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Encyclopedia > Papal election
The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. It was richly decorated by the famous Renaissance artist Michelangelo.
The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. It was richly decorated by the famous Renaissance artist Michelangelo.

A papal election is the method by which the Roman Catholic Church fills the office of Bishop of Rome, whose incumbent is known as the Pope, the head of the Church. An occasion steeped in centuries-old tradition, this meeting of clergymen held to select the Pope is referred to as a conclave. The term comes from the Latin phrase cum clave ("with a key"), referring to the "locking away" of the electors during the process. Conclaves have been employed since the Second Council of Lyons decreed in 1274 that the electors should meet in seclusion. They are now held in the Sistine Chapel in the Palace of the Vatican. Download high resolution version (797x1073, 255 KB)Sistine Chapel, the interior. ... Download high resolution version (797x1073, 255 KB)Sistine Chapel, the interior. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance *French Renaissance *German Renaissance *English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Michelangelo (full name Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni) (March 6, 1475 - February 18, 1564) was a Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Saint Peter, given the keys to heaven by Jesus, was the first Bishop of Rome. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... see also Holy Orders The following terms have traditional meanings for the Anglican Church, and possibly beyond: A churchman is in principle a member of a church congregation, in practice someone in holy orders. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Liberal democracy History of democracy Referenda Representative democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections by country Elections by calender Electoral systems Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology... The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convened in Lyon in 1274. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... The Palace of the Vatican, also called the Papal Palace or the Apostolic Palace, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ...


Since the year 1059, the College of Cardinals has served as the sole body charged with the election of the Pope. In earlier times, members of the clergy and the people of Rome were entitled to participate, in much the same way as the laity helped determine the choice of bishops throughout the Catholic Church during this early period. Popes may make rules relating to election procedures; they may determine the composition of the electoral body, replacing the entire College of Cardinals if they were to so choose. Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1...

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Historical development

The procedures relating to the election of the Pope have undergone almost two millennia of development. Procedures similar to the present system were introduced in 1274 with the Second Council of Lyons. A millennium is a period of time equal to one thousand years. ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convened in Lyon in 1274. ...


Electorate

The earliest bishops were most likely chosen by the founders of their communities. Later, however, this method was replaced in Rome and elsewhere with that of election by the clergy and laity of the community and the bishops of neighbouring dioceses. The true electoral body was the clergy, which did not cast votes, instead selecting the Pope by general consensus or by acclamation (with bishops supervising the process). The candidate would then be submitted to the people for their approbation; Romans typically signified approval (or disapproval) tumultuously. The lack of clarity in the election procedures often resulted in the election of rival Popes or antipopes. A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... In religious organizations , the laity comprises all lay persons, i. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Consensus has two common meanings. ... Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ... Antipope Felix V, the last historical Antipope. ...


The Lateran Synod held in 769 officially abolished the theoretical suffrage held by the Roman people, though in 862, a Synod of Rome restored it to Roman noblemen. A major change was introduced in 1059, when Nicholas II decreed that the cardinals were to elect a candidate, who would take office after receiving the assent of the clergy and laity. The most senior cardinals, the Cardinal Bishops, were to meet first and discuss the candidates before summoning the Cardinal Priests and Cardinal Deacons for the actual vote. A Synod of the Lateran held in 1139 removed the requirement that the assent of the lower clergy and the laity be obtained. Events Pope Stephen IV holds a council. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Patricians (patricii) were originally the elite caste in ancient Rome. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Nicholas II, né Gérard de Bourgogne (died either July 19 or July 27, 1061), pope from December 1058 to July 1061, was at the time of his election Bishop of Florence. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals, during a consistory. ... Cardinal Bishops, or Cardinals of the Episcopal Order, are among the most important persons in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Cardinal Priests are the most numerous of the three orders of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Cardinal Deacons are the lowest-ranked of the three orders of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Events Alphonso I (Afonso Henriques) becomes first king of Portugal Second Council of the Lateran Births Emperor Konoe of Japan Deaths Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony Categories: 1139 ...


The cardinals' exclusive right to elect the Pope was questioned during the Papal Schism that began in 1378. After the death of the French-born Pope Gregory XI in that year, Romans rioted to ensure the election of an Italian; the cardinals complied by choosing Pope Urban VI. Later, in the same year, the cardinals moved to Fondi and elected another rival Pope. The Council of Pisa met in 1409 to resolve the conflict, but only managed to elect a third claimant. The conflict was only resolved by the Council of Constance (which met between 1414 and 1418), which received the abdication of one claimant and deposed the two others. The Council then proceeded to elect Pope Martin V, ending the Papal Schism. Since that election, the cardinals have remained the sole electors of Popes. Furthermore, it was declared that no council would have authority over the Pope, and that a papal election could not be undone. Historical map of the Western Schism The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Gregory XI, né Pierre Roger de Beaufort ( 1336 - March 27, 1378), pope from 1370 to 1378, born in Rosiers-dÉgletons, Limousin around 1336, succeeded Urban V in 1370 as one of the Avignon popes. ... Urban VI, née Bartolomeo Prignano ( 1318 – October 15, 1389), pope (1378 to 1389), was a native of Naples. ... Fondi is a small town in Italy, halfway between Rome and Naples. ... The Council of Pisa met in 1409 to solve the Great Schism in the Catholic Church. ... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ... The Council of Constance was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church, called by the Emperor Sigismund, a supporter of Pope John XXIII, the pope recently elected at Pisa. ... Events Council of Constance begins. ... Events May 19 - Capture of Paris by John, Duke of Burgundy September - Beginning of English Siege of Rouen Mircea the Old, ruler of Wallachia dies and is succeeded by Vlad I Uzurpatorul. ... Martin V, né Otto di Colonna (1368 - February 20, 1431), pope from 1417 to 1431, was elected on St. ...


Having fallen to as few as seven members in the 13th century, the College grew until in 1587, Sixtus V limited the cardinalate to 70 members (six Cardinal Bishops, 50 Cardinal Priests, and 14 Cardinal Deacons) but Popes since John XXIII have paid no heed to the guideline. In 1970, Paul VI decreed that cardinals over the age of eighty were ineligible to be part of the electorate, and also increased the limit on the number of cardinal electors to 120. Even this limitation was disregarded by John Paul II. John Paul II also changed the rule so that cardinals that were under eighty on the day the Holy See become vacant but turn eighty before the conclave start still have a vote. Of the Church's current 182 cardinals, 116 are under eighty years of age, and thus qualified to vote on a papal successor. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events February 8 - Mary, Queen of Scots is beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle in England after she is implicated in a plot to murder her cousin, Queen Elizabeth I. July 22 - Colony of Roanoke: A group of English settlers arrive on Roanoke Island off of North Carolina to re-establish the... Sixtus V, né Felice Peretti (December 13, 1521 - August 27, 1590) was pope from 1585 to 1590. ... The Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ... His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef WojtyÅ‚a (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death, making him the third-longest in the history of the Papacy. ...


Choice of the electors

Originally, lay status did not bar election to the Bishopric of Rome. In 769, the candidate was required to be a clergyman; the requirements later became more stringent, with only cardinals being eligible to be elected. In 1179, the Third Council of the Lateran reversed these requirements, once more allowing laymen to be elected (this does not mean the person elected remains an unordained layman while serving as pope; see acceptance and proclamation below). In 1378, Urban VI became the last Pope who was not a cardinal at the time of his election. There is no requirement that a Bishop of Rome be Italian; the present incumbent, Benedict XVI, is German, and his predecessor, John Paul II, was Polish. Prior to Benedict and John Paul, the last Pope to hail from a nation outside Italy was the Dutchman (ethnically German) Adrian VI, elected in 1522. In the current day, any baptised male, except for a heretic or schismatic can be elected by the College of Cardinals.1 Women have never been eligible for the papacy; claims that there was a female Pope, including the supposed Pope Joan, are fictitious. Events Pope Stephen IV holds a council. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... The Third Council of the Lateran met in March, 1179 as the 11th ecumenical council. ... Holy Orders in the modern Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Assyrian, Old Catholic, and Independent Catholic Churches, includes three degrees: bishop, priest, and deacon. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Urban VI, née Bartolomeo Prignano ( 1318 – October 15, 1389), pope (1378 to 1389), was a native of Naples. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef WojtyÅ‚a (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death, making him the third-longest in the history of the Papacy. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the ‘catholic’ or orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... The word schism, from the Greek σχισμα, schisma (from σχιζω, schizo, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization. ... According to medieval legend, Pope Joan was a female pope who reigned from 855 to 858. ...


A simple majority sufficed for an election until 1179, when the Third Lateran Council increased the required majority to two-thirds. Cardinals were not allowed to vote for themselves; an elaborate procedure was adopted to ensure secrecy while at the same time preventing cardinals from voting for themselves2. In 1945, however, Pius XII dispensed with the procedure, compensating for the change by increasing the requisite majority to two-thirds plus one. In 1996, John Paul II restored the two-thirds majority requirement, but not the prohibition on cardinals voting for themselves. John Paul's constitution allows the electorate, by an absolute majority vote, to advise and change the election rules if deadlock still prevails seven ballots after the address by the senior Cardinal Bishop. Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Absolute majority is a supermajoritarian voting requirement which is stricter than a simple majority. ... A deadlock is a situation wherein two or more competing actions are waiting for the other to finish, so neither ever does. ...


Electors formerly made choices by three methods: by acclamation, by compromise and by scrutiny. When voting by acclamation, the cardinals would unanimously declare the new Pope quasi afflati Spiritu Sancto (as if inspired by the Holy Spirit). When voting by compromise, the deadlocked College of Cardinals would select a committee of cardinals to conduct an election. When voting by scrutiny, the electors cast secret ballots. The last election by compromise was that of John XXII (1316), and the last election by acclamation was that of Gregory XV (1621). New rules introduced by John Paul II have formally abolished these long-unused systems; now, election is always by ballot. Politics An acclamation is a form of election not using a ballot. ... A compromise is an agreement (or proposed agreement) to accept a situation in which the parties get variations from what they originally sought, to achieve a compatible outcome. ... Scrutiny (Fr. ... The Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, in Trinitarian Christian belief, is God, the third Person of the Holy Trinity; the word Spirit commonly translates the Greek New Testament word pneuma. ... Pope John XXII, né Jacques dEuse (1249 - December 4, 1334),was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ... Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ... Gregory XV, né Alessandro Ludovisio (January 9, 1554–July 8, 1623), pope (1621-1623), born at Bologna, succeeded Paul V on February 9, 1621. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... A ballot is a device used to record choices made by voters. ...


Secular influence

For the greater part of its history, the Church has been influenced in the choice of its leaders by powerful monarchs and governments. For example, the Roman Emperors once held considerable sway in the elections of Popes. In 418, Honorius settled a controverted election, upholding Boniface I over the challenger Eulalius. He ordered that in future cases, controverted elections would be settled by fresh elections; the method was never applied before its lapse. After the demise of the Western Roman Empire, clout passed to the Ostrogothic Kings of Italy. In 532, John II formally recognised the right of the Ostrogothic monarchs to ratify elections. By the end of the 530s, the Ostrogothic monarchy was overthrown, and power passed to the Byzantine Emperors (who are known as the Eastern Roman Emperors). A procedure was adopted whereby officials were required to notify the Exarch of Ravenna (who would relay the information to the Byzantine Emperor) upon the death of a Pope before proceeding to the election. Once the electors arrived at a choice, they were required to send a delegation to Constantinople requesting the Emperor's consent, which was necessary before the individual elected could take office. Lengthy delays were caused by the sojourns to and from Constantinople; when Benedict II complained about them, the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV acquiesced, ending the confirmation of elections by the Emperors. Thereafter, the Emperor was only required to be notified; the requirement was dispensed with by Zacharias and by his successors. A monarchy, (from the Greek monos, one, and archein, to rule) is a form of government that has a monarch as Head of State. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... // Events December 28 - Boniface succeeds Zosimus as Pope Council of Carthage - discussion of Biblical canon Births Deaths December 26 - Pope Zosimus In Other Fields 418 is the area code for telephone numbers in the Quebec City region of the province of Quebec of Canada. ... Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Augustus Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Boniface I was pope from 418 to 422. ... Antipope December 418-April 419, although elected the day before Boniface I. Honorius, the Emperor, called a Synod - the first intervention by the Emperor in a Papal election - to decide upon the matter. ... The Western Roman Empire is the name given to the western half of the Roman Empire after its division by Diocletian. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The House of Savoy was a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy (a small region between Piedmont, Italy, and France). ... Events January 11 - Nika riots in Constantinople; the cathedral is destroyed. ... John II, was pope from 533 - 535. ... Centuries: 5th century - 6th century - 7th century Decades: 480s - 490s - 500s - 510s - 520s - 530s - 540s - 550s - 560s - 570s - 580s Years: 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 Events and Trends Hagia Sophia, Constantinople, built (532-537) General Belisarius defeats the Vandals in North Africa, and brings... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... In the Byzantine Empire, an exarch was a proconsul or viceroy who governed a province at some remove from the central authorities, the Emperor and the Patriarch of Constantinople. ... For other places named Ravenna, see Ravenna (disambiguation). ... Map of Constantinople. ... Benedict II was pope from 684 to 685. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685) was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... Saint Zacharias (or Zachary), pope (741-752), from a Greek family of Calabria, appears to have been on intimate terms with Gregory III, whom he succeeded (November 741). ...


In the 9th century, a new empire—the Holy Roman Empire, which was German, not Italian—came to exert control over the elections of Popes. While the first two Holy Roman Emperors, Charlemagne and Louis, did not interfere with the Church, Lothar claimed that an election could not be conducted except in the presence of imperial ambassadors. In 898, riots forced John IX to recognise the superintendence of the Holy Roman Emperor; the local secular rulers in Rome also continued to exert a great influence, especially during the tenth century period known as the pornocracy. ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... Louis the Pious making penance at Attigny in 822. ... Lothar is a fictional robot in the Metabarons universe. ... Events Accession of Pope John IX Accession of King Kasyapa IV of Sri Lanka Magyar army headed by Almosh besieges Kiev Magyar tribes found state of Szekesfahervar in Hungary Bologna joins Italian Kingdom End of Yodit era in Ethiopia Foundation of Bhaktapur in Nepal Births Deaths King Udaya II of... John IX, pope from 898 to 900, not only confirmed the judgment of his predecessor Theodore II in granting Christian burial to Formosus, but at a council held at Ravenna decreed that the records of the synod which had condemned him should be burned. ... Pornocracy is a term that has been used to mean government by or domination of government by prostitutes. ...


In 1059, the same papal bull that restricted suffrage to the cardinals also recognised the authority of the Holy Roman Emperor, at the time Henry IV, but only as a "concession" made by the Pope, thus establishing that the Holy Roman Emperor had no authority to intervene in elections except where permitted to do so by papal agreements. Gregory VII was the last to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors; the breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire caused by the Investiture Controversy led to the abolition of the Emperor's role. In 1119, the Holy Roman Empire acceded to the Concordat of Worms, accepting the papal decision. Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... HEINRIC·IMP, Emperor Henry Henry IV (November 11, 1050 – August 7, 1106) was King of Germany from 1056 and Emperor from 1084, until his abdication in 1105. ... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... Events February 2 - Callixtus II becomes Pope August 20 - Henry I of England routes Louis VI at the Battle of Bremule. ... Also called the Pactum Calixtinum, the Concordat of Worms was an agreement between Pope Calixtus II and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V on September 23, 1122 near Worms. ...


From the sixteenth century, certain Catholic nations were allowed to exercise the so-called "right of exclusion" or "veto". By an informal convention, each nation was allowed to veto not more than one papal candidate; any decision made by a nation was conveyed by one of its cardinals. The power of exclusion was, by the same custom, only exercisable by any nation once. Therefore, the nation's cardinals did not announce the use of the power until the very last moment when the candidate in question seemed likely to get elected. No vetoes could be employed after an election. After the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, its place was taken by Austria (which was a part of the Empire and whose ruler was also Holy Roman Emperor). Austria became the last nation to exercise the power in 1903, when Cardinal Puzyna de Kosielsko informed the College of Cardinals that Austria opposed the election of Mariano Cardinal Rampolla (who had received 29 out of 60 votes in one ballot). Consequently, the College chose Giuseppe Cardinal Sarto with 55 votes. St Pius X, as Cardinal Sarto came to be known, abolished the right of the veto. He declared that any cardinal who communicated his government's veto would suffer excommunication, or expulsion from Church communal life. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Prince Jan Maurycy Paweł Cardinal Puzyna de Kosielsko (b. ... Mariano Rampolla (Full name Count Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro) was born on August 17, 1843 in Poizzi, Sicily, and died on December 17, 1913, in Rome. ... Pope Saint Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (June 2, 1835 – August 20, 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope St. ... Excommunication is a religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ...


Conclaves

In earlier years, papal elections sometimes suffered prolonged deadlocks. To resolve them, authorities often resorted to the forced seclusion of the cardinal electors. The method was adopted, for example, in 1216 by the city of Perugia and in 1241 by the city of Rome. After the death of Clement IV in 1268, the city of Viterbo was also forced to resort to the seclusion of cardinals in the episcopal palace. When the cardinals still failed to elect a Pope, the city refused to send in any materials except bread and water. As a result, the cardinals soon elected Gregory X, ending an interregnum of almost three years. Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Perugia (population 150,000) is a city in the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river, and the capital of the province of Perugia. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Clement IV, né Guy Foulques (d. ... Events May 18 - the Principality of Antioch falls to Mameluk Sultan Baibars. ... Viterbo is a comune (township) in the Lazio region of central Italy, and the capital of Viterbo province, 42°25 12°06E, at 326 m (1070 ft) above sea-level. ... Breads are a group of staple foods prepared by baking, steaming, or frying dough consisting minimally of flour and water. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... Gregory X, né Theobald Visconti (ca. ... An interregnum is a period between kings, or between popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


To reduce further delays, Gregory X introduced stringent rules relating to the election procedures. Cardinals were to be secluded in a closed area; they were not even accorded separate rooms. No cardinal was allowed to be attended by more than one servant unless ill. Food was to be supplied through a window; after three days of the meeting, the cardinals were to receive only one dish a day; after five days, they were to receive just bread and water. During the conclave, no cardinal was to receive any ecclesiastical revenue.


Gregory X's strict regulations were later abrogated in 1276 by Adrian V, but after he was elected in 1294 following a two-year vacancy, Celestine V restored them. In 1562, Pius IV issued a papal bull that introduced regulations relating to the secrecy of the ballots and other procedural matters. Gregory XV issued two bulls that covered the most minute of details relating to the election; the first, issued in 1621, concerned electoral processes, while the other bull, issued in 1622, fixed the ceremonies to be observed. In 1904, Pius X issued a constitution consolidating almost all of the previous ones, making some changes. Several reforms were instituted by John Paul II in 1996. Events January 21 - Innocent V elected Gregory Xs successor as Pope March 9 - Augsburg becomes an Imperial Free City June - Rudolph I of Germany declares war on Ottokar II, king of Bohemia July 11, Adrian V elected Innocent Vs successor as Pope John XXI succeeds Adrian V as... Adrian V (also known as Hadrian V), born Ottobuono de Fieschi ( 1205 - August 18, 1276), pope in 1276, was a Genoese who was created cardinal deacon of San Adriano by his uncle Innocent IV. He was sent to England in 1265 by Clement IV to mediate between King Henry III... Events Catholicos of Armenia returns to Sis Pope Boniface VIII becomes Pope Births Charles IV of France Deaths John I of Brabant Roger Bacon – English philosopher and scientist Kublai Khan Categories: 1294 ... Celestine V, né Pietro di Morrone (1215 - May 19, 1296) was pope in the year 1294. ... Events Earliest English slave-trading expedition under John Hawkins. ... Pius IV, né Giovanni Angelo Medici (March 31, 1499 - December 9, 1565), pope from 1559 to 1565, was born of humble parentage in Milan. ... Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


The location of the conclaves was not fixed until the fourteenth century. Since the Western Schism, however, elections have always been held in Rome (except in 1800, when Neapolitan troops occupying Rome forced the election to be held in Venice), and normally in the Vatican City (which has, since the Lateran treaties of 1929, been recognised as an independent state). Within Rome and the Vatican City, different locations have been used for the election. Since 1846, when the Quirinal Palace was used, the Sistine Chapel has always served as the location of the election. Popes have often written "election constitutions" fine-tuning the rules for the election of their successors: Pope Pius XII's Vacantis Apostolicae Sedis of 1945 governed the conclave of 1958, Pope John XXIII's Summi Pontificis Electio of 1962 that of 1963, and Pope Paul VI's Romano Pontifici Eligendo of 1975 those of 1978. Historical map of the Western Schism The Western Schism or Papal Schism was a split within the Catholic Church in 1378. ... 1800 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... Location within Italy Venice (Italian Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


Modern practice

In 1996, John Paul II promulgated a new Apostolic Constitution, called Universi Dominici Gregis (Shepherd of the Lord's Whole Flock), which, unless superseded by later regulations, now governs the election of the Pope's successor. The procedures outlined, however, in many cases date to much earlier times. Universi Dominici Gregis is the sole constitution governing the election; it abrogates all constitutions previously issued by Popes. Under Universi Dominici Gregis, the cardinals are to be lodged in a purpose-built edifice, the Domus Sanctæ Marthæ, but are to continue to vote in the Sistine Chapel. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... An Apostolic Constitution is a highest category of a document of instruction issued by the Roman Catholic Pope or by a Church council with the approval of the Pope. ... Universi Dominici Gregis is an Apostolic Constitution of the Roman Catholic Church issued by Pope John Paul II on February 22, 1996. ... Domus Sanctæ Marthæ was built by Pope John Paul II as a residence for papal conclave participants. ...


Several duties are performed by the Dean of the College of Cardinals, who is always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Dean is not entitled to participate in the conclave due to age, his place is taken by the Sub-Dean, who is also always a Cardinal Bishop. If the Sub-Dean also cannot participate, the senior Cardinal Bishop participating performs the functions. The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. ...


Since the College of Cardinals is a small body, some have suggested that the electorate should be expanded. Proposed reforms include a plan to replace the College of Cardinals as the electoral body with the Synod of Bishops, which includes many more members. Under present procedure, however, the Synod may only meet while called by the Pope. Universi Dominici Gregis explicitly provides that even if a Synod or ecumenical council is in session at the time of a Pope's death, it may not perform the election. Upon the Pope's death, either body's proceedings are suspended, to be resumed only upon the order of the new Pope. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ...


It is considered poor form to campaign for the position of Pope. However, there is inevitably always much speculation about which Cardinals have serious prospects of being elected. Speculation tends to mount when a Pope is ill or aged and shortlists of potential candidates appear in the media. A Cardinal who is considered to be a prospect for the papacy is referred to informally as being papabile (plural noun: papabili), the term being coined by Vatican watchers in the mid-twentieth century. Papabile (plural: Papabili) is an unofficial Italian term first coined by Vaticanologists and now used internationally in many languages to describe cardinals of whom it is thought likely or possible that they will be elected pope. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


Death of the Pope

The Cardinal Camerlengo proclaims a papal death.
The Cardinal Camerlengo proclaims a papal death.

The death of the Pope is verified by the Cardinal Camerlengo, or Chamberlain, who traditionally performed the task by gently striking the Pope's head with a small silver hammer and calling out his Christian (not papal) name thrice. During the twentieth century the use of the hammer in this ritual has been abandoned; under Universi Dominici Gregis, the Camerlengo must merely declare the Pope's death by calling him thrice by his Christian name in the presence of the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, and of the Cleric Prelates, Secretary and Chancellor of the Apostolic Camera. The Cardinal Camerlengo takes possession of the Fisherman's Ring worn by the Pope; the Ring, along with the papal seal, is later destroyed before the College of Cardinals. The tradition originated to avoid forgery of documents, but today merely symbolises the end of the pope's authority. Cardinal Camerlengo certifying a papal death. ... Cardinal Camerlengo certifying a papal death. ... The title Camerlengo ( Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court, referring either to the Chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church, to the Chamberlain of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or to various lesser dignitaries. ... The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ...


During the sede vacante, as the papal vacancy is known, certain limited powers pass to the College of Cardinals, which is convoked by the Dean of the College of Cardinals. All cardinals are obliged to attend the General Congregation of Cardinals, except those who are over eighty (but those cardinals may choose to attend if they please). The Particular Congregation, which deals with the day-to-day matters of the Church, includes the Cardinal Camerlengo and the three Cardinal Assistants—one Cardinal Bishop, one Cardinal Priest and one Cardinal Deacon—chosen by lot. Every three days, new Cardinal Assistants are chosen by lot. The Cardinal Camerlengo and Cardinal Assistants are responsible, among other things, for maintaining the election's secrecy. Sede vacante in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church. ...


The Congregations must make certain arrangements in respect of the Pope's burial, which by tradition takes place from four to six days of the Pope's death, leaving time for pilgrims to see the dead pontiff, and is to be followed by a nine-day period of mourning (this is known as the novemdiales, Latin for "nine days"). The Congregations also fix the date and time of the commencement of the conclave. The conclave normally takes place fifteen days after the death of the Pope, but the Congregations may extend the period to a maximum of twenty days in order to permit other cardinals to arrive in the Vatican City. Underwater funeral in Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seafrom an edition with drawings by Alphonse de Neuville and Edouard Riou. ...


A vacancy in the papal office may also result from a papal abdication, though no pope has abdicated since Celestine V in 1294 and Gregory XII in 1409. In 1294, Pope Celestine V promulgated a canon law explicitly establishing the right to resign the office of Pope, and did so himself after being in office only about five months. ... Celestine V, né Pietro di Morrone (1215 - May 19, 1296) was pope in the year 1294. ... Events Catholicos of Armenia returns to Sis Pope Boniface VIII becomes Pope Births Charles IV of France Deaths John I of Brabant Roger Bacon – English philosopher and scientist Kublai Khan Categories: 1294 ... Gregory XII, né Angelo Correr or Corraro (Venice 1326 (other sources say between 1335 and 1345) - October 18, 1417), pope from 1406 to 1415, succeeded Innocent VII on November 30, 1406, having been chosen at Rome by a conclave consisting of only fifteen cardinals, under the express condition that, should... Events January 1 - The Welsh surrender Harlech Castle to the English. ...


Beginning of the election

On the morning of the day designated by the Congregations of Cardinals, the cardinal electors assemble in St Peter's Basilica to celebrate the Eucharist. Then, they gather in the afternoon in the Pauline Chapel of the Palace of the Vatican, proceeding to the Sistine Chapel while singing the Veni Creator. The Cardinals then take an oath to observe the procedures set down by the apostolic constitutions; to, if elected, defend the liberty of the Holy See; to maintain secrecy; and to disregard the instructions of secular authorities on voting. The Cardinal Dean reads the oath aloud in full; in order of precedence, the other cardinal electors merely state, while touching the Gospels, that they "do so promise, pledge and swear." The Basilica of Saint Peter from Castel SantAngelo. ... The Eucharist is either the celebration of the Christian sacrament commemorating Christ’s Last Supper, or the consecrated bread and wine of this sacrament. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ...


After all the cardinals present have taken the oath, the Master of the Papal Liturgical Celebrations orders all individuals other than the cardinals and conclave participants to leave the Chapel. The Master himself may remain, as may one ecclesiastic designated by the Congregations prior to the commencement of the election. The ecclesiastic makes a speech concerning the problems facing the Church and on the qualities the new Pope needs to have. After the speech concludes, the ecclesiastic leaves. Following the recitation of prayers, the Cardinal Dean asks if any doubts relating to procedure remain. After the clarification of the doubts, the election may commence. Cardinals who arrive after the conclave has begun are admitted nevertheless. An ill cardinal may leave the conclave and later be readmitted; a cardinal who leaves for any reason other than illness may not return to the conclave.


Each cardinal elector may be accompanied by two attendants or conclavists (three if the cardinal elector is ill). The Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, two Masters of Ceremonies, two officers of the Papal Sacristy and an ecclesiastic assisting the Dean of the College of Cardinals are also admitted to the conclave. Priests are available to hear the confession in different languages; two doctors are also admitted. Finally, a strictly limited number of servant staff are permitted for housekeeping and the preparing and serving of meals3. Secrecy is maintained during the conclave; the cardinals as well as the conclavists and staff are not permitted to disclose any information relating to the election. Cardinal electors may not correspond or converse with anyone outside the conclave, by post, radio, telephone or otherwise. Universi Dominici Gregis specifically prohibits media such as newspapers, the radio, and television. In criminal proceedings, a confession is a document in which a suspect admits having committed a crime. ... A British pillar box The postal system is a system by which written documents typically enclosed in envelopes, and also small packages containing other matter, are delivered to destinations around the world. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Voting

On the afternoon of the first day, one ballot may be held. If a ballot take place on the afternoon of the first day and no-one is elected, or no ballot had taken place, four ballots are held on each successive day: two in each morning and two in each afternoon. If no result is obtained after three vote days of balloting, the process is suspended for a maximum of one day for prayer and an address by the senior Cardinal Deacon. After seven further ballots, the process may again be similarly suspended, with the address now being delivered by the senior Cardinal Priest. If, after another seven ballots, no result is achieved, voting is suspended once more, the address being delivered by the senior Cardinal Bishop. After a further seven ballots, the cardinal electors may decide by an absolute majority, to advise and change the election rules. This includes the possibility of eliminating all candidates except the two who have received the greatest number of votes in the previous ballot and reducing the majority require for an election. However, there can be no waiving of the requirement that a valid election takes place only by an absolute majority of the votes.


The process of voting comprises three phases: the "pre-scrutiny," the "scrutiny," and the "post-scrutiny." During the pre-scrutiny, the Masters of the Ceremonies prepare ballot papers bearing the words Eligo in Summum Pontificem ("I elect as Supreme Pontiff") and provide at least two to each cardinal elector. As the cardinals begin to write down their votes, the Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations and the Masters of Ceremonies exit; the junior Cardinal Deacon then closes the door. The junior Cardinal Deacon then draws by lot nine names; the first three become Scrutineers, the second three Infirmarii and the last three Revisers. New Scrutineers, Infirmarii and Revisers are not selected again after the first ballot.


Then the scrutiny phase of the election commences. The cardinal electors proceed, in order of precedence, to take their completed ballots (which bear only the name of the individual voted for) to the altar, where the Scrutineers stand. Before casting the ballot, each cardinal elector takes a Latin oath, which translates to: "I call as my witness Christ the Lord who will be my judge, that my vote is given to the one who before God I think should be elected." If any cardinal elector is in the Chapel, but cannot proceed to the altar due to infirmity, the last Scrutineer may go to him and take his ballot after the oath is recited. If any cardinal elector is by reason of infirmity confined to his room, the Infirmarii go to their rooms with ballot papers and a box. When the Infirmarii return to the Chapel, the ballots are counted to ensure that their number matches with the number of ill cardinals; thereafter, they are deposited in the appropriate receptacle. The oath is taken by all cardinals only at the first vote. Christ, is the English representation of the Greek word Χριστός (transliterated as Khristós), which means anointed. ...


Once all votes have been cast, the first Scrutineer chosen shakes the container, and the last Scrutineer removes and counts the ballots. If the number of ballots does not correspond to the number of cardinal electors present, the ballots are burnt, and the vote is repeated. If, however, no irregularities are observed, the ballots may be opened and the votes counted. Each ballot is unfolded by the first Scrutineer; all three Scrutineers separately write down the name indicated on the ballot. The last of the Scrutineers reads the name aloud.


Once all of the ballots have been opened, the final post-scrutiny phase begins. The Scrutineers add up all of the votes, and the Revisers check the ballots and the names on the Scrutineers' lists to ensure that no error was made. The ballots are then all burnt by the Scrutineers with the assistance of the Secretary of the College and the Masters of Ceremonies. If the first election held in any given morning or afternoon does not result in an election, the cardinals proceed to the next vote immediately; the papers from both ballots are burnt together at the end of the second vote. The colour of the smoke signals the results to the people assembled in St Peter's Square. Dark smoke signals that the ballot did not result in an election, while white smoke signals that a new Pope was chosen. Originally, damp straw was added to the fire to create dark smoke; since 1958 chemicals have been used. In addition, bells ring after a successful election in case the white smoke is not unambiguously white. 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Acceptance and proclamation

Once the election concludes, the junior Cardinal Deacon summons the Secretary of the College of Cardinals and the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations into the hall. The Cardinal Dean then asks the Pope-elect if he assents to the election ("Do you accept your canonical election as Supreme Pontiff?"). If he does, and is already a bishop, he immediately takes office. If he is not a bishop, however, he must be first ordained as one before he can assume office. If a priest is elected, the Cardinal Dean ordains him bishop; if a layman is elected, then the Cardinal Dean first ordains him priest, and only then bishop. Only after becoming a bishop does the Pope-elect take office. A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ...


Since 533, the new Pope has also decided on the name by which he is to be called at this time. Pope John II was the first to adopt a new papal name; he felt that his original name, Mercurius, was inappropriate, as it was also the name of a Roman god. In most cases, even if such considerations are absent, Popes tend to choose new papal names; the last Pope to reign under his baptismal name was Pope Marcellus II (1555). After the papal name is chosen, the officials are readmitted to the conclave, and the Master of Pontifical Liturgical writes a document recording the acceptance and the new name of the Pope. Events February 1 - John becomes Pope, succeeding Pope Boniface II, who had died in 532. ... John II, was pope from 533 - 535. ... This article treats Mercury in cult practice and in archaic Rome. ... Marcellus II, né Marcellus Corvini (May 6, 1501 - May 6, 1555), cardinal of Santa Croce, a native of the area of Ancona, Italy, was elected pope to succeed Julius III on April 9, 1555, but his feeble constitution succumbed to the fatigues of the conclave, the exhausting ceremonies connected with... Events Russia breaks 60 year old truce with Sweden by attacking Finland May 23 - Paul IV becomes Pope. ...


Later, the new Pope goes to the "Room of Tears," a small red room next to the Sistine Chapel. The origin of the name is uncertain, but seems to imply the commixture of joy and sorrow felt by the newly chosen holder of the monumental office. The Pope dresses by himself, selecting among the three sizes of white robes made available, and returns to the conclave, where the Cardinal Camerlengo places the Fisherman's Ring on his finger and each cardinal pays homage to the new Pope, who sits on a footstool near the altar.


Next, the senior Cardinal Deacon (the Cardinal Protodeacon) appears at the main balcony of the basilica's façade to proclaim the new pope with the Latin phrase:

Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum:
Habemus Papam!
Eminentissimum ac Reverendissimum Dominum,
Dominum [forename],
Sanctæ Romanæ Ecclesiæ Cardinalem [surname],
qui sibi nomen imposuit [papal name].4 Habemus Papam refers to the announcement given in Latin by the Senior Cardinal Deacon upon the election of a new Pope. ...

("I announce to you a great joy:
We have a Pope!
The Most Eminent and Most Reverend Lord,
Lord [forename],
Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church [surname],
who takes to himself the name [papal name].")

It has happened in the past that the Cardinal Protodeacon has himself been the person elected Pope. In such an event the announcement is made by the next senior Deacon, who has thus succeeded as Protodeacon, and not by the new Pope himself. In 1903 Protodeacon Prospero Cardinal Caterini was physically incapable of completing the announcement, so another made it for him. 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ...


The new Pope then gives his first apostolic blessing, Urbi et Orbi ("to the City [Rome] and to the World"). Formerly, the Pope would be crowned by the triregnum or Triple Tiara at the Papal Coronation. John Paul I did not want the elaborate coronation ceremony for himself, choosing instead to be consecrated in a Papal Inauguration ceremony. Urbi et Orbi, literally to the City (of Rome) and to the World, was a standard opening of Roman proclamations. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno,[1] is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ... Pope Pius XII, in coronation robes and wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 to September 28, 1978. ... Pope John Paul I at the first papal inauguration, in September 1978. ...


Historical voting patterns

The newly elected pope often contrasts dramatically with his predecessor, a tendency expressed by the Italian axiom "After a fat pope a lean pope". Past cardinals have often voted for someone radically different to the pope who appointed them. The controversial one-time populist turned conservative, long-lived Pope Pius IX (18461878) was succeeded by the aristocratic diplomatic Pope Leo XIII (18781903). He in turn was succeeded by the lower-class, bluntly outspoken Pope Pius X (19031914). Pius's rugged ultraconservatism contrasted with the low-key moderatism of Giacomo Cardinal della Chiesa, Pope Benedict XV (19141922), which again contrasted with the former librarian mountain-climber Achille Cardinal Ratti, Pope Pius XI (19221939), who led Roman Catholicism with an authoritarianism more akin to Pope Pius X, who also shared his temper. Pius XI was replaced in 1939 by the aristocratic ultra-insider Curialist, Pius XI's Secretary of State Eugenio Cardinal Pacelli, Pope Pius XII (19391958). Pius XII was seen as one of the great thinkers in the papacy in the 20th century. He was also the ultimate insider; his family were descended from the papal aristocracy, with his brother working as a lawyer for the Holy See. Pius was then replaced by the lower-class, elderly, popular, informal Pope John XXIII (19581963). The contrast between diffident, intellectual and distant Pius XII and the humble, in his own words "ordinary" Good Pope John was dramatic, with none more surprised at the election than Pope John himself, who had his own return rail ticket in his pocket when he was elected. The Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate of over 31 years, from June 16, 1846 until his death. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... His Holiness Pope Leo XIII, born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci (March 2, 1810–July 20, 1903), was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Blessed Pius IX on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his own death. ... 1878 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... Pope Saint Pius X, born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (June 2, 1835 – August 20, 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII. He was the first pope since the Counter-Reformation Pope St. ... 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XV, born Giacomo della Chiesa (November 21, 1854 – January 22, 1922), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from September 3, 1914 to 1922; he succeeded Pope Saint Pius X. // Early life Arms of Benedict XV Della Chiesa was born... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... His Holiness Pope Pius XI, born Achille Ratti (May 31, 1857 - February 10, 1939), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ... 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Roman Curia is the complex of the organs and the authorities that constitute the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


John proved to be a radical break with the two previous popes, and indeed with most of the popes of the 20th century. After a short but dramatic pontificate during which he convoked the Second Vatican Council which resulted in wide ranging changes in the church, the surprise John was replaced by the widely expected choice Giovanni Cardinal Montini, whom many believed would have been elected in 1958, had he been a cardinal then. Montini, Pope Paul VI (19631978) like Pius XII, was a curialist. (He had worked with Pacelli in the 1930s and 1940s in the curia.) Yet Pope Paul was succeeded (albeit for a short time) by the non-Curialist Pope John Paul I (1978), whom it was said was chosen not as an experienced insider nor administrator, but as a "simple, holy man". He in turn was succeeded by the non-Italian Pope John Paul II (19782005), who was an intellectual heavyweight unprecedented since Pope Pius XII. He was then replaced by the German Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Fatih and at the same time, the Dean of the College of Cardinals, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, the future Pope Benedict XVI after more than a quarter of a century in 2005. He is the second non-Italian and the first German Pontiff to be elected since Pope Adrian VI (sources claim that Adrian was a Dutch living in an area occupied by Germany, so he is German in terms of his citizenship). The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 to September 28, 1978. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death, making him the third-longest in the history of the Papacy. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Venerable Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as Pope and sovereign of Vatican City from March 2, 1939 to 1958. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeferre, to bring in front, i. ... The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany) is the 265th reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle...


Notes

1. Sedevacantists hold that the office of Pope was vacated either by the election of Pope John XXIII (whom they deem a heretic), or by the enactment of major reforms by the Second Vatican Council (support for which they deem heretical). Some factions of sedevacantism have held their own papal elections (such as the supporters of Lucian Pulvermacher), whilst others consider the papacy vacant, often since some date of a purported legitimate Pope's death, usually Giuseppe Cardinal Siri, whom some sedevacantists claim ruled in exile from 1958 to 1989 as Pope Gregory XVII. Siri never claimed to be Pope, served Popes John XXIII, Paul VI and both Popes John Paul, and died in full communion with Rome.
Cardinals used intricate ballot papers, one of which is shown folded above.
Cardinals used intricate ballot papers, one of which is shown folded above.
2. Each ballot paper was divided into three parts; in the first was written the cardinal's name, in the second the name of the individual voted for, and in the third a motto and number of the cardinal's choice (which were to be used to verify that each cardinal wrote only his own name on the ballot). The first and third divisions were folded down and sealed, with the middle exposed; the back was heavily decorated so that the writing would not be visible (see illustration on right). Thus, when the Scrutineers (the vote counters) removed a ballot paper from the ballot box, they could see only the name of the candidate voted for. If the winning candidate received exactly two-thirds of the votes, the ballot papers were unsealed to ensure that the winning cardinal did not vote for himself. Modern ballots differ from the complicated older ballots in that the cardinals do not write anything other than the name of the individual voted for on them; furthermore, they are only folded once and need not be specially sealed.
3. Formerly, cardinals regularly had meals sent in from their homes. Much pageantry accompanied the conveyance of food, which was taken from a cardinal's home to the Vatican in a state coach. An officer known as the Seneschal Dapifer was responsible for ensuring that the food was not poisoned. The dishes, in small boxes covered with green and violet drapery, were carried through the hall, preceded by an individual carrying the cardinal's ceremonial mace and by the Seneschal Dapifer bearing a serviette on the shoulder. Before the cardinals could receive them, the dishes were carefully inspected to make sure that no correspondence was enclosed in it. These ceremonies have not been observed since the nineteenth century.
4. A WAV file of Albino Cardinal Luciani's announcement as Pope John Paul I is available here.

Sedevacantism is the term commonly used to denote the belief, held by a minority of Traditionalist Catholics, that some or all of the men generally recognized as Popes since the death of Pope Pius XII in 1958 (Pope John XXIII, Pope Paul VI, Pope John Paul I, Pope John Paul... The Blessed Pope John XXIII (Latin: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... The new pope, formerly a priest, is raised to the episcopate by Cardinal Bateman Father Earl Lucian Pulvermacher, OFM Cap (born April 20, 1918) became Pope Pius XIII of the true Catholic Church in 1998. ... Giuseppe Cardinal Siri (20 May 1906 - 2 May 1989) was a senior cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. ... His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... Pope John Paul may refer to: Pope John Paul I (1978) Pope John Paul II (1978-2005), only Polishman who has occupied the papal chair. ... Folded conclave ballot. ... Folded conclave ballot. ... This article needs cleanup. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for WAVEform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ...

See also

An elective monarchy is a monarchy whose reigning king or queen is elected in some form. ... Sede vacante in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church. ... In 1294, Pope Celestine V promulgated a canon law explicitly establishing the right to resign the office of Pope, and did so himself after being in office only about five months. ... List of Papal conclaves since 1800 Papal conclave, 1800 Papal conclave, 1823 Papal conclave, 1829 Papal conclave, 1830-1831 Papal conclave, 1846 Papal conclave, 1878 Papal conclave, 1903 Papal conclave, 1914 Papal conclave, 1922 Papal conclave, 1939 Papal conclave, 1958 Papal conclave, 1963 Papal conclave, 1978 (August) Papal conclave, 1978...

References

Papal Conclaves 1800–2005

1800 | 1823 | 1829 | 1830–1831 | 1846 | 1878 | 1903 | 1914 | 1922 | 1939 | 1958 | 1963 | 1978 (August) | 1978 (October) | 2005 The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... The Papal conclave of 1800 followed the death of Pope Pius VI on 29 August 1799 and led to the selection of Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, later Pius VII, as pope on 14 March 1800. ... The 1823 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Leo XII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... The 1829 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Pius VIII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... A Papal conclave was held commencing December 14, 1830 after the death of Pope Pius VIII. It did not conclude until the February 2, 1831 election of Mauro Alberto Cappellari as Pope Gregory XVI. No conclave since has lasted as much as one week, but at the time no conclave... The death of Pope Gregory XVI on 1 June 1846 triggered off the Papal conclave of 1846. ... The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. ... The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. ... The Papal conclave of 1914 was held to choose a successor Pope Pius X, who had died in the Vatican on 20 August 1914. ... After a reign of just eight years, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 of pneumonia. ... Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State, was elected pope. ... Background Pope Pius XII (1939-1958) His death caused the 1958 conclave. ... Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) Pope John XXIII died of cancer on June 3 in the Apostolic Palace in the middle of the Vatican Council II. He was commonly regarded as having been the most popular pope in the 20th century to that point. ... Following the death of Paul VI on August 6, 1978, the first conclave of the year was held on August 25–26 in Vatican City. ... Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) The winner of the October 1978 conclave. ... The Papal conclave of 2005 began on April 18, 2005 and ended the next day after four ballots. ...

Papal rituals, symbols & ceremonial Vatican City: Coat of Arms

Apostolic Palace | Papal ceremonial | Coat of Arms of popes | Conclave | Coronation | Holy See | Inauguration | Papal Oath | Papal Ring | Sedia Gestoria | Sistine Chapel | Basilica of St. John Lateran | Pallium | St. Peter's Basilica | St. Peter's Square | Papal Tiara | Vatican City
Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The Apostolic Palace , also called the Papal Palace or the Palace of the Vatican, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ... Every pope of the Roman Catholic Church has his own personal coat of arms that serves as a symbol of his papacy. ... Pope Pius XII, in coronation robes and wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... Pope John Paul I at the first papal inauguration, in September 1978. ... The Papal Oath, also known as the oath against modernism, was an oath traditionally sworn by the popes of the Roman Catholic Church during their Papal Coronation. ... The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ... Pope John Paul I being carried on the Sedia Gestatoria The sedia gestatoria is the portable throne on which Popes are sometimes carried. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ... A Pallium The Pallium or Pall (derived, so far as the name is concerned, from the Roman pallium or palla, a woollen cloak) is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church, originally peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries past bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as... The Basilica of Saint Peter from Castel SantAngelo. ... Berninis piazza was extended by the Via della Conciliazione, Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno,[1] is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Papal conclave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6563 words)
A papal conclave is the process by which the Roman Catholic Church elects the Bishop of Rome who, as he is considered the "Successor of Saint Peter," is also the Pope, the head of the Church.
The last election by compromise was that of John XXII (1316), and the last election by acclamation was that of Gregory XV (1621).
Gregory VII was the last to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors; the breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire caused by the Investiture Controversy led to the abolition of the Emperor's role.
HighBeam Encyclopedia - papal election (549 words)
PAPAL ELECTION [papal election] election of the pope by the college of cardinals meeting in secret conclave in the Sistine Chapel not less than 15 nor more than 18 days after the death of the previous pontiff.
Participation in the election was limited (1059) to the cardinals by Nicholas II; the conclave was set up (1274) in its modern form by Gregory X. Decrees by Pius XII in 1945, John XXIII in 1962, Paul VI in 1975, and John Paul II in 1996 now fix the regulations for papal elections.
PAPAL ELECTIONS: Bizarre and bloody fill history: As the selection of the first pope of the new millennium nears, the church continues to distance itself from the corruption and murder that sullied some transitions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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