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Encyclopedia > Papal conclave, 1878

The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. The conclave occurred in circumstances different from those of any previous conclave. Blessed Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878, making him the longest-reigning Pope since the Apostle St. ... View across St. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Unique circumstances

The Sistine Chapel, new conclave location now that the Quirinal Palace was no longer available
The Sistine Chapel, new conclave location now that the Quirinal Palace was no longer available

The unique circumstances were Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (797x1073, 255 KB)Sistine Chapel, the interior. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (797x1073, 255 KB)Sistine Chapel, the interior. ...

  • the longest reign of any other pope since St. Peter, meant that Pius IX had had a greater opportunity than any pope in history to shape the College of Cardinals by selecting people who shared his world and religious vision.
  • the first conclave in which the person selected would reign as pope but not as sovereign of the Papal States, the latter having been swept away by the unification of Italy in 1870.

The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Map of the Papal States. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Quirinal Palace once housed popes, then kings, and now presidents. ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ...

Questions facing the cardinals

When the cardinals assembled, they faced a dilemma. Should they choose a pope who would continue to espouse Pius IX's reactionary religious and political views, and would continue to refuse to accept Italy's Law of Guarantees guaranteeing the pope religious liberty in the Kingdom of Italy? Or should they turn away from the policies of Pius IX and choose a more liberal pope who could work for reconciliation with the King of Italy? Would choosing such a policy be seen as a betrayal of Pius IX, the self-proclaimed "Prisoner in the Vatican"? Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet, generally used as a pejorative, originally applied in the context of the French Revolution to counter-revolutionaries who wished to restore the real or imagined conditions of the monarchical Ancien Régime. ... After the overthrow of the Papal States in 1870, Italys Law of Guarantees accorded the Pope certain honors and privileges similar to those enjoyed by the King of Italy, including the right to send and receive ambassadors as if he still had temporal power as ruler of a state. ...


Other broader issues included

Though not explicitly spelt out, another issue was raised by the length of Pope Pius's reign. Should they elect another young pope who might reign for decades, or should they go for an older man and so a shorter reign? The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) (1870/75-1940/46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... It has been suggested that Ex cathedra be merged into this article or section. ... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ...


Conclave

With what many Churchmen believed was the "unstable" and "anti-Catholic" situation in a Rome that was no longer controlled by the Church, some cardinals, notably the Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster, Cardinal Manning, urged that the conclave be moved outside Rome, perhaps even out of Italy to Spain. However the Camerlengo, Gioachino Cardinal Pecci, advocated otherwise, with an initial vote among cardinals to move to Spain being overturned in a later vote. The conclave finally assembled in the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican on 18 February 1878. The title Camerlengo (Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court, referring either to the Chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church, to the Chamberlain of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or to various lesser dignitaries. ... Pope Leo XIII Supreme Pontiff (1878-1903) Leo XIII, né Gioacchino Pecci (March 2, 1810 - July 20, 1903) was Pope from 1878 to 1903. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Unusually for conclaves, the voting patterns became public.


Ballot 1 (morning 19 Feb)

Image:Pope-leo-xiii-02.jpg
Pope Leo XIII
The new pope.

On the first ballot, held on the morning of the 19 February the votes were February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

  • Cardinal Pecci 19 votes
  • Cardinal Bilio 6 votes
  • Cardinal Franchi 4 votes

Ballot 2 (afternoon 19 Feb)

  • Pecci 26
  • Bilio 7
  • Franchi 2

Ballot 3 (morning 20 February)

  • Pecci 44 - elected

Result, implications, and aftermath

The election of Cardinal Pecci, who took the regnal name of Pope Leo XIII, was a victory for the liberals. Pecci had been an effective bishop whose diocese had moved from the Papal States to the Kingdom of Italy successfully, without Church problems. He was seen as a diplomatic pragmatist with the tact and flexibility opponents of the previous pope believed Pius IX lacked. At 68 Leo was also young enough to do the job without hindrance of health problems, but old enough to offer the prospect of a relatively short reign of ten to fifteen years. Whereas Pius IX was seen as having isolated the Church from international opinion (his locking of Jews into ghettos and treatment of minorities had been condemned by world leaders such as William Ewart Gladstone), Leo was seen as an "internationalist" who could earn back the Vatican some international respect. A regnal name, or reign name, is a formal name used by some popes and monarchs during their reigns. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... A ghetto is an area where people from a specific racial or ethnic background or united in a given culture or religion live as a group, voluntarily or involuntarily, in milder or stricter seclusion. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ...


Pope Leo came to be seen as embodying a dramatic difference to the papacy of Pope Pius. In one area however they were similar. Though always seemingly in poor health and delicate he reigned for an unexpected 25 years, becoming the third longest-reigning pope in history (until his record was surpassed by Pope John Paul II on March 14, 2004. Far from being a short reigned pope, Leo surprised all by living to the age of 93, dying 20 July 1903, making him the oldest Pope at the time of his passing. March 14 is the 73rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (74th in leap years) with 292 days remaining in the year. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...


Conclave factfile

Pope Pius IX (1846-1878), whose reactionary policies the cardinals rejected in selecting the liberal Cardinal Pecci
Pope Pius IX (1846-1878), whose reactionary policies the cardinals rejected in selecting the liberal Cardinal Pecci
  • Unavailable through ill-health:
    • Godefroy Cardinal Brossais-Saint-Marc, Archbishop of Rennes (France)
PAPAL CONCLAVE, 1878
LENGTH OF CONCLAVE 2 days
NUMBER OF BALLOTS 3
ELECTORS 64
Absent 3
Present 61
Africa 0
Latin America 0
North America 0
Asia 0
Europe 61
Oceania 0
Mid-East 0
Italians 40
VETO USED? no
DECEASED POPE PIUS IX (1846-1878)
NEW POPE LEO XIII (1878-1903)
Papal Conclaves 1800–2005

1800 | 1823 | 1829 | 1830–1831 | 1846 | 1878 | 1903 | 1914
1922 | 1939 | 1958 | 1963 | August 1978 | October 1978 | 2005 Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... Paul Cullen (1803-1878) was a cardinal, and the Catholic primate of Ireland. ... Primate of Ireland is a title possessed by the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland (Anglican) Archbishops of Dublin. ... Primate of Ireland is a title possessed by the Roman Catholic and Church of Ireland (Anglican) Archbishops of Dublin. ... John McCloskey, later John Cardinal McCloskey, (March 10, 1810 - October 10, 1885) born to Irish immigrants, in Brooklyn, was the fifth bishop (second archbishop) of the Roman Catholic diocese of New York. ... St. ... Luigi Cardinal Amat di San Filippo e Sorso (born June 20, 1796, Sinnai, archdiocese of Cagliari, Sardinia; died March 30, 1878, Rome, Italy) was the dean of the College of Cardinals during the last part of the record long reign of Pope Pius IX. He did his early education wholly... The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. ... Cardinal Friedrich Johannes Jacob Celestin von Schwarzenberg (sometimes Friedrich Johannes Joseph Schwarzenberg or Friedrich, Prince of Schwarzenberg; born April 6, 1809, Vienna, Austria; died March 27, 1885, Vienna, Austria) was a Catholic churchman of the nineteenth century in Austria and the present-day Czech Republic (then part of the Austro... The following is a list of bishops and archbishops of Prague: Bishops of Prague 1. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810 – July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, having succeeded Pope Pius IX (1846–78) on February 20, 1878 and reigning until his death in 1903. ... The title Camerlengo (Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court, referring either to the Chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church, to the Chamberlain of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or to various lesser dignitaries. ... Lucien Louis Joseph Napoleon Cardinal Bonaparte (November 15, 1828-November 19, 1895) was born in Rome, the son of Charles Lucien Bonaparte and his wife Zénaïde. ... The Archdiocese of Cambrai comprises the greater part of the département of Nord of France. ... The archbishop of Paris is one of twenty-three archbishops in France. ... For other uses, see Russia (disambiguation). ... 1882 caricature from Punch Henry Edward Cardinal Manning (July 15, 1808 - January 14, 1892) was an English Catholic Archbishop and Cardinal. ... The standard of the Archbishop of Westminster The Archbishop of Westminster heads the Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster, England. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... This article is about the country. ... The arch-bishopry of Brussels-Mechelen is the arch-bishopry of Belgium. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... Image File history File links Ombrellino-keys. ... The Papal conclave of 1799-1800 followed the death of Pope Pius VI on 29 August 1799 and led to the selection of Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, later Pius VII, as pope on 14 March 1800. ... The 1823 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Leo XII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... The 1829 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Pius VIII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... A Papal conclave was held commencing December 14, 1830 after the death of Pope Pius VIII. It did not conclude until the February 2, 1831 election of Mauro Alberto Cappellari as Pope Gregory XVI. No conclave since has lasted as much as one week, but at the time no conclave... The Quirinal Palace The Popes residence as head of state of the Papal States was the venue for the 1846 conclave. ... The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. ... The Papal conclave of 1914 was held to choose a successor Pope Pius X, who had died in the Vatican on 20 August 1914. ... After a reign of just eight years, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 of pneumonia. ... Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State, was elected pope. ... The Papal conclave of 1958 occurred following the death of Pope Pius XII on October 9, 1958 in Castel Gandolfo, the papal summer residence in Italy, after a 19-year papacy. ... Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) Pope John XXIII died of cancer on June 3 in the Apostolic Palace in the middle of the Vatican Council II. He was commonly regarded as having been the most popular pope in the 20th century to that point. ... Following the death of Paul VI on August 6, 1978, the first conclave of the year was held on August 25–26 in Vatican City. ... The arms of the vacancy of the Holy See The October 1978 papal conclave was triggered by the sudden death, after only thirty three days in office, of Pope John Paul I. The Church had thought it had elected a pope in August 1978 who would reign for at least... The Papal conclave of 2005 was convoked due to the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005. ...

External link

  • L’Osservatore Romano article revealing ballots in 1878 conclave

Trivia

Given that the 1878 conclave was preceded by the longest papal reign in history and ushered in the third longest reign in history, it is worth noting the four participating cardinals for whom this was not the only conclave in which they participated:


Also participated in 1846 conclave

  • Luigi Amat di San Filippo e Sorso
  • Fabio Maria Asquini
  • Domenico Carafa della Spina di Traetto

Also participated in 1903 conclave


  Results from FactBites:
 
Conclave (3641 words)
Access to the conclave is free through one door only, locked from without by the Marshal of the Conclave (formerly a member of the Savelli, since 1721 of the Chigi, family), and from within by the cardinal camerlengo.
Papal legislation has long since forbidden the once customary "capitulations", or ante-election agreements binding on the new pope; it is also forbidden to cardinals to treat of the papal succession among themselves during the pope's lifetime; the pope may, however, treat of the matter with the cardinals.
The conclave then usually terminates, the masons remove the temporary walls, and the cardinals retire to their various lodgings in the city, awaiting a reassembling for the second and third adoratio and for the solemn enthroning.
Papal conclave - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5593 words)
A papal election is the method by which the Roman Catholic Church fills the office of Bishop of Rome, whose incumbent is known as the Pope, the head of the Church.
Gregory VII was the last to submit to the interference of the Holy Roman Emperors; the breach between him and the Holy Roman Empire caused by the Investiture Controversy led to the abolition of the Emperor's role.
The Secretary of the College of Cardinals, the Master of Papal Liturgical Celebrations, two Masters of Ceremonies, two officers of the Papal Sacristy and an ecclesiastic assisting the Dean of the College of Cardinals are also admitted to the conclave.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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