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Encyclopedia > Papal conclave, 1846
The Quirinal PalaceThe Pope's residence as head of state of the Papal States was the venue for the 1846 conclave.
The Quirinal Palace
The Pope's residence as head of state of the Papal States was the venue for the 1846 conclave.

The death of Pope Gregory XVI on 1 June 1846 triggered off the Papal conclave of 1846. Fifty of the sixty-two members of the College of Cardinals assembled in the Quirinal Palace, one of the papal palaces in Rome and the seat of two earlier nineteenth century conclaves. The conclave began on 14 June and had to elect a pope who would not only be head of the Catholic Church but also the head of state and government of the Papal States, the extensive lands around Rome and Northern Italy which the Catholic Church governed. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2020 KB) Roma, Palazzo del Quirinale, facciata su piazza del Quirinale. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 2020 KB) Roma, Palazzo del Quirinale, facciata su piazza del Quirinale. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State in many Commonwealth countries including the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand, the Bahamas and many more, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ... Pope Gregory XVI, O.S.B., born Bartolomeo Alberto Mauro Cappellari (September 18, 1765 – June 1, 1846), was Pope from 1831 to 1846. ... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Quirinal Palace once housed popes, and then kings, and now presidents The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic upon the Quirinal Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the major historical states of Italy before the boot-shaped peninsula was unified under the Piedmontese crown of Savoy (later a republic). ...

Contents


Conclave divided over how to rule the Papal States

Pope Pius IXThe new pope elected in the 1846 conclave
Pope Pius IX
The new pope elected in the 1846 conclave

It was the issue of the government of the Papal States that was to prove central to the 1846 conclave. The College of Cardinals was split into two factions. The conservatives wished to see a continuation of papal absolutism in the governance of the Papal States, a continuation of the hardline policies of Pope Gregory XVI and his infamous right-wing Secretary of State, Luigi Emmanuele Nicolo Cardinal Lambruschini, while the Liberals wished for some measure of moderate reform. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ... Luigi Cardinal Lambruschini (6 March 1776 – 12 May 1854) was a prominent Italian cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church in the mid nineteenth century. ...


Lambruschini received a majority of the votes in the early ballots, but failed to achieve the required two-thirds majority. On the fourth ballot the liberal candidate, Maria Mastai Cardinal Ferretti, the Cardinal Archbishop of Imola, achieved that requirement and was elected, receiving four more than the required two-thirds majority. He took the name Pope Pius IX (known also as Pio Nono). Blessed Pope Pius IX, born Giovanni Maria Mastai Ferretti (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), was pope for a record pontificate (not counting the Apostle St. ...


Failed attempt to veto Ferretti

As with other conclaves up to and including the 1903 conclave, various Catholic monarchs possessed a right to veto the cardinal elected, forcing the cardinals to pick someone else. Emperor Ferdinand of Austria had charged Karl Kajetan Cardinal Gaisruck, the Archbishop of Milan (then part of the empire's territory) with vetoing the liberal Ferretti if he was elected. However Gaisruck arrived too late to the conclave. By the time he got there Ferretti had been elected, had accepted the papacy and had been proclaimed publicly. The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. ... Look up monarch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A monarch (see sovereign) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... His Imperial Majesty Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 - June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ...


Aftermath

Emperor Ferdinand of Austria's effort to veto Pius IX's election failed when his cardinal didn't get to Rome on time
Emperor Ferdinand of Austria's effort to veto Pius IX's election failed when his cardinal didn't get to Rome on time

Pope Pius IX was crowned with the Papal tiara on 21 June 1846. He became the longest reigning pope since St. Peter, sitting on the papal throne for 32 years. Initially a liberal, following a shortlived deposition and the proclamation of the Roman Republic, Pius was returned to power by troops from France and became a conservative reactionary. Emperor Ferdinand of Austria This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Pope Pius XII, in coronation robes and wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno, is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ... June 21 is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 193 days remaining. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Deposition is a word used in many fields to describe different processes: In law, deposition is the taking of testimony outside of court. ... See also Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Reactionary (or reactionist) is a political epithet typically applied to conservatism. ...


In 1870 the remaining territories of the Papal States were seized by the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II. Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, with the former papal palace, the Quirinal, becoming the King's palace. Pius IX withdrew in protest to the Vatican where he lived as a self-proclaimed "Prisoner in the Vatican". He died in 1878. 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... King of Italy is a title adopted by many rulers after the fall of the Roman Empire. ... Victor Emmanuel II (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele II; March 14, 1820 – January 9, 1878) was the King of Piedmont, Savoy and Sardinia from 1849–1861. ... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... A prisoner in the Vatican is the description given to the popes from Pope Pius IX through Pius XI, after the invading armies of King Victor Emmanuel II captured the Papal States and ended the millenial temporal rule of the popes (see Italian unification). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Conclave factfile

  • Arrived late or Absent, included:
    • Karl Kajetan Cardinal Gaisruck, Archbishop of Milan
    • Giacomo Cardinal Monico, Patriarch of Venice
  • Present included:
    • Ludovico Cardinal Micara, Dean of the College of Cardinals
    • Carlo Cardinal Oppizzoni, Archbishop of Bologna
    • Chiarissimo Cardinal Falconnieri-Mellini, Archbishop of Ravenna
    • Cosimo Cardinal Corsi, Archbishop of Pisa
    • Sisto Riario Cardinal Sforza, Archbishop of Naples
    • Luigi Ciacchi, cardinal of the Roman Church
  • Historic features of 1848 Conclave:
    • Last of 3 conclaves to be held in the Quirinal Palace and last held outside the Vatican
    • election of pope who would have the second-longest reign in papal history
    • last conclave held during the existence of the Papal States
    • Apparent victory for liberals and apparent rejection of previous pope's policies
    • failed attempt by Austrian emperor to exercise a veto
    • last conclave made up exclusively of cardinals from continental Europe
PAPAL CONCLAVE, 1848
Duration 3 days
Number of ballots 4
Electors 62
Absent 12
Present 50
Africa 0
Latin America 0
North America 0
Asia 0
Europe 62
Oceania 0
Mid-East 0
Veto used failed attempt by Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria
DECEASED POPE GREGORY XVI (1831-1846)
NEW POPE PIUS IX (1846-1878)
Papal Conclaves 1800–2005

1800 | 1823 | 1829 | 1830–1831 | 1846 | 1878 | 1903 | 1914
1922 | 1939 | 1958 | 1963 | 1978 (August) | 1978 (October) | 2005 June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... June 16 is the 167th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (168th in leap years), with 198 days remaining. ... The Quirinal Palace once housed popes, and then kings, and now presidents The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic upon the Quirinal Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1285 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,553,873 almost 4,300,000 1. ... Among the Patriarchates in the West, the Pope, as Bishop of Rome is the only truly independent Patriarch. ... The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. ... Luigi Ciacchi (August 16, 1788 in Pesaro, Italy – December 17, 1865 in Rome) was a Cardinal of the Catholic Church and priest of Roman Curia. ... Continental Europe refers to the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and peninsulae. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... The ombrellino and keys, which is the insignia of the Holy See during sede vacante. ... The Papal conclave of 1799-1800 followed the death of Pope Pius VI on 29 August 1799 and led to the selection of Giorgio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, later Pius VII, as pope on 14 March 1800. ... The 1823 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Leo XII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... The 1829 Papal conclave led to the election of Pope Pius VIII. Categories: Catholic-related stubs ... A Papal conclave was held commencing December 14, 1830 after the death of Pope Pius VIII. It did not conclude until the February 2, 1831 election of Mauro Alberto Cappellari as Pope Gregory XVI. No conclave since has lasted as much as one week, but at the time no conclave... The Papal conclave of 1878 resulted from the death of Pope Pius IX in the Apostolic Palace in the Vatican on 7 February 1878. ... The Papal conclave of 1903 was caused by the death of the 93 year old Pope Leo XIII, who at that stage was the third longest reigning pope in history. ... The Papal conclave of 1914 was held to choose a successor Pope Pius X, who had died in the Vatican on 20 August 1914. ... After a reign of just eight years, Pope Benedict XV died on 22 January 1922 of pneumonia. ... Cardinal Pacelli, the Secretary of State, was elected pope. ... Background Pope Pius XII (1939-1958) His death caused the 1958 conclave. ... Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) Pope John XXIII died of cancer on June 3 in the Apostolic Palace in the middle of the Vatican Council II. He was commonly regarded as having been the most popular pope in the 20th century to that point. ... Following the death of Paul VI on August 6, 1978, the first conclave of the year was held on August 25–26 in Vatican City. ... Pope John Paul II (1978-2005) The winner of the October 1978 conclave. ... Deceased Pope: John Paul II New Pope: Benedict XVI The Papal conclave of 2005 began on April 18, 2005 and ended the next day after four ballots. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Papal conclave, 1846 (573 words)
The conclave began on 14 June and had to elect a pope who would not only be head of the Catholic Church but also the head of state and government of the Papal States, the extensive lands around Rome and Northern Italy which the Catholic Church governed.
It was the issue of the government of the Papal States that was to prove central to the 1846 conclave.
Pope Pius IX was crowned with the Papal tiara on 21 June 1846.
Papal conclave, 2005 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2094 words)
The Papal conclave of 2005 was convoked due to the death of Pope John Paul II on April 2, 2005.
Although there were 183 cardinals in all, cardinals over the age of 80 at the time the papacy fell vacant were ineligible to vote in the conclave according to rules enacted by Pope Paul VI in 1971 and modified slightly in 1996 by John Paul II.
The cardinal electors listened to two exhortations to the conclave cardinals before passing on to the first election on the afternoon of April 18.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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