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Encyclopedia > Papal Tiara

The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, or in Latin as the 'Triregnum', and in Italian as the 'Triregno', is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown, supposedly of Byzantine and Persian origin, that is a prominent symbol of the papacy. The Supreme Pontiff's arms have featured a "tiara" since ancient times, notably in combination with Saint Peter's crossed keys. This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... “St Peter” redirects here. ... Crossed keys may refer to: the Keys of Saint Peter, an element in: the Coat of arms of the Holy See the arms used by the Guild of Cathedral Virgers The village of Crosskeys, in Wales Category: ...

The emblem of the Vatican City State uses the Papal Tiara.
The emblem of the Vatican City State uses the Papal Tiara.

Contents

Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ... Image File history File links Emblem_of_the_Papacy. ...

History

Papal tiaras were worn by the popes of Rome and Avignon from Pope Clement V (d. 1314) to Pope Paul VI, who was crowned in 1963. Pope Paul VI abandoned the use of his own tiara after the Second Vatican Council, symbolically laying it on the altar of St. Peter's Basilica, and donating its value to the poor. However, his 1975 Apostolic Constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo on the manner of electing the Pope, still envisaged that his successors would be crowned. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country France Région Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Département Vaucluse (préfecture) Arrondissement Avignon Canton Chief town of 4 cantons Intercommunality Communauté dagglomération du Grand Avignon Mayor Marie-Josée Roig... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Romano Pontifici Eligendo was the Apostolic Constitution governing the election of popes that was promulgated by Pope Paul VI in 1975. ...


However his immediate successor, Pope John Paul I, decided against a coronation, replacing it with a ceremony of what was called "Inauguration of the Supreme Pontificate"; and after John Paul I's sudden death, Pope John Paul II told the congregation at his Inauguration:[1] Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...

"The last Pope to be crowned was Paul VI in 1963, but after the solemn coronation ceremony he never used the tiara again and left his Successors free to decide in this regard. Pope John Paul I, whose memory is so vivid in our hearts, did not wish to have the tiara; nor does his Successor wish it today. This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes. Our time calls us, urges us, obliges us to gaze on the Lord and immerse ourselves in humble and devout meditation on the mystery of the supreme power of Christ himself."

Though not currently worn as part of papal regalia, the continuing symbolism of the papal tiara is reflected in its use on the flag and coats of arms of the Holy See and the Vatican. Until the reign of Benedict XVI the tiara was also the ornament surmounting a Pope's personal coat of arms, as a tasselled hat (under which a 1969 Instruction of the Holy See forbade the placing of a mitre, a second hat)[2] surmounted those of other prelates. In a break with tradition, Pope Benedict XVI's personal coat of arms has replaced the tiara with a mitre. This particular mitre contains three levels reminiscent of the three tiers on the papal tiara.[3] However, in the coat of arms of the Holy See and of the Vatican City State Pope Benedict XVI decided to keep the tiara, not a mitre. Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Initial rendering of the coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI The coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI was designed by then Archbishop Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo (who later was created a Cardinal) soon after the papal election. ... This article is about the ceremonial head-dress; see also mitre (disambiguation). ...


Origins

Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) in early papal tiara, Fresco at the cloister Sacro Speco, about 1219.
Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) in early papal tiara, Fresco at the cloister Sacro Speco, about 1219.

According to James-Charles Noonan[4] and Bruno Heim[5] the lowest of the three crowns appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the ninth century. When the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the base crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes. He suggested that a second crown was added by Pope Boniface VIII in 1298 to symbolize spiritual dominion. Very soon after, in or around 1314, a third crown and lappets (cloth strips) were added; Pope Clement V was the first to wear the triple tiara. The coronation of Pope Pius XII in 1939. ... Image File history File links Pope Innocent III from de:Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent III ... Image File history File links Pope Innocent III from de:Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Pope Innocent III ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The Most Reverend Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD. Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD (5 March 1911 - 18 March 2003) was the Vaticans first Apostolic Nuncio to Britain and was one of the most prominent armorists of twentieth century ecclesiastical heraldry. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ...


However, a fresco in the Chapel of Saint Sylvester (consecrated in 1247) in the church of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome seems to represent the Pope wearing a tiara with two bands and with lappets. First courtyard with the guard tower. ...


An alternative chronology suggests that the tiara began as a sort of closed "tocque". In 1130 a crown was added, symbol of sovereignty over the Papal States. Boniface VIII, in 1301, added a second crown, at the time of the confrontation with Philip the Fair, King of France, to show that his spiritual authority was superior to any civil authority. Benedict XII in 1342 who added a third crown to symbolize the Pope's moral authority over all secular monarchs, and reaffirmed the possession of Avignon. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tuque. ... Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ... Benedict XII, née Jacques Fournier (c. ...


Last crowned Pope

Main article: Papal Coronation

As with all previous popes, Pope Paul VI was crowned with a tiara at the papal coronation. As happened sometimes with previous popes, a new tiara was used, donated by the city of Milan, where he was Archbishop (and Cardinal) before his election. Quite different from earlier tiaras, it was not covered in jewels and precious gems, and was sharply cone-shaped. It was also distinctly lighter in weight than earlier tiaras. Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Milan is a particular church of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ...


At the end of the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI descended the steps of the papal throne in St Peter's Basilica and laid the tiara on the altar in a dramatic gesture of humility and as a sign of the renunciation of human glory and power in keeping with the renewed spirit of the Council. Since then, none of his successors has worn a tiara. The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Pope Paul's tiara was presented to the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C. by the Apostolic Delegate to the United States on February 6, 1968 as a gesture of Pope Paul VI's affection for the Catholic Church in the United States. It is on permanent display in Memorial Hall along with the stole that Pope John XXIII wore at the opening of the Second Vatican Council. // View of the east side of the basilica. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ...


Pope Paul's decision to abandon the use of one of the most striking symbols of the papacy, the papal tiara, proved highly controversial with Traditionalist Catholics, many of whom continue to campaign for its re-instatement to former usage.[6] Some indeed branded him an antipope, arguing that no valid pope would surrender the papal tiara. Among ultratraditionalist claimants to the papacy, at least one was crowned using a tiara, thus showing the power of its symbolism, while another uses the tiara on his coat of arms. A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ... For the book by Robert Rankin, see The Antipope. ... Sedevacantist antipopes (more specifically but less commonly, conclavist antipopes), are religous leaders of breakaway Catholics, called sedevacantists. ... Clemente Domínguez y Gómez (May 23, 1946 – March 22, 2005) was proclaimed Pope Gregory XVII by supporters of the Palmarian Catholic Church Catholic breakway movement in 1978. ... Conclavist Pope Pius XIII Fr. ...


A permanent end to the wearing of the triple tiara?

Main articles: Papal Inauguration and Enthronement

Pope John Paul I dispensed with the 1000-year-old tradition of a papal coronation and the wearing of a papal tiara, deciding not to take advantage of the mention of a coronation in Pope Paul VI's 1975 Apostolic Constitution Romano Pontifici Eligendo, then in force: "Finally, the Pontiff will be crowned by the Cardinal Protodeacon and, within an appropriate time, will take possession of the Patriarchal Archbasilica of the Lateran, in accordance with the prescribed ritual."[7] Pope Paul VI (1963-1978) is crowned at the last papal coronation to date, in 1963. ... Pope John Paul I s enthronement as Pope on 3rd September 1978. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In a passage of his Inauguration homily, quoted above, Pope John Paul II remarked that both his immediate predecessor and he himself had wished neither a coronation nor a tiara, and added: "This is not the time to return to a ceremony and an object considered, wrongly, to be a symbol of the temporal power of the Popes."

Coat of Arms of the Holy See, incorporating the Papal Tiara
Coat of Arms of the Holy See, incorporating the Papal Tiara

When, in his 1996 Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici Gregis, he revised the rules on the election of Popes, he removed all mention of a papal coronation, replacing it with a reference to an "inauguration": "After the solemn ceremony of the inauguration of the pontificate and within an appropriate time, the pope will take possession of the Patriachal Archbasilica of the Lateran, in accordance with the prescribed ritual."[8] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Coat of arms of the Holy See is blazoned Gules, two keys in saltire or and argent, interlaced in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or. ... Universi Dominici Gregis is an Apostolic Constitution of the Roman Catholic Church issued by Pope John Paul II on February 22, 1996. ...


As in the Pope Paul VI's document, the phraseology is descriptive, not prescriptive. Besides, it lays down no rules about the form of the "ceremony of the inauguration of the pontificate", which could indeed take the form of a coronation. In any case, a Pope is not bound by ceremonial rules made by a predecessor, and may freely change them.


With the current disappearance of the papal coronation, the British monarch is now the only monarch in a western country to receive a coronation. All others, like modern popes, are "inaugurated" into office. This article is about the monarchy of the United Kingdom, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. For information about other Commonwealth realm monarchies, as well as other relevant articles, see... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ...

Coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI that does not include the Papal Tiara
Coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI that does not include the Papal Tiara

Pope Benedict XVI has confirmed the continued use of representations of the tiara as an official symbol of the papacy. It is still featured as one of the ornaments on the personal coat of arms of Popes John Paul I and John Paul II, who never used the actual object. However, John Paul II gave his official approval later in his reign to depictions of his arms without the tiara, as with the mosaic floor piece towards the entrance of St Peter's Basilica, where an ordinary mitre takes the place of the tiara. The coat of arms of Pope Benedict XVI has replaced it with a mitre: "The Holy Father Benedict XVI decided not to include the tiara in his official personal coat of arms. He replaced it with a simple mitre which is not, therefore, surmounted by a small globe and cross as was the tiara".[9] Image File history File links BXVI_CoA_like_gfx_PioM.svg Summary Author: Piotr MichaÅ‚ Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL Place: POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Date: 07 V 2005 updated 18:26, 1 June 2006 (UTC) Description: Benedict XVI coat of arms like graphic. ... Image File history File links BXVI_CoA_like_gfx_PioM.svg Summary Author: Piotr MichaÅ‚ Jaworski; PioM EN DE PL Place: POLAND/PoznaÅ„; Date: 07 V 2005 updated 18:26, 1 June 2006 (UTC) Description: Benedict XVI coat of arms like graphic. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Every Pope of the Roman Catholic Church has his own personal coat of arms that serves as a symbol of his papacy. ... Queen Elizabeth II held a globus cruciger, called the Sovereigns Orb, for her coronation portrait in 1953. ...


On the annual 22 February Feast of the Cathedra of Saint Peter and 29 June Feast of Saints Peter and Paul, beginning with the vigil on the evening before, a papal tiara is placed on the head of the famous bronze statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica, to honour the Apostle from whom the Popes claim succession. Although this custom was not observed in 2006, it was reintroduced in 2007. is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Feast of Sts. ... This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other...


Design

Multiple papal tiaras

Further information: List of papal tiaras in existence
Pope Paul VI (1963–1978) wearing his Papal Tiara.
Pope Paul VI (1963–1978) wearing his Papal Tiara.

Although often referred to as the Papal Tiara, historically there have been many, and twenty-two remain in existence. Many of the earlier papal tiaras (most notably the tiaras of Pope Julius II[10] and that attributed to Pope Saint Silvester) were destroyed, dismantled or seized by invaders (most notably by Berthier's army in 1798), or by popes themselves; Pope Clement VII had all the tiaras and papal regalia melted down in 1527 to raise the 400,000 ducats ransom demanded by the occupying army of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Over twenty silver tiaras exist, of which the earliest, the sole survivor of 1798, was made for Pope Gregory XIII in the sixteenth century. On March 21, 1800 as Rome was in the hands of the French, Pius VII was crowned in exile, in Venice, with a papier-mâché tiara, for which ladies of Venice gave up their jewels. Pope John XXIII moments after his coronation in 1958. ... enhanced, cleaned & cropped image of Pope Paul VI - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... enhanced, cleaned & cropped image of Pope Paul VI - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pope Julius II (December 5, 1443 – February 21, 1513), born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Pope Silvester I (or Sylvester) was pope from January 314 to December 31, 335, succeeding Pope Miltiades. ... Louis Alexandre Berthier, Marshal of France Louis Alexandre Berthier, prince de Neuchâtel (February 20, 1753 – June 1, 1815), marshal of France, Vice-Constable of France beginning in 1808, and chief of staff under Napoleon, was born at Versailles. ... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII. Pope Clement VII (May 26, 1478 – September 25, 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de Medici, was a cardinal from 1513 to 1523 and was Pope from 1523 to 1534. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Pope Gregory XIII (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope from 1572 to 1585. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14, 1740—August 20, 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Bishop of Rome and Pope of the Catholic Church from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Papier-mâché around a form such as a balloon to create a pig. ...


Many tiaras were donated to the papacy by world leaders or heads of states, including Queen Isabella II of Spain, William I, German Emperor, Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria and Napoleon I of France. The tiara provided by the last was made from elements of former papal tiaras destroyed after the capture of Rome, and was given to Pius VII as a 'wedding gift' to mark Napoleon's own marriage to Empress Josephine on the eve of his imperial coronation. Others were a gift to a newly elected pope from the See which they had held before their election, or on the occasion of the jubilee of their ordination or election. Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) She was born in Madrid, and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king of Spain... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Joséphine de Beauharnais (nee Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de la Pagerie June 23, 1763 – May 29, 1814) was the first wife of Napoléon Bonaparte and thus the first Empress of the French. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ...

Flag of Vatican City. The arms on the flag, with a tiara, are the same as the papal arms, except that the positions of the gold and the silver keys are interchanged
Flag of Vatican City. The arms on the flag, with a tiara, are the same as the papal arms, except that the positions of the gold and the silver keys are interchanged

In some instances, various cities sought to outdo each other in the beauty, value and size of the tiaras they provided to popes from their region. Examples include tiaras given to Popes John XXIII and Paul VI, the former by John's home region, the latter by Paul's previous archiepiscopal see of Milan on their election to the papacy. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...


Popes were not restricted to a particular tiara: for example, photographs on this page show Pope John XXIII, on different occasions, wearing the tiara presented to him in 1959, Pope Pius IX's 1877 tiara, and Pope Pius XI's 1922 tiara. Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ...


Pope Paul VI, whose bullet-shaped tiara is one of the most unusual in design, was the last pope to wear a triple tiara (though any of his successors could, if they wished, revive the custom). Most surviving tiaras are on display in the Vatican, though some were sold off or donated to Catholic bodies. Some of the more popular or historic tiaras, such as the 1871 Belgian tiara, the 1877 tiara and the 1903 golden tiara, have been sent around the world as part of a display of historic Vatican items. Pope Paul VI's "Milan tiara" was donated to and is on display in the crypt church of the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D.C.,United States of America. // View of the east side of the basilica. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


Shape of the Triple Tiara

Most of the surviving triple tiaras have the shape of a circular beehive, with its central core made of silver. Some were sharply conical, others bulbous. All tiaras but that of Pope Paul VI were heavily bejewelled. Each tiara was structured in the form of three crowns marked by golden decorations, sometimes in the form of crosses, sometimes in the shape of leaves. Most were topped off by a cross sitting above a monde (globe), representing the universal sovereignty of Christ. 16th century Papal Tiara, the oldest surviving tiara in the papal collection. ... Domesticated Western honey bees are kept in beehives. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Gemstone (disambiguation). ... Crown of Queen Elizabeth (the Queen Mother) A monde is a ball-like object located near the top of a crown. ...


Each tiara had attached to the back two lappets; highly decorated strips of cloth embroidered with golden thread, bearing the coat of arms or another symbol of the pope to whom the tiara had been given. A lappet is a decorative flap or fold in a ceremonial headdress or garment. ...


There are two rather unusual tiaras: the papier-mâché tiara made when Pope Pius VII was elected and crowned in exile, and the one made for Pope Paul VI in 1963, which is somewhat bullet-shaped, contains few jewels and, rather than having the addition of three tiers, is marked with three parallel circles. Papier-mâché around a form such as a balloon to create a pig. ... Pope Pius VII, OSB (August 14, 1740—August 20, 1823), born Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, was Bishop of Rome and Pope of the Catholic Church from March 14, 1800 to August 20, 1823. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ...


The tiara given to Pope Pius IX in 1877 by the Vatican's Palatine Honour guard in honour of his Jubilee (see photograph below) is strikingly similar in design to the earlier tiara of Gregory XVI. It remained a particularly popular crown, worn by, among others, Pope Pius XI, Pope Pius XII and Pope John XXIII. Pope Pius XI's 1922 crown, in contrast was much less decorated and much more conical in shape. (See image below of this tiara worn by Pope John XXIII.) Pope Pius IX (May 13, 1792 – February 7, 1878), born Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from his election in June 16, 1846, until his death more than 31 years later in 1878. ... The Palatine Guard (Guardia Palatina dOnore) was a unit of the military of the Vatican City. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ... Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ... Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: Giovanni XXIII), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), was elected as the 261st Pope of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... Pope Pius XI (Latin: ; Italian: Pio XI; May 31, 1857 – February 10, 1939), born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti, reigned as Pope from February 6, 1922 and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1929 until his death on February 10, 1939. ...


Weight

Pope Pius XI (1922-1939) wearing a papal tiara.

Except the papier-mâché tiara, the lightest tiara was that made for Pope John XXIII in 1959. It weighed just over 2 lb (910 g), as did the 1922 tiara of Pope Pius XI. In contrast, the bullet-shaped tiara of Pope Paul VI weighed 10 lb (4.5 kg). The heaviest papal tiara in the papal collection is the 1804 tiara donated by Napoleon I to celebrate both his marriage to Josephine and his coronation as French emperor. It weighs 8.2 kg (18.1 lb). However it was never worn, as its width was made, some suspected deliberately, too small for Pope Pius VII to wear.[11] Pope Pius XI old used image - no copyright indications anywhere File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Pope Pius XI old used image - no copyright indications anywhere File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


A number of popes deliberately had new tiaras made because they found those in the collection either too small, too heavy, or both. Rather than use the papier-mâché tiara, Pope Gregory XVI had a new lightweight tiara made in the 1840s. In the 1870s, Pope Pius IX, then in his eighties, found the other tiaras too heavy to wear and that of his predecessor, Pope Gregory, too small, so he had a lightweight tiara made also. In 1908 Pope Pius X had another lightweight tiara made as he found that the normal tiaras in use were too heavy, while the lightweight ones did not fit comfortably.


New methods of manufacture in the twentieth century enabled the creation of lighter normal tiaras, producing the 900 g (2 lb) tiaras of Pius XI and John XXIII. That, combined with the existence of a range of lightweight tiaras from earlier popes, meant that no pope since Pius X in 1908 needed to make his own special lightweight tiara.


Symbolism of the Triple Tiara

There is no certainty about what the three crowns of the Triple Tiara symbolise, as is evident from the multitude of interpretations that have been and still are proposed. Some link it to the threefold authority of the "Supreme Pontiff: Universal Pastor (top), Universal Ecclesiastical Jurisdiction (middle) and Temporal Power (bottom)".[12] Others interpret the three tiers as meaning "Father of princes and kings, Ruler of the world, Vicar of our Saviour Jesus Christ".[13] When popes were crowned, the following words were used: Pontiff is a title of certain religious leaders, now used principally to refer to the Mercinary of the New Church. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

Accipe thiaram tribus coronis ornatam, et scias te esse Patrem Principum et Regum, Rectorem Orbis, in terra Vicarium Salvatoris Nostri Jesu Christi, cui est honor et gloria in sæcula sæculorum.
(Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art Father of Princes and Kings, Ruler of the World, Vicar of Our Savior Jesus Christ in earth, to whom is honor and glory in the ages of ages.)
Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) wearing his personal tiara given by the people of his home region in 1959, the year after his election. As shown below, the 1877 tiara was used at his coronation.
Pope John XXIII (1958-1963) wearing his personal tiara given by the people of his home region in 1959, the year after his election. As shown below, the 1877 tiara was used at his coronation.

Yet others have associated it with the threefold office of Christ, who is Priest, Prophet and King,[14] an association mentioned as a possibility by Pope John Paul II in his Inauguration homily,[15][16] or "teacher, lawmaker and judge".[17] Another traditional interpretation was that the three crowns refer to the "Church Militant on earth", the "Church Suffering after death and before heaven", and the "Church Triumphant in eternal reward".[18] Yet another interpretation suggested by Archbishop Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo, who designed Pope Benedict XVI's tiara-less coat of arms, was "order, jurisdiction and magisterum",[19] while a further theory links the three tiers to the "celestial, human and terrestrial worlds," which the pope is supposed to symbolically link.[20] enhanced, cleaned image of [[Pope Paul VI] - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... enhanced, cleaned image of [[Pope Paul VI] - no copyright issues File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of...


Papal Tiara and the 666 controversy

The 1877 Tiara of Pope Pius IX (back view). The fact that it is the most worn modern tiara accounts for its somewhat ragged look, including the fact that its cross on top of the monde has at some stage been accidentally pushed and now leans off-centre. Its lappets (two attached pieces of cloth) also show signs of heavy wear.
Main article: Vicarius Filii Dei

A controversy touching the papal tiara, attributed to the Seventh-day Adventist Church and other Protestants, involves the claim that the words Vicarius Filii Dei (Vicar of the Son of God) exist on the side of one of the tiaras. The controversy centres on the widely made claim that, when numerised (i.e., when those letters in the alleged title that have Roman numerals value are added together), the words produce the number 666, described in the Book of Revelation as the Number of the Beast, who, some have claimed, would "wear" a crown similar to a triple tiara, a claim made by some evangelical Protestant groups who believe that the pope as head of the Catholic Church is the Antichrist. Heretics dating back to the Cathars and Waldensians in the thirteenth century also held this view of the Church. Download high resolution version (281x626, 36 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Download high resolution version (281x626, 36 KB) This work is copyrighted. ... Crown of Queen Elizabeth (the Queen Mother) A monde is a ball-like object located near the top of a crown. ... A lappet is a decorative flap or fold in a ceremonial headdress or garment. ... Vicarius Filii Dei (Latin: Vicar or Representative of the Son of God) is a phrase used in the forged mediaeval Donation of Constantine to refer to Saint Peter. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[1]) Church is a Christian denomination which is distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... The Number of the Beast is mentioned in the Book of Revelation of the Christian New Testament and has long been accepted to be 666. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... For the Friedrich Nietzsche book, see The Antichrist. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Catharism. ... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ...


"Vicarius Filii Dei" is, in fact, not one of the pope's titles, though the Donation of Constantine (a medieval document forged in the name of the Emperor to legitimate the temporal power of popes) does use it to refer to Saint Peter specifically. A 13th C. fresco of Sylvester and Constantine, showing the purported Donation. ... “St Peter” redirects here. ...


Four sources are sometimes given to back up the claim, including two witnesses who claimed to have seen Pope Gregory XVI wearing a tiara with Vicarius Filii Dei on it in 1832 and 1845,[21] the purported existence of a photograph of an early twentieth century papal funeral showing a tiara with the writing, and the assertion that the tiara with the writing was used to crown Eugenio Pacelli as Pope Pius XII in 1939. Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death. ...


None of the claims holds up to scrutiny. One of the occasions where the Pope was "seen" wearing the tiara was supposedly during a Pontifical High Mass in St. Peter's Basilica. In fact popes never wore tiaras during Mass. It was never used as a liturgical item. In addition the tiara used for Pius XII's coronation in 1939 could not have been worn by Gregory XVI as it was manufactured thirty-one years after Gregory's death. All the tiaras potentially worn by Gregory still exist; none have writing, nor does the tiara worn by Pius in 1939. A Pontifical High Mass in the Roman rite before the changes brought forth by Vatican II is a Mass celebrated by a bishop that does not omit any elements which are omitted in the pontifical low mass, such as incense. ...


Finally, no evidence as to the existence of the supposed photograph has been produced, nor is it credible that a black and white photograph, taken from a distance inside a darkened St. Peter's Basilica, in the absence of modern photographic technology or even zoom lenses, could have picked up writing on a far-away tiara, had such writing existed. A photograph of a tiara supposedly on the High Altar behind the coffin of Pope Pius X, at his canonisation in 1954 decades after the supposed original photograph, could not see the jewels on the tiara, much less any supposed writing. This article is about the famous building in Rome. ... For people named Coffin, see Coffin (surname). ...

A 1954 photograph of the canonisation of Pope Pius X.

Contrary to claims of a cover-up, all tiaras manufactured since 1800 still exist and are on public display, with a number being sent around the world as part of the Saint Peter and The Vatican: The Legacy of the Popes exhibition which visited the United States in 2005. Only a handful, notably the Belgian Tiara of 1871 and the Gold Tiara of 1903, have any writing at all. The 1871 tiara's inscription is not Vicarius Filii Dei or anything that could be confused with it, but CHRISTI VICARIO – IN TERRA – REGUM (translated: To the earthly Vicar of Christ). Image File history File linksMetadata Stpiusx. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Stpiusx. ...


Many historians, academics and mainstream religious leaders view the story as a classic anti-Catholic myth, a story for which no evidence has been found. Even some Seventh-day Adventist scholars no longer support the view that the "666" of Revelation relates to any inscription on a papal tiara.[22] The papacy has been surrounded by numerous myths and legends. ...


Usage

Solemn Pontifical High Mass celebrated by Pope John XXIII in St. Peter's Basilica in the early 1960s. Note the mitre and the papal tiaras placed on the altar.
Solemn Pontifical High Mass celebrated by Pope John XXIII in St. Peter's Basilica in the early 1960s. Note the mitre and the papal tiaras placed on the altar.

The triple tiara was not worn for liturgical celebrations, such as Mass. At such functions the Pope, like other bishops, wears a mitre. However, one would be worn during the solemn entrance and departure processions, and one or more could be placed on the altar during the elaborately ceremonial Pontifical High Mass. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x706, 78 KB) Summary Pontifical High Mass in St Peters Basilica Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (471x706, 78 KB) Summary Pontifical High Mass in St Peters Basilica Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... A Pontifical High Mass in the Roman rite before the changes brought forth by Vatican II is a Mass celebrated by a bishop that does not omit any elements which are omitted in the pontifical low mass, such as incense. ...


The tiara was thus worn in formal ceremonial processions, and on other occasions when the pope was carried on the sedia gestatoria, a portable throne whose use was ended by Pope John Paul II immediately after his election in October 1978. His short-lived predecessor, John Paul I, also chose initially not to use it, but relented when informed that without it the people could not see him.[23] In addition, the triple tiara was used for "solemn acts of jurisdiction" where the pope appeared "in state", for example in making an ex cathedra definition (using Papal Infallibility). It was also worn when a pope gave his traditional Christmas and Easter Urbi et Orbi blessing from the balcony of St Peter's, the only religious ceremony when the tiara was worn. Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error[1] when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at... Urbi et Orbi, literally to the City [of Rome] and to the World, was a standard opening of Roman proclamations. ...


Papal Coronation

Pope John XXIII blesses the crowds after his coronation in 1958. He is wearing the 1877 tiara.
Pope John XXIII blesses the crowds after his coronation in 1958. He is wearing the 1877 tiara.
Main article: Papal Coronation

The most famous occasion when the triple tiara was used was the papal coronation, a six-hour ceremony, when the new pope was carried in state on the sedia gestatoria (portable throne - see image of Pope John XXIII, left), with attendants fanning the pontiff with ostrich feathers (fans can be seen in the background of photograph of Pius XI above) to the location of the coronation. Traditionally, coronations took place in or in the environs of St Peter's Basilica.[24] This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... This work is presumed to be copyrighted, but its source has not been determined. ... Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... // Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ...


At the moment of the coronation, the new pope was crowned with the words

Receive the tiara adorned with three crowns and know that thou art Father of princes and kings, Ruler of the world, Vicar of our Saviour Jesus Christ.

Pope Paul VI opted for a significantly shorter ceremony. As with all other modern coronations, the ceremony itself was only symbolic, as the person involved became Pope and Bishop of Rome the moment he accepted his canonical election in the conclave. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ...


Other tiaras

For tiaras unrelated to the papacy, see Tiara

This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Patriarchal tiara

Only one other Catholic prelate is allowed to use a tiara in his coat of arms: the Patriarch of Lisbon,[25] a title created in 1716 and held by the archbishop of Lisbon since 1740. Confusion with the papal coat of arms is easily avoided as the pope always combines his tiara with the crossed keys of St. Peter. The Patriarch of Lisbon is one of the few western Patriarchs in the Roman Catholic Church, an honorary title without actual authority except for the Patriarch of Rome, as Pope. ... // Events August 5 - In the Battle of Peterwardein 40. ... The Patriarch of Lisbon is one of the few western Patriarchs in the Roman Catholic Church, an honorary title without actual authority except for the Patriarch of Rome, as Pope. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ...


Sultan Suleiman

The 16th Century Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent is said to have commissioned Italian craftsmen to make a 4-crown tiara modeled on the Papal design, to demonstrate that his power and authority exceeded that of the Supreme Pontiff. Ottoman redirects here. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ...


Conversely, the papal coronation ceremony, in which the Pope was fanned with flabella (long fans of ostrich feathers) and carried on the sedia gestatoria (portable throne), was based on the Byzantine imperial ceremonies witnessed in medieval Constantinople. A flabellum (plural flabella), in liturgical use, is a fan made of leather, silk, parchment or feathers, intended to keep away insects from the Sacred Species and from the priest. ... // Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/2/26/A022ht_5_SedeGest. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


Tarot cards

The Papess in the Marseilles Tarot.

Medieval tarot cards included a card showing a woman wearing a papal tiara and known as the Popess or Papess or the High Priestess. The meaning and symbolism of the card is uncertain. The crowned woman has variously been identified as Pope Joan (a woman who according to medieval legend had disguised herself as a man and been elected pope; some cards also show a child, and the Pope Joan myth pictured her as found out when she gave birth during a papal procession), as Mary, Mother of God, as Cybele, as Isis, or as Venus. Cards with a woman wearing a papal tiara, produced during the Protestant Reformation, and apparent images of "Pope Joan" and her child, have been seen as a Protestant attempt to ridicule the papacy. Image File history File links The Tarot de Marseille: II La Papesse. ... Image File history File links The Tarot de Marseille: II La Papesse. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the general history, iconography, and uses of tarot cards. ... La Papessa, also written as La Popessa, is a term used in tarot to refer to The Papess or The High Priestess playing card. ... The Papess, a Marseilles tarot card of the 18th century, which depicts a female Pope. ... Saint Mary and Saint Mary the Virgin both redirect here. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... This article discusses the ancient goddess Isis. ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Reformation redirects here. ...

The Pope in the Marseilles Tarot.

The papal tiara, however, disappeared from later cards, which showed the Popess wearing more standard medieval female headgear. The tarot cards also contained a representation of the pope, in some cases crowned with a papal tiara.[26] Image File history File links The Tarot de Marseille: V Le Pape. ... Image File history File links The Tarot de Marseille: V Le Pape. ...


See also

The most famous symbol of the Papacy is almost certainly the triregnum (a crown with three levels), also called the tiara or triple crown; recent Popes (since Pope John Paul I) have not, however, worn the triregnum. ... Pope Pius XII, wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Popes buried in St. ... Coat of arms Map of the Papal States; the reddish area was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860, the rest (grey) in 1870. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Papal Mass is a traditional Catholic mass celebrated by the Pope. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Papal Inauguration Homily of Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano (Text of the Homily)
  2. ^ Secretariat of State, instruction "Ut sive sollicite", 28, in Acta Apostolicae Sedis 61 (1969) 334-340 (English translation in L'Osservatore Romano, 17 April 1969): "The use of the crozier and mitre in the coat-of-arms is suppressed."
  3. ^ http://web.archive.org/web/20041108203222/www.home.earthlink.net/~herald97/guyselvester/ (archived)
  4. ^ James-Charles Noonan, The Church Visible, (ISBN 0-670-86745-4)
  5. ^ Bruno Heim, Heraldry in the Catholic Church, Humanities: 1978, (ISBN 0-391-00873-0), p.50
  6. ^ Traditionalist Catholic website criticising Benedict XVI's non-use of the papal tiara
  7. ^ Romano Pontifici Eligendo (1975), 92.
  8. ^ Universi Dominici Gregis (1996), No. 92.
  9. ^ http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/benedict_xvi/elezione/stemma-benedict-xvi_en.html
  10. ^ Designed by Ambrogio Foppa with a massive cost of 200,000 ducats, one third of the papacy's annual income, at a time when a parish priest was paid 25 ducats a year.
  11. ^ To give a comparison in weights, St. Edward's Crown, with which British monarchs are crowned, weighs only 4 lb 12 oz (2.15 kg). Yet Queen Elizabeth II after her coronation commented how the crown "does get rather heavy". Similarly King George said after the Delhi Durbar in 1911 how the Imperial Crown of India "hurt my head as it is rather heavy". Yet both these crowns are lighter than most papal tiaras, and less than a third of the weight of the 1804 tiara given to Pius VII by Napoleon. Gyles Brandreth, Philip & Elizabeth (Century, 2004) p.311. and "The Crown Jewels" published by the Tower of London.
  12. ^ http://www.ewtn.com/jp2/papal3/tiara.htm
  13. ^ http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/sp_ss_scv/insigne/triregno_en.html
  14. ^ http://www.ewtn.com/holysee/Interregnum/terms.asp
  15. ^ Papal Inauguration Homily of Pope John Paul II, L'Osservatore Romano [1]
  16. ^ National Post article, 16 October 2004
  17. ^ Website on pre-Vatican II liturgical and ecclesiastical vestments and symbols
  18. ^ http://www.electapope.com/index.php?page=The_Coronation
  19. ^ http://www.catholicnews.com/data/stories/cns/0502625.htm
  20. ^ http://users.skynet.be/lotus/flag_file/vaten.htm
  21. ^ Uriah Smith, Thoughts, Critical and Practical on the Book of Revelation (published in 1865, Smith was an early Seventh-day Adventist)
  22. ^ http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues/et_139.htm
  23. ^ Like the Papal Tiara, the sedia gestatoria could be restored to use at any time. However, when Pope John Paul II's mobility became impaired, he opted not to be carried on men's shoulders, but instead to use a wheeled dias. This was criticized, because he could not easily be seen when sitting on it.
  24. ^ John Cornwell, Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII (Viking, 1999) pp. 211-212.
  25. ^ Bruno Heim, Heraldry in the Catholic Church, Humanities: 1978, (ISBN 0-391-00873-0), p.52, 94.
  26. ^ Dr. Robert O'Neill, Iconography of the early papess cards, Iconography of the pope cards

Masthead LOsservatore Romano is the Vaticans newspaper. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The Most Reverend Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD. Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD (5 March 1911 - 18 March 2003) was the Vaticans first Apostolic Nuncio to Britain and was one of the most prominent armorists of twentieth century ecclesiastical heraldry. ... The ducat (IPA: ) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before World War I. Its weight is 3. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... This article is about religious workers. ... St. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Delhi Durbar means Court of Delhi which took place in 1911. ... Artists painting of the Imperial Crown of India eThe Imperial Crown of India is housed with but not part of the British Crown Jewels. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Most Reverend Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD. Bruno Bernard Heim, JCD, PhD (5 March 1911 - 18 March 2003) was the Vaticans first Apostolic Nuncio to Britain and was one of the most prominent armorists of twentieth century ecclesiastical heraldry. ...

References

Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul I: The tiara still appears in papal arms, though the tiara itself is no longer worn.
Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul I: The tiara still appears in papal arms, though the tiara itself is no longer worn.
  • Bernstein, Carl; Politi, Marco (1996). His Holiness: John Paul II and the Hidden History of our Time. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-40538-3. 
  • Cornwell, John (1999). Hitler's Pope: The Secret History of Pius XII. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-87620-8. 
  • Cornwell, John (1989). A Thief in the Night: The Death of Pope John Paul I. London: Viking. ISBN 0-670-82387-2. 
  • de Cesare, Raffaele (1909). The Last Days of Papal Rome 1850-1870. London: A. Constable. 
  • Davis, Raymond (ed.) (2000). The Book of Pontiffs (Liber Pontificalis). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. ISBN 0-85323-545-7. 
  • Duffy, Eamon (1997). Saint & Sinners: A History of the Popes. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07332-1. 
  • Hales, E.E.Y. (Edward Elton Young) (1954). Pio Nono: A Study in European Politics and Religion in the Nineteenth Century.. London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. 
  • Hebblethwaite, Peter (1978). The Year of Three Popes. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-215047-6. 
  • Hebblethwaite, Peter (1993). Paul VI : The First Modern Pope. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-0461-X. 
  • Hebblethwaite, Peter (2000). John XXIII: Pope of the Century. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-4995-6. 
  • Heim, Bruno (1978). Heraldry in the Catholic Church: Its Origins, Customs and Laws. Gerrards Cross, Eng.: Van Duren. ISBN 0-905715-05-5. 
  • Hobsworth, Dean (1884). From True Cross to True Crown: Papalism and Its Evils. 
  • Levillain, Philippe (ed.) (2002). The Papacy: An Encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92228-3. 
  • Nielsen, Fredrik Kristian (1906). The History of the Papacy in the XIXth Century. London: J. Murray. 
  • Noonan, James-Charles. (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-86745-4. 
  • Rudé, George F. E. (2000). Revolutionary Europe, 1783-1815. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-22189-1. 
  • Smith, Uriah (1881). Thoughts, Critical and Practical on the Book of Revelation. Battle Creek, Mich.: Seventh-day Adventist Publ. Assoc.. ISBN 0-8370-5309-9. 
  • Smithe, Jefferson (1902). Roman Catholic Ritual. London. 
  • Willey, David (1992). God's Politician: John Paul at the Vatican. London: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-16180-4. 
  • Yallop, David A. (1984). In God's Name: An Investigation into the Murder of Pope John Paul I. Toronto: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-05073-7. 

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... Pope John Paul I (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo I), born Albino Luciani, (October 17, 1912—September 28, 1978) reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and as Sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 until his death. ...

Sources and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Papal Tiara (3396 words)
As with all previous popes, Pope Paul VI was crowned with a tiara at the papal coronation.
Pope Paul's tiara was presented to the National Shrine of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception in Washington DC by the Apostolic Delegate to the United States on February 6, 1968 as a gesture of Pope Paul VI's affection for the Catholic Church in the United States.
One of the papal tiaras remains in use, however, as is placed on the head of a statue of St.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tiara (1188 words)
When the tiara is represented in sculpture and painting as a piece of braiding, this seems to arise from the fact that in the thirteenth century the tiara was made of strips braided together.
The tiara with three crowns is, consequently, the rule upon the monuments from the second half of the fourteenth century, even though, as an anachronism, there are isolated instances of the tiara with one crown up into the fifteenth century.
The earliest name of the papal cap, camelaucum, as well as the Donation of Constantine, clearly point to the Byzantine East; it is hardly to be doubted that the model from which the papal cap was taken is to be found in the camelaucum of the Byzantine court dress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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