ...


Injury risk with residential shredders

The 'cutting head' of a small shredder.
The 'cutting head' of a small shredder.

As with any motorized cutting equipment, there is a risk of injury. Small residential shredders are becoming more and more common. These shredders, although designed with a narrow opening to the cutting wheels, still pose a danger to pets and small children. Many home shredders can be left in a "stand-by" mode that will start the cutting process when anything is inserted into the feed slot. In homes with small children or pets, simply keeping the shredder unplugged while not in use can greatly reduce any risk. [3] Image File history File linksMetadata SHREDDER_CUTTING_HEAD.JPG‎ [edit] Summary The underside of a low-volume residential paper shredder. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SHREDDER_CUTTING_HEAD.JPG‎ [edit] Summary The underside of a low-volume residential paper shredder. ...


References

  1. ^ Heingartner, Douglas. "Back Together Again", New York Times, 2003-07-17. Retrieved on 2007-01-03. 
  2. ^ Jack Brassil (2002-08-02). "Tracing the Source of a Shredded Document" (pdf). Hewlett-Packard. Retrieved on 2007-01-03.
  3. ^ Eureka Alerts, Urban Legends Page

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 17 is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Urban Legends Reference Pages: Paper Shredder Danger (1468 words)
Hallie was feeding paper into a shredder in her home when her fingers got caught in its powerful blades.
Among household pets, dogs are particularly at risk from shredders, as they have a tendency to lick things, and many breeds have long, floppy ears that can get caught in shredder openers.
Some veterinarians maintain that serious shredder accidents involving animals are rare, but the frequency of occurrence is difficult to estimate since there has not been any systematic effort to keep track of such injuries.
Paper Shredder - Strip Cut and Cross Cut Paper Shredders - ABC Office (662 words)
Purchasing a paper shredder is one of the best things you can do for your home, business, school or church.
Cardboard shredders can shred through cardboard, converting it into soft paper mesh that takes up less space in a recycle bin, or can be reused as packaging material or filler for freight or fragile shipments.
Industrial paper shredders are used primarily by large corporations, agencies, and shred outsourcing companies to handle heavy shred-loads.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     

lilly adams
6th September 2010
It is important for offices to find trustworthy companies to handle their paper shredding needs. I use http://www.opsus.com and am so happy with their service.

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