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Encyclopedia > Paper mill
International Paper Company's Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. When built, this was the world's largest mill.
International Paper Company's Kraft paper mill in Georgetown, South Carolina. When built, this was the world's largest mill.

A paper mill is a factory devoted to making paper from wood pulp and other ingredients using a Fourdrinier Machine or similar apparatus. These establishments have been noted for producing an obnoxious odour in the general surroundings. International Paper Company, on the Sampit River, Georgetown, SC Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... International Paper Company, on the Sampit River, Georgetown, SC Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Location of Georgetown in South Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State South Carolina County Georgetown Government  - Mayor Lynn Wood Wilson Area  - City 7. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... ...

Contents

History

In 105 AD, the first papermaking process was innovated in China, by the Han Dynasty Chinese court eunuch Cai Lun in the early 2nd century AD. The technology spread from East Asia to Europe by way of the Muslim world (see Battle of Talas). A paper mill is known to have operated in Baghdad, modern-day Iraq as early as 794. After Baghdad, the paper-making process spread to Damascus, Egypt, and Morocco, and by the 10th century, it had replaced papyrus, wood, silk, and parchment as the cheapest and most widespread writing medium in the Islamic world. In Europe, the first mention of rag-paper is in the tract of Peter, abbot of Cluny (1112 - 1150 AD), while the oldest recorded document on paper in Christian Europe is the 11th century Missal of Silos, whose paper was probably made in Islamic Spain.[1] One of the first known paper mills in Europe was in Xativa (now Jativa) near Valencia, Spain, established around 1151 AD by the Muslim Moors. [2] Chinese court official Cai Lun achieved a break-through improvement in papermaking process. ... Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2 Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 AD - 24 AD... Cài Lún (Wade-Giles: Tsai Lun, 蔡倫) (c. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Events Kyoto becomes the Japanese capital. ... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ... Cluny nowadays The town of Cluny or Clugny lies in the modern-day département of Saône-et-Loire in the région of France, near Mâcon. ... Events The people of Laon, France, proclaim a commune and murder their bishop Salzwedel, Germany is founded The German state of Baden is founded Afonso I becomes Count of Portugal Otto of Ballenstedt is made Duke of Saxony by Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths October 5 - Sigebert of... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... The Missal of Silos is the oldest known paper document created in Europe (paper was invented in China around 2nd century and in Egypt much earlier). ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Xàtiva (Valencian) Spanish name Játiva Administration Country Autonomous Community Valencian Community Province Valencia Comarca Costera Geography Land Area 76. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of the western Mediterranean and western Sahara, including: al-Maghrib (the coastal and mountain lands of present day Morocco and Algeria, and Tunisia although Tunisia often is separately called Ifriqiya after the former Roman province of Africa); al-Andalus (the former Islamic sovereign...


Characteristics

The undesirable odor (usually at pulp mills, which are a little different from paper mills) is caused principally by processing by-products, specifically the hydrogen sulfide and other reduced sulfur gases resulting from the cooking process. These airborne particles are not harmful to the health of the community in commonly occurring concentrations, but they are considered a nuisance. The Kraft process of reducing wood logs to their fibre constituent is primarily responsible for the odour, as opposed to the sulfite process. International Paper Company Wood pulp is the most common material used to make paper. ... Hydrogen sulfide (hydrogen sulphide in British English), H2S, is a colorless, toxic, flammable gas that is responsible for the foul odor of rotten eggs and flatulence. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Standard atomic weight 32. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A community usually refers to a sociological group in a large place or collections of plant or animal organisms sharing an environment. ... The Kraft process is used in production of paper pulp and involves the use of caustic sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide to extract the lignin from the wood fiber in large vats called digesters. ... For the meaning of fiber in nutrition, see dietary fiber. ...


Paper mills can be fully-integrated mills or smaller processing mills. The integrated mill will receive the whole forest log (or wood chips), process it down to the individual fiber level and into a 4% (approximately) pulp slurry, then process that pulp slurry into a sheet of paper. Non-integrated mills cannot process the log or wood chips but instead purchase preprocessed pulp slurry in a dried and baled form, known as market pulp, from pulp mills. The pulp bales are then rehydrated into a 4% solution in order to be processed into a sheet of paper. Temperate rainforest on Northern Slopes of the Alborz mountain ranges, Iran A dense growth of softwoods (a conifer forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A deciduous broadleaf (Beech) forest in Slovenia. ... Look up log in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Verso Paper Sartell Mill, a paper mill located in the United States city of Sartell, Minnesota.

The modern paper mill uses large amounts of energy, water, and wood in a highly efficient and extremely complex series of processes, using modern and sophisticated controls technology to produce a sheet of paper that can be used in incredibly diverse ways. Modern paper machines are very large and can be 500 feet in length, produce a sheet 400 inches wide, and operate at speeds of over 100 mph. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (794x635, 262 KB)The Verso Paper Sartell Mill, a paper mill located in the United States city of Sartell, Minnesota. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (794x635, 262 KB)The Verso Paper Sartell Mill, a paper mill located in the United States city of Sartell, Minnesota. ... Location in the state of Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ...


Mills

Braviken Paper Mill (or simply Braviken) is a paper mill located outside Bråviken, Norrköping, in Sweden. ... Nickname: Peking Coordinates: Area  - City 1,503. ... Crane Paper Company, based in Dalton, Massachusetts, makes rag based paper for the Federal Reserve Note. ... Dalton is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ... The mill seen from the south The Curtis Paper Mill (also known as the Nonantum Mill) is a factory located near White Clay Creek in Newark, Delaware. ... Main Street is the commercial heart of Newark. ... Lee is a town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... The Sartell Paper Mill, also known as the Verso Paper Sartell Mill, is a paper mill located in the city of Sartell in the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... Location in the state of Minnesota. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Södra Cell Folla is a paper mill located in Follafoss, Norway. ... UPM-Kymmene (NYSE: UPM) is a Finnish pulp and paper manufacturer. ... The Portucel Soporcel Group is a Portuguese pulp and paper company, which has resulted from the union of Portucel and Soporcel. ...

See also

Paper pollution is a large set of adverse effects in natural ecology and earth balance caused by paper industry manufacturing activities and by waste products. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Islam and the Occident, A. Gonzalez Palencia, Hispania, Vol. 18, No. 3 (Oct., 1935), pp. 245-276 JSTOR [1]

External links

  • Paperweb.biz - Paper world directory and search engine for the pulp and paper world
  • Paper Mill List Directory

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