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Encyclopedia > Papaya
Papaya
Papaya tree and fruit, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Papaya tree and fruit, from Koehler's Medicinal-Plants (1887)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Brassicales
Family: Caricaceae
Genus: Carica
Species: C. papaya
Binomial name
Carica papaya
L.

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), is the fruit of the tree Carica papaya, in the genus Carica. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, and was cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classic cultures. Papaya is also known as PEnPe (Bengali: পেঁপে), fruta bomba (Cuba), lechoza (Venezuela, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and the Dominican Republic), mamão, papaw (Sri Lankan English), Papol Guslabu (Tree melon - in Sinhalese ), pawpaw or tree melon, as well as tree melon (木瓜) in Chinese and đu đủ in Vietnamese. Image File history File links Koeh-029. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text. ... Genera See text Caricaceae is a family of flowering plants in the order Brassicales, native to tropical regions of Central and South America and Africa. ... Species About 20-25 species, including: Carica candicans - Peruvian Papaya Carica cauliflora Carica cestriflora - Papaya de Terra Fria Carica chrysophylla Carica citriformis Carica microcarpa Carica monoica Carica papaya - Papaya Carica parviflora Carica peltata - Papaya de Mico Carica pentagona - Babaco Carica posopora Carica pubescens - Mountain Papaya Carica quercifolia - Oak-leaved Papaya... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Linnéa Handberg Lund, also known as Papaya or Miss Papaya (born Linnéa Handberg 22 October, Hillerød, Denmark) is a Danish eurodance musician who seems to have disappeared from the scene. ... Carib family (by John Gabriel Stedman) Drawing of a Carib woman Carib, Island Carib or Kalinago people, after whom the Caribbean Sea was named, live in the Lesser Antilles islands. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... Species About 20-25 species, including: Carica candicans - Peruvian Papaya Carica cauliflora Carica cestriflora - Papaya de Terra Fria Carica chrysophylla Carica citriformis Carica microcarpa Carica monoica Carica papaya - Papaya Carica parviflora Carica peltata - Papaya de Mico Carica pentagona - Babaco Carica posopora Carica pubescens - Mountain Papaya Carica quercifolia - Oak-leaved Papaya... This article is about the culture area. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sinhalese or Sinhala (සිංහල, ISO 15919: , IPA: [], earlier referred to as Singhalese) is the mother tongue of the Sinhalese, the largest ethnic group of Sri Lanka. ...


It is a small tree, the single stem growing from 5 to 10 m tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk; the lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, 50-70 cm diameter, deeply palmately lobed with 7 lobes. The tree is usually unbranched if unlopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria but are much smaller and wax like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into the large 15-45 cm long, 10-30 cm diameter fruit. The fruit is ripe when it feels soft (like a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. The fruit's taste is vaguely similar to pineapple and peach, although much milder without the tartness, creamier, and more fragrant, with a texture of slightly over-ripened cantaloupe.[citation needed] Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... “Frangipani” redirects here. ... Binomial name Mill. ... For other uses, see Pineapple (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Trinomial name Cucumis melo cantalupensis Cucumis melo reticulatus Naudin. ...

Contents

Cultivation and uses

Papaya, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 40 kcal   160 kJ
Carbohydrates     9.81 g
- Sugars  5.90 g
- Dietary fibre  1.8 g  
Fat 0.14 g
Protein 0.61 g
Vitamin A equiv.  55 μg  6%
- β-carotene  276 μg  3%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.04 mg   3%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.05 mg   3%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.338 mg   2%
Vitamin B6  0.1 mg 8%
Vitamin C  61.8 mg 103%
Calcium  24 mg 2%
Iron  0.10 mg 1%
Magnesium  10 mg 3% 
Phosphorus  5 mg 1%
Potassium  257 mg   5%
Sodium  3 mg 0%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Papaya output in 2005
Papaya output in 2005

Originally from southern Mexico, Central America and northern South America, the papaya is now cultivated in most countries with a tropical climate like Brazil, India, South Africa, Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... β-Carotene represented by a 3-dimensional stick diagram Carotene is responsible for the orange colour of the carrots and many other fruits and vegetables. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of papaya output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Brazil - 1,700,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,425 × 625 pixels, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of papaya output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Brazil - 1,700,000 tonnes). ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ...


The ripe fruit is usually eaten raw, without the skin or seeds. The unripe green fruit of papaya can be eaten cooked, usually in curries, salads and stews.


Green papaya is rich in an enzyme called papain, a protease which is useful in tenderizing meat and other proteins. Its ability to break down tough meat fibers was utilized for thousands of years by indigenous Americans. It is included as a component in powdered meat tenderizers, and is also marketed in tablet form to remedy digestive problems. Green papaya is used in Thai cuisine, both raw and cooked.[1] Papain is also popular (in countries where it grows) as a topical application in the treatment of cuts, rashes, stings and burns. Papain ointment is commonly made from fermented papaya flesh, and is applied as a gel-like paste. Harrison Ford was treated for a ruptured disc incurred during filming of Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom by having papain injected into his back.[2] Papain is a protease enzyme (EC 3. ... Proteases (proteinases, peptidases, or proteolytic enzymes) are enzymes that break peptide bonds between amino acids of proteins. ... In cooking, tenderizing is a process to break down collagens in meat to make it more palatable for consumption. ... This article is about the food. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Thai seafood curry Thai cuisine is known for its blend of fundamental flavors in each dish -- hot (spicy), sour, sweet, salty and bitter. ... Papain is a protease enzyme (EC 3. ... For the silent film actor, see Harrison Ford (silent film actor). ... A spinal disc herniation, incorrectly called a slipped disc, is a medical condition affecting the spine, in which a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out. ... Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is an 1984 adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg. ...


Caution should be taken when harvesting, as papaya is known to release a latex fluid when not quite ripe, which can cause irritation and provoke allergic reaction in some people. The papaya fruit and leaves also contains carpaine, an anthelmintic alkaloid which could be dangerous in high doses. Carpaine is one of the major alkaloid components of papaya leaves which has been studied for its cardiovascular effects. ... Anthelmintics (in the U.S., antihelminthics) are drugs that expel parasitic worms (helminthes) from the body or kill them. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ...

Ripe papaya kept for sale at a local market in Bangalore, India
Ripe papaya kept for sale at a local market in Bangalore, India

Women in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and other parts of the world have long used papaya as a folk remedy for contraception and abortion.[citation needed] Medical research in animals has confirmed the contraceptive and abortifacient capability of papaya, and also found that papaya seeds have contraceptive effects in adult male langur monkeys, possibly in adult male humans as well.[3] Unripe papaya is especially effective in large amounts or high doses. Papaya is not teratogenic and will not cause miscarriage in small, ripe amounts. Phytochemicals in papaya may suppress the effects of progesterone.[4] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 383 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (907 × 1,419 pixels, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rajesh Dangi,Bangalore,2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 383 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (907 × 1,419 pixels, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Rajesh Dangi,Bangalore,2006 File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation). ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster making. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Progesterone is a C-21 steroid hormone involved in the female menstrual cycle, pregnancy (supports gestation) and embryogenesis of humans and other species. ...


The black seeds are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground up and used as a substitute for black pepper. In some parts of Asia the young leaves of papaya are steamed and eaten like spinach. Binomial name L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Excessive consumption of papaya, as of carrots, can cause carotenemia, the yellowing of soles and palms which is otherwise harmless.[citation needed] Carotenemia is a condition that turns skin yellow from an intake of beta-carotene. ...


The papaya fruit is susceptible to the Papaya Fruit Fly. This wasp-like fly lays its eggs in young fruit.


Ethnomedical uses

  • The mature (ripe) fruit treats ringworm, green fruits treat high blood pressure, and are used as an aphrodisiac.
  • The fruit can be directly applied topically to skin sores [1].
  • The seeds are anti-inflammatory and analgesic, and they are used to treat stomachache and fungal infections[1].
  • The leaves are used as a heart tonic, analgesic, and to treat stomachache[1].
  • The roots are used as an analgesic[2].

This article is about the fungal infection. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... Stomach ache is a non-medical term used to describe various forms of nausea or abdominal pain. ... toes infection brown with white markings ...

Diseases

Papaya. Moche Culture. Larco Museum Collection. The Moche often depicted papayas in their ceramics.
Papaya. Moche Culture. Larco Museum Collection. The Moche often depicted papayas in their ceramics.[5]

This article is a list of diseases of papaya (Carica papaya). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... The Moche civilization (alternately, the Mochica culture, Early Chimu, Pre-Chimu, Proto-Chimu, etc. ...

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ Entry on Harrison Ford's back treatment.
  3. ^ Lohiya, N. K.; B. Manivannan, P. K. Mishra, N. Pathak, S. Sriram, S. S. Bhande, and S. Panneerdoss (March 2002). "Chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds induces long-term reversible azoospermia in langur monkey". Asian Journal of Andrology 4: 17–26. Retrieved on 2006-11-18. 
  4. ^ Oderinde, O. "Abortifacient properties of Carica papaya (Linn) seeds in female Sprague-Dawley rats". Niger Postgrad Medical Journal. PMID 12163882. 
  5. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Larco Museum (Spanish: ) is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. ... Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) are a publisher, especially of art and illustrated books, founded in 1949 by Walter and Eva Neurath. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Carica papaya

  Results from FactBites:
 
Papaya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (461 words)
The papaya, also known as mamão, tree melon, fruta bomba, lechoza (Venezuela and the Dominican Republic), or pawpaw is the fruit of the tree Carica papaya, in the genus Carica.
It is a small unbranched tree, the single stem growing to 5-10 m tall, with the spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk; the lower trunk is conspicuously scarred with the leaf scars of where older leaves and fruit were borne.
Papaya is rich in an enzyme called papain (a protease which is useful in tenderizing meat) and other proteins.
Papaya (9413 words)
The papaya is one of the leading fruits of southern Mexico and 40% of that country's crop is produced in the state of Veracruz on 14,800 acres (6,000 ha) yielding 120,000 tons annually.
Papayas are frequently blemished by a condition called "freckles", of unknown origin; and mysterious hard lumps of varying size and form may be found in ripe fruits.
The papaya is regarded as a fair source of iron and calcium; a good source of vitamins A, B and G and an excellent source of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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