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Encyclopedia > Papal Bull
Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla.
Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla.

A Papal bull is a particular type of letters patent or charter issued by a pope. It is named after the bulla that was appended to the end to authenticate it. Download high resolution version (1500x1113, 214 KB) Source: http://www. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1113, 214 KB) Source: http://www. ... Pope Urban VIII (April 1568 – July 29, 1644), born Maffeo Barberini, was Pope from 1623 to 1644. ... Bulla (plural, Bullae), a lump of clay molded around a cord and stamped with a seal. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Bulla (plural, Bullae), a lump of clay molded around a cord and stamped with a seal. ...


Papal bulls were originally issued by the pope for many kinds of communication of a public nature, but after the fifteenth century, only for the most formal or solemn of occasions. Modern scholars have retroactively used the term "Bull" to describe any elaborate papal document issued in the form of a decree or privilege (solemn or simple), and to some less elaborate ones issued in the form of a letter. Popularly, the name is used for any papal document that contains a metal seal. Decree is an order that has the force of law. ... This article is about permission granted by law or other rules. ...


Papal bulls have been in use at least since the sixth century, but the term was not first used until around the middle of the thirteenth century and then only for internal un-official papal record keeping purposes; the term had become official by the fifteenth century, when one of the offices of the Papal chancery was named the "register of bulls" (registrum bullarum). The Apostolic Chancery, also known as Papal - or Roman Chanc(ell)ery, is a former office of the Roman Curia. ...


Today, the bull is the only written communication in which the pope will refer to himself as episcopus servus servorum Dei, meaning "Bishop, Servant of the Servants of God." For instance, Benedict XVI, when he issues a decree in bull form, will begin the document with Benedictus, Episcopus, Servus Servorum Dei. While it used to always bear a metal seal, it now does so only on the most solemn occasions. It is today the most formal type of letters patent issued by the Vatican Chancery in the name of the pope. Servus Servorum Dei is a Latin phrase meaning Servant of the Servants of God. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as...

Contents

Format

The bull's format began with one line in tall elongated letters containing three elements: the pope's name, the papal title episcopus servus servorum Dei, meaning 'bishop, servant of the servants of God', and the few Latin words that constituted the incipit from which the bull would also take its name for record keeping purposes, but which might not be directly indicative of the bull's purpose. The incipit of a text, such as a poem, song, or book, is its first few words or opening line. ...


The body of the text had no specific conventions for its formatting; it was often very simple in layout. The closing section consisted of a short datum, mentioning the place it was issued, the day of the month and the year of the pope's pontificate and signatures, near which was attached the seal.


For the most solemn bulls, the pope would sign the document himself, in which case he used the formula Ego N. Catholicae Ecclesiae Episcopus (I, N., Bishop of the Catholic Church). Following the signature in this case would be an elaborate monogram, the signatures of any witnesses, and then the seal. Nowadays, a member of the Roman Curia signs the document on behalf of the Pope, usually the Cardinal Secretary of State, and thus the monogram is omitted. The Chi-Rho, a monogram of the first two letters in the Greek word for Christ E and L embroider for clothes and bedding, for a wife by the initials E L or L E A monogram is a motif made by overlapping or combining two or more letters or... The Roman Curia — usually called the Vatican — is the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... The Cardinal Secretary of State presides over the Vatican Secretariat of State, which is the oldest and most important dicastery of the Roman Curia. ...


The "bulla" (seal)

The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the metal seal, which was usually made of lead, but on very solemn occasions was made of gold (as Byzantine imperial deeds often were). It depicted the founders of the Church of Rome, the apostles Peter and Paul, identified by the letters Sanctus PAulus and Sanctus PEtrus. The name of the issuing pope is on the reverse side. This was then attached to the document either by cords of hemp (in the case of letters of justice, and executory) or by red and yellow silk (in the case of letters of grace) that was looped through slits in the vellum of the document. Bulla is the name of this seal, which to ancient observers looked like a bubble floating on water: Latin bullire, "to boil". General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For... St Peter redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... U.S. Marihuana production permit. ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Vellum (from the Old French Vélin, for calfskin[1]) is a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. ...


Since the late eighteenth century, the lead bulla has been replaced with a red ink stamp of Saints Peter and Paul with the reigning pope's name encircling the picture, though very formal letters, e.g. the bull of John XXIII convoking the Second Vatican Council, still receive the lead seal. The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... The Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican, or Vatican II, was the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Original papal bulls exist in quantity only after the eleventh century onward when the transition from fragile papyrus to the more durable parchment was made. None survives in entirety from before 819. Some original leaden seals, however, still survive from as early as the 6th century. For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... German parchmenter, 1568 Parchment is a material for the pages of a book or codex, made from fine calf skin, sheep skin or goat skin. ...


Content

In terms of content, the bull is simply the format in which a decree of the pope appears. Any subject may be treated in a bull, and many were and are, including statutory decrees, episcopal appointments, dispensations, excommunications, apostolic constitutions, canonizations and convocations. The bull was the exclusive letter format from the Vatican until the fourteenth century, when the Papal brief began to appear. The Papal brief is the less formal form of papal communication and is authenticated with a wax impression (now a red ink impression) of the Ring of the Fisherman. There has never been an exact distinction of usage between a bull and a brief, but nowadays most letters, including Papal encyclicals, are issued as briefs. Dispensation is the act of distributing goods or services, especially those that are regulated, as in the practice of pharmacists. ... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... An Apostolic constitution (Latin constitutio apostolica) is a very solemn decree issued by the Pope of the Roman Catholic Church. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... A Convocation (Latin calling together, translating the Greek ecclesia) is a group of people formally assembled for a special purpose. ... The Papal Brief is a formal document emanating from the Roman Catholic Pope, in a somewhat simpler and more modern form than a Papal Bull. ... Pope Benedict XVIs Ring The Ring of the Fisherman, also known as the Piscatory Ring and the Pescatorio (in Italian), is an official part of the regalia worn by the Pope, who is described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ...


See also

This is a very incomplete list of papal bulls by the year in which they were issued. ... Abbreviators, a body of writers in the papal chancery, whose business was to sketch out and prepare in due form the popes bulls, briefs and consistorial decrees before these are written out in extenso by the scriptores. ... Bull of the Crusade were the Papal bulls which granted indulgences to those who took part in the crusades against Muslims, pagans or sometimes heretics (from the Catholic viewpoint). ... Bulla (plural, Bullae), a lump of clay molded around a cord and stamped with a seal. ... An edict is an announcement of a law, often associated with monarchism. ... A fatwā (Arabic: ; plural fatāwā Arabic: ), is a considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Sharia (Islamic law). ... The Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV. A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and... The Great Seal of the Realm is a British institution by which the monarch can authorise official documents without having to sign each document individually. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Letters Patent by Queen Victoria creating the office of Governor-General of Australia Letters patent are a type of legal instrument in the form of an open letter issued by a monarch or government granting an office, a right, monopoly, title, or status to someone or some entity such as... A proclamation (Lat. ... Ukase (Russian: указ, ukaz) in Imperial Russia was a proclamation of the tsar government, or a religions leader patriarch that had the force of law. ...

Sources and external links

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 1913 advertisement for Encyclopædia Britannica. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Papal bull - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1015 words)
Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla.
A Papal bull is a special kind of patent or charter issued by a pope and named for the seal (bulla) that was appended to the end to authenticate it.
Papal bulls were originally issued by the pope for many kinds of communication of a public nature, but after the 15th century, only for the more formal or solemn of occasions.
NationMaster.com - Encyclopedia: Papal Bull (5636 words)
Clericis laicos was a Papal bull issued on February 25, 1296 by Pope Boniface VIII in an attempt to prevent the secular states of Europe, in particular France and England, from appropriating church revenues without the express prior permission of the pope.
The Papal Bull Aeterni regis was issued on June 21, 1481 by Pope Sixtus IV, and confirmed the substance of the Treaty of Alcáçovas in confirming Castile in its possession of the Portugal.
A Golden Bull or chrysobull was a golden ornament representing a seal (a bulla aurea or golden seal in Latin), attached to a decree issued by monarchs in Europe and the Byzantine Empire during the Middle Ages and...
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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