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Encyclopedia > Papacy
Part of the series on
Christianity
History of Christianity

Christian theology
The Trinity:
God the Father
Christ the Son
The Holy Spirit Christianity is the worlds largest religion. ... image of a Latin cross. ... This article outlines the history of Christianity and provides links to relevant topics. ... Christian theology practices theology from a Christian viewpoint or studies Christianity theologically. ... This article concerns the Holy Trinity of Christianity and related religious denominations. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christ, from the Greek in english known as Χριστός, or Khristós, means anointed, and is equivalent to the Hebrew term Messiah. ... Jesus, also known as Jesus Christ*, Jesus of Nazareth, and Jesus the Nazarene, is the central figure in Christianity. ... The Holy Spirit, or Holy Ghost, in Trinitarian Christian belief, is God, the third Person of the Holy Trinity; the word Spirit commonly translates the Greek New Testament word pneuma. ...

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The Gospels
Ten Commandments
Beatitudes
Apocrypha The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The Old Testament or the Hebrew Scriptures (also called the Hebrew Bible) constitutes the first major part of the Bible according to Christianity. ... The New Testament, sometimes called the Greek Scriptures, is the name given to the part of the Christian Bible that was written after the birth of Jesus. ... In Christianity, Gospels are a genre of Early Christian literature essentially concerning the message and meaning of Jesus. ... The Ten Commandments, or Decalogue, are a list of religious and moral imperatives that feature prominently in Judaism and Christianity. ... The Beatitudes (from Latin, beatitudo, happiness) is the name given to a well-known, and to some, such as Henri Nouwen, definitive and central, portion of the Sermon on the Mount, recorded in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. ... In Judeo-Christian theology, the word apocrypha (Greek απόκρυφα, neuter plural of απόκρυφος, hidden) refers to texts that are not considered canonical, part of the Bible, but are of roughly similar style and age as the accepted Scriptures. ...

Christian Church:
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Orthodox Christianity
Protestantism The term Christian Church expresses the idea of Christianity (the Christian religion) seen in its role as an institution. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Protestantism is a movement within Christianity. ...

Christian denominations
Christian movements A denomination in the Christian sense is an identifiable religious body, organization under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... Christian movements are theological intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ...

Christian worship

Related faiths:
Abrahamic religions
Rastafarianism In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout Christian history. ... An Abrahamic religion (also referred to as desert monotheism) is a term sometimes used to refer to a religion derived from an ancient Semitic tradition attributed to Abraham, a great patriarch described in the Torah, the Bible, and the Quran. ... Haile Selassie, Rastafari God and King Rastafarianism, or as adherents prefer to call it, the Rastafari movemant, or simply Rasta, is a religious movement that reveres the former emperor of Ethiopia, Haile Selassie I - who as King of Kings and Lord of Lords, and as the Lion of Judah, is...

The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. The office of the Pope is informally called the Papacy and formally called the Pontificate; his ecclesiastical jurisdiction is called the Holy See (Sancta Sedes). Early bishops of Rome were designated "vicar (representative) of Peter"; for later Popes the more authoritative "vicar of Christ" was substituted; this designation was first used by the Roman Synod of AD 495 to refer to Pope Gelasius I, an originator of papal supremacy among the patriarchs. City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... Saint Peters Basilica in Rome. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... Events Cerdic of Wessex raids Hampshire. ... It is requested that an image(s) should be included, to improve the articles quality. ...


In addition to this spiritual role, the Pope also serves as head of state of the independent, sovereign State of the Vatican City, a city-state entirely surrounded by the city of Rome. Prior to 1870, the Pope's temporal authority extended over a large area of central Italy, a territory more familiar as the Papal States that was formally known as the "Patrimony of St Peter". Though the document on which the territorial powers of the Pontificate were based—the so-called Donation of Constantine—was proved a forgery in the 15th century, the Pope retained sovereign authority over the Papal States until the Italian Unification of 1870, and a final political settlement between the Italian government and the Pope was not reached until the Lateran Treaties of 1929. Though a term originally coined for Republican presidents, a head of state or chief of state is now universally known as the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions... Vatican City — formally known as the State of the Vatican City or Vatican City State (Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanæ and Italian: Stato della Città del Vaticano) — is a sovereign landlocked enclave surrounded by Rome, Italy. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Democratici di Sinistra) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost 4,000,000 1... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the historical states of Italy before the peninsula was unified under the crown of Savoy. ... The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Constitutum Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict, purportedly issued by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 324, and granting Pope Sylvester I and his successors sovereignty and spiritual authority over Rome, Italy, and the entire Western Roman Empire. ... Italian unification process Italian unification (Italian: Risorgimento) was the political and social process that unified disparate countries of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy between the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Lateran Treaties of February 11, 1929 provided for the mutual recognition of the then-Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican City. ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The current pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. He succeeds the late John Paul II, who was elected at the age of 58 in 1978. His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ...


Pope Benedict XVI is the second non-Italian to be elected to the pontificate since Adrian VI, who was briefly pope in 1522-23, (John Paul II (pope 1978-2005) was the first), and is also the first German to take the seat since the 11th century (although it can be argued that Adrian VI, who is considered both Dutch and German - he lived in Holland but came from German ancestors - was the last German pope). In some quarters, it is felt that Benedict's election as pope is further evidence that the papacy is moving away from being an Italian-dominated institution. His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle... Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Events April - Battle of Villalors - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The house where Adrian VI was born Adrian VI (also known as Hadrian VI or Adriano VI), born Adrian dEdel (March 2, 1459 - September 14, 1523), pope from 1522 to 1523, was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands, and studied under the Brethren of the Common Life either at Zwolle...

Contents

Office and nature

The title "Pope" is an informal one; the formal title of the pope is "Bishop of Rome, Vicar of Jesus Christ, Successor of the Prince of the Apostles, Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church, Patriarch of the West, Primate of Italy, Archbishop and Metropolitan of the Roman Province, Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City, Servant of the Servants of God," although this is rarely seen or used in full (by comparison, the formal title of the Eastern Orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria is "Successor of Saint Mark the Apostle, Shepherd of Shepherds, Father of Fathers, Supreme Pontiff of All Metropolitans and Bishops, Judge of the World, and Beloved of Christ", often called the "Ecumenical Judge"; the Coptic Pope is styled "Pope and Patriarch of the See of Alexandria and of All the Predication of the Evangelist St. Mark"). In canon law, the Roman Catholic Pope is referred to as the "Roman Pontiff" (Pontifex Romanus). He is styled "Your Holiness" (Sanctitas Vostra) and is frequently referred to as "the Holy Father." In the Roman Catholic Church, Saint Peter, given the keys to heaven by Jesus, was the first Bishop of Rome. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. ... Saint Peter, portrayed by Peter Paul Rubens in a papal chasuble and pallium holding keys, was one of the twelve disciples of Jesus. ... Orginally the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the pre-Christian Roman religion. ... One Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church is a phrase in the Nicene Creed (μίαν αγίαν καθολικήν καί αποστολικήν Έκκλησίαν) that also appears partly in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church). It indicates the four marks of the Church – unity, holiness, catholicity and apostolicity – and is based on the premise... Originally a patriarch is a man who exercises autocratic authority as a pater familias over an extended family. ... A primate in the Western Church is an archbishop or bishop who has authority not just over the bishops of his own province, as a Metropolitan does, but over a number of provinces, such as a national church. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, whose incumbent is usually called simply a metropolitan, appertains to the bishop of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Servus Servorum Dei is a Latin phrase meaning The Servant of the Servants of God. ... ... The Patriarch of Alexandria is the bishop of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The following list contains all the Popes who have held sway over the Coptic Orthodox Church since the Council of Chalcedon. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... Your Holiness is the formal style by which the Pope and the Coptic Pope are addressed, and is properly the superlative style, taking precedence before all other styles; when rendered in the third person, His Holiness may be abbreviated to HH, but this abbreviation more commonly refers to His/ Her... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


The pope's signature is usually in the format "NN. PP. x" (e.g., Pope Paul VI signed his name as "Paulus PP. VI"), the "PP." standing for Princeps Pastorum ("Prince of the Shepherds"), and his name is frequently accompanied in inscriptions by the abbreviation "Pont. Max." or "P.M." (abbreviation of the ancient title Pontifex Maximus, literally "Greatest Bridge-maker", but usually translated "Supreme Pontiff"). The signature of Papal bulls is customarily NN. Episcopus Ecclesia Catholicae ("NN. Bishop of the Catholic Church"), while the heading is NN. Episcopus Servus Servorum Dei ("NN. Bishop and Servant of the Servants of God"), the latter title dating to the time of Pope Gregory I the Great. Other titles used in some official capacity include Summus Pontifex ("Highest Pontiff"), Sanctissimus Pater and Beatissimus Pater ("Most Holy Father" and "Most Blessed Father"), Sanctissimus Dominus Noster ("Our Most Holy Lord"), and, in the Medieval period, Dominus Apostolicus ("Apostolic Lord"). His Holiness Pope Paul VI, born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... Princeps Pastorum (Latin for Prince of the shepherds) is an honorific title accorded to popes and the title of an encyclical letter promulgated by Pope John XXIII on November 28, 1959. ... Orginally the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the pre-Christian Roman religion. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Servus Servorum Dei is a Latin phrase meaning The Servant of the Servants of God. ... Gregory I Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (c. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...

The pope's official seat is the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, and his official residence is the Palace of the Vatican. He also possesses a summer palace at Castel Gandolfo (situated on the site of the ancient city-state Alba Longa). Historically the official residence of the Pope was the Lateran Palace, donated by the Roman Emperor Constantinus I. The former Papal summer palace, the Quirinal Palace, has subsequently been the official residence of the Kings of Italy and Presidents of the Italian Republic. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Flag ratio: 1:1 The flag of the Vatican City consists of two vertical bands of gold (hoist side) and white with the crossed keys of Saint Peter and the Papal Tiara centered in the white band. ... The late Baroque façade of the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano was completed by Alessandro Galilei in 1735 after winning a competition for the design. ... The Palace of the Vatican, also called the Papal Palace or the Apostolic Palace, is the official residence of the Pope in the Vatican City. ... Castel Gandolfo. ... Alba Longa was a city of ancient Latium in central Italy about 19 km (12 miles) southeast of Rome. ... From the beginning of the 4th Century, when it was given to the Pope by Constantine, the Palace of the Lateran on Piazza San Giovanni in south-east Rome was the principal residence of the Popes, and continued so for about a thousand years. ... Roman Emperor is the title historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Constantine. ... The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Quirinale) is the official residence of the President of the Italian Republic. ... The title King of Italy was assumed by Napoleon Bonaparte, who was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy in the Cathedral of Milan, May 26, 1805. ... This is the List of Presidents of Italy with the title Presidente della Repubblica since 1948. ...


Contrary to popular belief, it is the pope's ecclesiastical jurisdiction (the Holy See) and not his secular jurisdiction (Vatican City) which conducts international relations; for hundreds of years, the Pope's court (the Roman Curia) has functioned as the government of the Catholic Church. The name "Holy See" (also "Apostolic See") is in ecclesiastical terminology the ordinary jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome (including the Roman Curia); the pope's various honours, powers, and privileges within the Catholic Church and the international community derive from his Episcopate of Rome in lineal succession from the Apostle St. Peter (see Apostolic Succession). Consequently Rome has traditionally occupied a central position in the Catholic Church, although this is not necessarily so. The Pope derives his Pontificate from being Bishop of Rome but is not obligated to reside in Rome; according to the Latin formula ubi Papa, ibi Curia, wherever the pope resides is the central government of the Church, provided that the pope is Bishop of Rome. As such, between 1309 and 1378 the Popes resided not in Rome but in Avignon, a period often called the Babylonian Captivity in allusion to the Biblical exile of Israel (see Avignon Papacy). The Roman Curia is the complex of the organs and the authorities that constitute the administrative apparatus of the Holy See, coordinating and providing the necessary organisation for the correct functioning of the Roman Catholic Church and the achievement of its goals. ... Alternate meanings: See Apostle (Mormonism), The Apostle (1997 movie) The Twelve Apostles (in Greek απόστολος apostolos= emissary) were probably Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth , by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. ... Events Rhodes falls to forces of the Knights of St. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... Coat of arms of Avignon Avignon (pronounced in IPA, Provençal: Avignoun) is a commune in southern France with some 88,300 inhabitants in the city itself and 155,500 in the Greater Avignon area. ... The Babylonian captivity, or Babylonian exile, is the name generally given to the deportation and exile of the Jews of the ancient Kingdom of Judah to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar. ... A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Avignon papacy refers to a period in the history of the Roman Catholic Church from 1305 to 1378 when the seat of the pope was moved from Rome to Avignon. ...


Catholic tradition maintains that the institution of the Pontificate can be found in the Bible, and cites certain key passages in support of this contention. Chief among these passages is Matthew xvi: 18 – 19, wherein Jesus Christ says to St. Peter: A tradition is a story or a custom that is memorized and passed down from generation to generation, originally without the need for a writing system. ... A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... The Gospel of Matthew is one of the four Gospels of the New Testament. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...

"Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jona! For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the powers of death shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven."

Other important passages include Luke xxii: 31 – 32, John i: 42, and John xxi: 15 – 17. The Gospel of Luke is the third of the four canonical Gospels of the New Testament, which tell the story of Jesus life, death, and resurrection. ... The Gospel of John is the fourth gospel in the sequence of the canon as printed in the New Testament, and scholars agree it was the fourth to be written. ...


Regalia and insignia

Vatican coat of arms

Main article: Papal regalia and insignia. Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Vatican coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... The most famous symbol of the Papacy is almost certainly the triregnum (a thrice-crowned hat), also called the tiara or triple crown; recent Popes have not, however, worn the triregnum and have instead chosen to wear the episcopal mitre (an erect cloth hat). ...

  • The "triregnum" also called the "tiara" or "triple crown"; recent popes have not, however, worn the triregnum though it remains the symbol of the papacy and has not been abolished. In liturgical ceremonies popes wear an episcopal mitre (an erect cloth hat).
  • Staff topped by an erect crucifix, a custom established before the 13th century.
  • The pallium (a circular band of fabric about two inches wide, worn over the chasuble about the neck, breast and shoulders and having two twelve-inch-long pendants hanging down in front and behind, ornamented with six small, black crosses distributed about the breast, back, shoulders, and pendants).
  • The "Keys to the Kingdom of Heaven", the image of two keys, one gold and one silver. The silver key symbolises the power to bind and loose on Earth, and the gold key the power to bind and loose in Heaven.
  • The Fisherman's Ring, a gold ring decorated with a depiction of St. Peter in a boat casting his net, with the name of the reigning Pope around it.
  • The umbracullum (better known in the Italian form ombrellino) is a canopy or umbrella (consisting of alternating red and gold stripes).
  • One of the most familiar (and now discontinued) trappings of the Papacy was the sedia gestatoria, a mobile throne carried by twelve footmen (palafrenieri) in red uniforms, accompanied by two attendants bearing flabella (fans made of white ostrich-feathers). The use of the sedia gestatoria and of the flabella was discontinued by Pope John Paul II, with the former being replaced by the so-called Popemobile.

In heraldry, each pope has his own Papal Coat of Arms. Though unique for each pope, the arms are always surmounted by the aforementioned two keys in saltire (i.e., crossed over one another so as to form an X) behind the escutcheon (one key silver and one key gold, tied with a red cord), and above them a silver triregnum with three gold crowns and red infulae, or the red strips of fabric hanging from the back over the shoulders when worn ("two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or"). The flag most frequently associated with the Pope is the yellow and white flag of Vatican City, with the arms of the Holy See ("Gules, two keys in saltire or and argent, interlacing in the rings or, beneath a tiara argent, crowned or") on the right hand side in the white half of the flag. This flag was first adopted in 1808, whereas the previous flag had been red and gold, the traditional colours of the Pontificate. 1834 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno,[1] is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ... The mitre or miter is a traditional, ceremonial head-dress of bishops in the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Communion and Eastern Orthodoxy. ... A small, handheld crufix. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A Pallium The Pallium or Pall (derived, so far as the name is concerned, from the Roman pallium or palla, a woollen cloak) is an ecclesiastical vestment in the Roman Catholic Church, originally peculiar to the Pope, but for many centuries past bestowed by him on metropolitans and primates as... Chasuble The chasuble is the most conspicuous liturgical vestment worn by the clergy for the celebration of the Eucharist, especially among Roman Catholics and Anglicans. ... The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ... The umbracullum is a historic piece of the papal regalia and insignia, once used on a daily basis to provide shade for the pope. ... Pope John Paul I being carried on the Sedia Gestatoria The sedia gestatoria is the portable throne on which Popes are sometimes carried. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... Another popemobile, produced by Fiat Pope John Paul II on a popemobile The popemobile is an informal name for the specially designed vehicle used by the pope during public appearances. ... Every pope of the Roman Catholic Church has his own personal coat of arms that serves as a symbol of his papacy. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Status and authority

Pope Benedict XVI was elected on April 19, 2005.

The status and authority of the Pope in the Catholic Church was dogmatically defined by the First Vatican Council in its Dogmatic Constitution of the Church of Christ (July 18, 1870). The first chapter of this document is entitled "On the institution of the apostolic primacy in blessed Peter", and states that (s.1) "according to the Gospel evidence, a primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church of God was immediately and directly promised to the blessed apostle Peter and conferred on him by Christ the Lord" and that (s.6) "if anyone says that blessed Peter the apostle was not appointed by Christ the Lord as prince of all the apostles and visible head of the whole church militant; or that it was a primacy of honour only and not one of true and proper jurisdiction that he directly and immediately received from our Lord Jesus Christ Himself: let him be anathema." Photograph of Pope Benedict XVI, released by Office of U.S. Navy Chaplains on 19 Apr 2005 User:Husnock, who originally posted the image, says (see User_talk:Husnock#Military_Pope_Image): That image was e-mailed to me by a Lieutenant Chaplain in the U.S. Naval Reserve. ... Photograph of Pope Benedict XVI, released by Office of U.S. Navy Chaplains on 19 Apr 2005 User:Husnock, who originally posted the image, says (see User_talk:Husnock#Military_Pope_Image): That image was e-mailed to me by a Lieutenant Chaplain in the U.S. Naval Reserve. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative. ... In Roman Catholicism, a dogmatic definition is an infallible statement published by a pope or an ecumenical council concerning a matter of faith or morals, the belief in which the Catholic Church requires of all Christians (but Christians who are not Catholics do not recognize the Catholic Churchs authority... The First Vatican Council was summoned by Pope Pius IX by the bull Aeterni Patris of June 29, 1868. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The term God is used to designate a Supreme Being; however, there are other definitions of God. ... Alternate meanings: See Apostle (Mormonism), The Apostle (1997 movie) The Twelve Apostles (in Greek απόστολος apostolos= emissary) were probably Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth , by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across... The church militant comprises Christians who are living; the church triumphant comprises those who are in Heaven. ... An anathema is anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. ...


The Dogmatic Constitution's second chapter, "On the permanence of the primacy of blessed Peter in the Roman pontiffs", states that (s.1) "that which our Lord Jesus Christ [...] established in the blessed apostle Peter [...] must of necessity remain forever, by Christ's authority, in the church which, founded as it is upon a rock, will stand firm until the end of time," that (s.3) "whoever succeeds to the chair of Peter obtains by the institution of Christ Himself, the primacy of Peter over the whole church", and that (s.5) "if anyone says that it is not by the institution of Christ the Lord Himself (that is to say, by divine law) that blessed Peter should have perpetual successors in the primacy over the whole church; or that the Roman pontiff is not the successor of blessed Peter in this primacy: let him be anathema."


The Dogmatic Constitution's third chapter, "On the power and character of the primacy of the Roman pontiff," states that (s.1) "the definition of the ecumenical council of Florence, which must be believed by all faithful Christians, namely that the apostolic see and the Roman pontiff hold a world-wide primacy, and that the Roman pontiff is the successor of blessed Peter, the prince of the apostles, true vicar of Christ, head of the whole church and father and teacher of all Christian people," that (s.2) "by divine ordinance, the Roman church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other church, and that the jurisdictional power of the Roman pontiff is both episcopal and immediate" and that "clergy and faithful, of whatever rite and dignity, both singly and collectively, are bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, and this not only in matters concerning faith and morals, but also in those which regard the discipline and government of the church throughout the world." The primacy of the Roman pontiff is the monarchical authority of the bishop of Rome, from the Holy See, over the several Churches that compose the Catholic Church in the Latin and Eastern Rites. ... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A decree of the Council of Constance (9 October 1417), sanctioned by Pope Martin V obliged the papacy to summon general councils periodically. ... Christianity is the worlds largest religion. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... You all suck, except the man at the top. ...


The powers of the Pope are defined by the Dogmatic Constitution (ch.3, s.8) such that "he is the supreme judge of the faithful, and that in all cases which fall under ecclesiastical jurisdiction recourse may be had to his judgement" and that "the sentence of the apostolic see (than which there is no higher authority) is not subject to revision by anyone, nor may anyone lawfully pass judgement thereupon" (can. 331 defines the power of the Pope as "supreme, full, immediate and universal ordinary power in the Church, and he can always freely exercise this power"). It also dogmatically defined (ch.4, s.9) the doctrine of Papal infallibility, sc. such that In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that the Pope, when he solemnly defines a matter of faith and morals ex cathedra (that is, officially and as pastor of the universal Church), is correct, and thus does not have the possibility of error. ...

when the Roman Pontiff speaks ex cathedra, that is, when in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed His church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals. Therefore, such definitions of the Roman pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the church, irreformable.

The Catholic Church teaches that "it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff" (Boniface VIII). Therefore, all those that willingly separate themselves from the Catholic Church have no hopes of salvation (this dogma is summarized by the Latin phrase "extra Ecclesiam nullus salus", or "outside the Church exists no salvation"). Boniface VIII, né Benedict Gaetano ( 1235 - October 11, 1303) was Pope of the Roman Catholic Church from 1294 to 1303. ...


See Donation of Constantine for discussion of the broader authority the papacy has argued the Catholic Church possesses in affairs of state. The Donation of Constantine (Latin, Constitutum Donatio Constantini) is a forged Roman imperial edict, purportedly issued by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 324, and granting Pope Sylvester I and his successors sovereignty and spiritual authority over Rome, Italy, and the entire Western Roman Empire. ... A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. ...


Political role

Though the progressive Christianisation of the Roman Empire in the Fourth century did not confer upon bishops civil authority within the state, the gradual withdrawal of imperial authority during the 5th century left the Pope the senior Imperial civilian official in Rome, as bishops were increasingly directing civil affairs in other cities of the Western Empire. This status as a secular and civil leader was vividly displayed by Pope Leo I's confrontation with Attila in 452 and was substantially increased in 754, when the Frankish ruler Pepin the Short donated to the Pope a strip of territory which formed the core of the so-called Papal States (properly the Patrimony of St. Peter). In 800, Pope Leo III crowned the Frankish ruler Charlemagne as Roman Emperor, a major step toward establishing what later became known as the Holy Roman Empire; from that date it became the Pope's prerogative to crown the Emperor, a tradition which continued until Emperor Charles V, the last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by the Pope (subsequent Emperors never received coronation), and which was partially revived by Napoléon Bonaparte. As has been hitherto mentioned, the pope's sovereignty over the Papal States ended in 1870 with their annexation by Italy. St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once (a political shift as much as a spontaneous mass shift in individual consciences), also includes the practice... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... (4th century - 5th century - 6th century - other centuries) Events Rome sacked by Visigoths in 410. ... Pope Saint Leo I, or Leo the Great, a Roman aristocrat, was Pope from 440 to 461. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... Events Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy Northern Wei Tai Wu Di is succeeded by Northern Wei Nan An Wang, then by Northern Wei Wen Cheng Di as ruler of the Northern Wei Dynasty in China. ... Events Pope Stephen III crowns Pepin the short King of the Franks at St. ... The Franks were one of several west Germanic tribes who entered the late Roman Empire from Frisia as foederati and established a lasting realm in an area that covers most of modern-day France and the region of Franconia in Germany, forming the historic kernel of both these two modern... Pepin III (714 - September 24, 768) more often known as Pepin the Short (French, Pépin le Bref; German, Pippin der Kleine), was a King of the Franks (751 - 768). ... The Papal States (Gli Stati della Chiesa or Stati Pontificii, States of the Church) was one of the historical states of Italy before the peninsula was unified under the crown of Savoy. ... For other uses, see number 800. ... Leo III (died June 12, 816) was Pope from 795 to 816. ... A Frankish king, like Charlemagne, (center) depicted in the Sacramentary of Charles the Bald (about 870) Charlemagne (c. ... This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos V) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


In addition to the pope's position as a territorial ruler and foremost prince bishop of Christianity (especially prominent with the Renaissance popes like Pope Alexander VI, an ambitious if spectacularly corrupt politico, and Pope Julius II, a formidable general and statesman) and as the spiritual head of the Holy Roman Empire (especially prominent during periods of contention with the Emperors, such as during the Pontificates of Pope Gregory VII and Pope Alexander III), the pope also possessed a degree of political and temporal authority in his capacity as Supreme Pontiff. Some of the most striking examples of Papal political authority are the Bull Laudabiliter in 1155 (authorising Henry II of England to invade Ireland), the Bull Inter Caeteras in 1493 (leading to the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494, which divided the world into areas of Spanish and Portuguese rule) the Bull Regnans in Excelsis in 1570 (excommunicating Elizabeth I of England and purporting to release all her subjects from their allegiance to her), the Bull Inter Gravissimas in 1582 (establishing the Gregorian Calendar). Prince-Bishop was the title given bishops who held secular powers, beside their inherent clerical power. ... By Region: Italian Renaissance Northern Renaissance -French Renaissance -German Renaissance -English Renaissance The Renaissance was an influential cultural movement which brought about a period of scientific revolution and artistic transformation, at the dawn of modern European history. ... Alexander VI, né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Pope Julius II Julius II, né Giuliano della Rovere (December 5, 1443 - February 21, 1513), was pope from 1503 to 1513. ... Gregory VII, né Hildebrand (ca. ... Alexander III, né Orlando Bandinelli (d. ... Events Frederick I Barbarossa crowned Holy Roman Emperor. ... Henry II of England, depicted in Cassells History of England, Century Edition, published circa 1902 Henry II (March 5, 1133 – July 6, 1189), ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland... Events January 4 - Christopher Columbus leaves the New World. ... The Treaty of Tordesillas (signed at Tordesillas (Castile), June 7, 1494) divided the world outside of Europe in an exclusive duopoly between the Spanish and the Portuguese along a north-south meridian 370 leagues (1770 km; 1100 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands (off the coast of Senegal in... Events January 25 - Alfonso II becomes King of Naples. ... Regnans in Excelsis was a Papal bull issued on February 25, 1570 by Pope Pius V declaring Elizabeth I to be a heretic and releasing all her subjects from any allegiance. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England. ... Excommunication is a religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Inter gravissimas is a papal bull issued by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582. ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Gregorian calendar is the calendar widely used in the Western world. ...


Death, abdication, and election

Death

The current regulations regarding a papal interregnum — i.e., a sede vacante ("vacant seat") — were promulgated by John Paul II in his 1996 document Universi Dominici Gregis. During the sede vacante, the Sacred College of Cardinals, composed of the pope's principal advisors and assistants, is collectively responsible for the government of the Church and of the Vatican itself, under the direction of the Cardinal Chamberlain; however, canon law specifically forbids the Cardinals from introducing any innovation in the government of the Church during the vacancy of the Holy See. Any decision that needs the assent of the pope has to wait until a new pope has been elected and takes office. An interregnum is a period between kings, or between popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Sede vacante in the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church is the vacancy of the episcopal see of a particular church. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... Universi Dominici Gregis is an apostolic constitution of the Roman Catholic Church issued by Pope John Paul II in 1996. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The title Camerlengo ( Italian for Chamberlain) refers to an official of the Papal court, referring either to the Chamberlain of the Roman Catholic Church, to the Chamberlain of the Sacred College of Cardinals, or to various lesser dignitaries. ...


It has long been claimed that a pope's death is officially determined by the Cardinal Chamberlain by gently tapping the late pope's head thrice with a silver hammer and calling his birth name three times, though this is disputed and has never been confirmed by the Vatican; there is general agreement that even if this procedure ever actually occurred, it was likely not employed upon the death of John Paul II. A doctor may or may not have already determined that the pope had passed away prior to this point. The Cardinal Chamberlain then retrieves the Fisherman's Ring. Usually the ring is on the pope's right hand. But in the case of Paul VI, he had stopped wearing the ring during the last years of his reign, and left it in his desk. In other cases the ring might have been removed for medical reasons. The Chamberlain cuts the ring in two in the presence of the Cardinals. The deceased pope's seals are defaced, to keep this pope's seal from ever being used again, and his personal apartment is sealed. The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ...


The body then lies in state for a number of days before being interred in the crypt of a leading church or cathedral; the popes of the 20th century were all interred in St. Peter's Basilica. A nine-day period of mourning (novem dialis) follows after the interment of the late pope. In medieval terms, a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek kryptē) is a stone chamber or vault, usually beneath the floor of a church, usually containing tombs of important people such as saints or saints relics. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The Basilica of Saint Peter, portrayed by Viviano Codazzi in a 1630 painting, is the largest church in Christendom and often used by the Pope. ...


Abdication

The Code of Canon Law 332 §2 (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/__P16.HTM) states, If it happens that the Roman Pontiff resigns his office, it is required for validity that the resignation is made freely and properly manifested but not that it is accepted by anyone. In 1294, Pope Celestine V promulgated a canon law explicitly establishing the right to resign the office of Pope, and did so himself after being in office only about five months. ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ...


It was widely reported in June and July 2002 that the Pope John Paul II firmly refuted the speculation of his resignation using Canon 332, in a letter to the Milan daily newspaper Corriere della Sera. 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nevertheless, 332 §2 gave rise to speculation that either:

  • Pope John Paul II would have resigned as his health failed, or
  • a properly manifested legal instrument had already been drawn up that put into effect his resignation in the event of his incapacity to perform his duties.

Pope John Paul II did not resign. He died on 2 April 2005 after suffering from many diseases and was buried on 8 April 2005. Articles on the death of John Paul II (http://news.google.com/news?hl=en&ned=us&q=Pope+Dead&btnG=Search+News) April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (99th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...


After his death it was revealed in his last will and testament that he considered abdicating in 2000 as he neared his 80th birthday. In the law, a will or testament is a documentary instrument by which a person regulates the rights of others over his property or family after his death. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Election

The pope was originally chosen by those senior clergymen resident in and near Rome. In 1059, the electorate was restricted to the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, and the individual votes of all Cardinal Electors were made equal in 1179. The Pope is usually a member of the Sacred College of Cardinals, but theoretically any male Catholic (including a layman) may be elected; Pope Urban VI, elected 1378, was the last pope who was not already a cardinal at the time of his election. Canon law requires that if a layman or non-bishop is elected, he receives episcopal consecration from the Dean of the College of Cardinals before assuming the Pontificate. Under present canon law, the pope is elected by the cardinal electors, comprising those cardinals who are under the age of 80. The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury settles at the Benedictine monastery of Le Bec in Normandy. ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals, during a consistory. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Urban VI, née Bartolomeo Prignano ( 1318 – October 15, 1389), pope (1378 to 1389), was a native of Naples. ... Events March - John Wyclif tried to gain public favour by laying his theses before parliament, and then made them public in a tract. ... The Dean of the College of Cardinals is the president of the College of Cardinals in the Roman Catholic Church and as such is always a Cardinal of the Holy Roman Church of the episcopal order. ...


The Second Council of Lyons was convened on May 7, 1274, to regulate the election of the pope. This Council decreed that the cardinal electors must meet within ten days of the pope's death, and that they must remain in seclusion until a pope has been elected; this was prompted by the three-year Sede Vacante following the death of Pope Clement IV in 1268. By the mid-Sixteenth century, the electoral process had more or less evolved into its present form, allowing for alteration in the time between the death of the pope and the meeting of the cardinal electors. The Second Council of Lyon was a Roman Catholic council convened in Lyon in 1274. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Events May 7 - In France the Second Council of Lyons opens to consider the condition of the Holy Land and to agree to a union with the Byzantine church. ... Clement IV, né Guy Foulques (d. ... Events May 18 - the Principality of Antioch falls to Mameluk Sultan Baibars. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


Traditionally the vote was conducted by acclamation, by selection, by committee, or by plenary vote. Acclamation was the simplest procedure, consisting entirely of a voice vote, and was last used in 1621. Pope John Paul II abolished vote by acclamation and by selection by committee, and henceforth all Popes will be elected by full vote of the Sacred College of Cardinals by ballot. Events February 9 - Gregory XV is elected pope. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... The Sacred College of Cardinals is the body of all Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... A ballot is a device used to record choices made by voters. ...


The election of the pope almost always takes place in the Sistine Chapel, in a meeting called a "conclave" (so called because the cardinal electors are theoretically locked in, cum clavi, until they elect a new Pope). Three cardinals are chosen by lot to collect the votes of absent cardinal electors (by reason of illness), three are chosen by lot to count the votes, and three are chosen by lot to review the count of the votes. The ballots are distributed and each cardinal elector writes the name of his choice on it and pledges aloud that he is voting for "one whom under God I think ought to be elected" before folding and depositing his vote on a plate atop a large chalice placed on the altar. The plate is then used to drop the ballot into the chalice, making it difficult for any elector to insert multiple ballots. Before being read, the number of ballots are counted while still folded; if the total number of ballots does not match the number of electors, the ballots are burned unopened and a new vote is held. Assuming the number of ballots matches the number of electors, each ballot is then read aloud by the presiding Cardinal, who pierces the ballot with a needle and thread, stringing all the ballots together and tying the ends of the thread to ensure accuracy and honesty. Balloting continues until a Pope is elected by a two-thirds majority (since the promulgation of Universi Dominici Gregis the rules allow for a simple majority after a deadlock of twelve days). The Sistine Chapel (Italian: Cappella Sistina) is a chapel in the Palace of the Vatican, the official residence of the Roman Catholic Pope in the Vatican City. ... The Sistine Chapel is the location of the conclave. ...

Pope John XXIII wearing the Papal Tiara following his coronation, a tradition which has now been discontinued.

One of the most famous aspects of the papal-election process is the means by which the results of a ballot are announced to the world. Once the ballots are counted and bound together, they are burned in a special oven erected in the Sistine Chapel, with the smoke escaping through a small chimney visible from St Peter's Square. The ballots from an unsuccessful vote are burned along with a chemical compound in order to produce black smoke, or "fumata nera." (Traditionally wet straw was used to help create the black smoke, but a number of "false alarms" in past conclaves have brought about this concession to modern chemistry.) When a vote is successful, the ballots are burned alone, sending white smoke ("fumata bianca") through the chimney and announcing to the world the election of a new Pope. At the end of the conclave that elected Pope Benedict XVI, church bells were also rung to signal that a new pope had been chosen. regularly copied image of papal coronation across many websites - no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... regularly copied image of papal coronation across many websites - no copyright File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Blessed Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881–June 3, 1963), reigned as Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City from October 28, 1958 until his death in 1963. ... 1834 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno,[1] is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1968. ... Berninis piazza was extended by Mussolinis grand avenue of approach. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ...


The Dean of the College of Cardinals then asks the successfully elected Cardinal two solemn questions. First he asks, "Do you freely accept your election?" If he replies with the word "Accepto," his reign as Pope begins at that instant, not at the coronation ceremony several days afterward. The Dean then asks, "By what name shall you be called?" The new Pope then announces the regnal name he has chosen for himself. Pope Benedict XVI. Born Joseph Ratzinger, he took the name Benedict upon his election to the Papacy on April 19, 2005. ...


The new pope is led through the "Door of Tears" to a dressing room in which three sets of white Papal vestments ("immantatio") await: small, medium, and large. Donning the appropriate vestments and re-emerging into the Sistine Chapel, the new Pope is given the "Fisherman's Ring" by the Cardinal Camerlengo, whom he either reconfirms or reappoints. The Pope then assumes a place of honor as the rest of the Cardinals wait in turn to offer their first "obedience" ("adoratio"), and to receive his blessing. The Ring of the Fisherman or Pescatorio is an official part of the regalia worn by the pope, described by the Roman Catholic Church (of which he is the head) as the successor of Saint Peter, a fisherman by trade. ...


The senior Cardinal Deacon then announces from a balcony over St. Peter's Square the following proclamation: Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum! Habemus Papam! ("I announce to you a great joy! We have a Pope!"). He then announces the new pope's Christian name along with the new name he has adopted as his regnal name. The Cardinal Deacons are the lowest-ranked of the three orders of Cardinals of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Habemus Papam refers to the announcement given in Latin by the Senior Cardinal Deacon upon the election of a new Pope. ...


Until 1978, the Pope's election was followed in a few days by a procession in great pomp and circumstance from the Sistine Chapel to St. Peter's Basilica, with the newly-elected Pope borne in the sedia gestatoria. There the Pope was crowned with the triregnum and he gave his first blessing as Pope, the famous Urbi et Orbi ("to the City [Rome] and to the World"). Another famed part of the coronation was the lighting of a torch which would flare brightly and promptly extinguish, with the admonition Sic transit gloria mundi ("Thus fades worldly glory"). Traditionally, the new pope takes the Papal oath (the so-called "Oath against modernism") at his coronation, but Popes John Paul I, John Paul II, and Benedict XVI have all refused to do so. 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... The Basilica of Saint Peter, portrayed by Viviano Codazzi in a 1630 painting, is the largest church in Christendom and often used by the Pope. ... 1834 Tiara of Pope Gregory XVI The Papal Tiara, also known as the Triple Tiara, in Latin as the Triregnum, or in Italian as the Triregno,[1] is the three-tiered jewelled papal crown of Byzantine and Persian origin that is the symbol of the papacy. ... Urbi et Orbi, literally to the City (of Rome) and to the World, was a standard opening of Roman proclamations. ... The Papal oath, also known as the oath against modernism, was an oath taken by popes during their coronation. ... His Holiness Pope John Paul I (in Latin ), born Albino Luciani (October 17, 1912 – September 28, 1978), reigned as pope and as sovereign of Vatican City from August 26, 1978 to September 28, 1978. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ...


The Latin term sede vacante ("vacant seat") refers to a papal interregnum, the period between the death of the Pope and the election of his successor. From this term is derived the name Sedevacantist, which designates a category of dissident, schismatic Catholics who maintain that there is no canonically and legitimately elected Pope, and that there is therefore a Sede Vacante; one of the most common reasons for holding this belief is the idea that the reforms of the Second Vatican Council and especially the replacement of the Tridentine Mass with the Novus Ordo Missae are heretical, and that, per the dogma of Papal infallibility (see above), it is impossible for a valid Pope to have done these things. Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Sedevacantism is the belief that since the time of Pope John XXIII (who called the Second Vatican Council in the early 1960s) the office of pope of the Roman Catholic Church has not been legitimately held by the persons widely acknowledged as pope, sitting in the Vatican. ... The Second Vatican Council, or Vatican II, was an Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church opened under Pope John XXIII in 1962 and closed under Pope Paul VI in 1965. ... A pre-Vatican II altar with reredosThe altar is preceded by three steps, as was most common for a church’s main altar, though some main altars, such as that in Saint Peter’s in the Vatican, had (and have) much more than three. ... Lt. ...


Objections to the Papacy

The Pope's position as Supreme Pontiff of the Universal Church is dogmatic and therefore not open to debate or dispute within the Catholic Church; the First Vatican Council anathematised all who dispute the Pope's primacy of honour and of jurisdiction (it is lawful to discuss the precise nature of that primacy, provided that such discussion does not violate the terms of the Council's Dogmatic Constitution). However, the Pope's authority is not undisputed outside the Catholic Church; these objections differ from denomination to denomination, but can roughly be outlined as (1.) objections to the extent of the primacy of the Pope; and (2.) objections to the institution of the Papacy itself. Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas) is belief or doctrine held by a religion or any kind of organization to be authoritative. ... Anathema (Greek Word: meaning 1. ...

John XXIII signed his Pacem in Terris.
John XXIII signed his encyclical Pacem in Terris.

Some non-Catholic Christian communities, such as the Assyrian Church of the East, the Oriental Orthodox Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Anglican Communion, accept the doctrine of Apostolic Succession, and therefore accept (to varying extents) the papal claims to primacy of honour. However, these churches generally deny that the pope is the successor to St. Peter in any unique sense not true of any other bishop, or that St. Peter was ever bishop of Rome at all. The primacy is therefore regarded as a consequence of the pope's position as bishop of the original capital city of the Roman Empire, a definition explicitly spelled out in the 28th canon of the Council of Chalcedon. In any event, these churches see no foundation at all to papal claims of universal jurisdiction. Because none of them recognise the First Vatican Council as ecumenical, they regard its definitions concerning jurisdiction and infallibility (and anathematisation of those who do not accept them) as invalid. image of John XXIII signing encyclical Pacem in Terris - from copyright-free website that allows its images to be used This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the ancient Church, an encyclical was a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area. ... The Assyrian Church of the East is a church that traces its origins to the See of Babylon, said to be founded by Saint Thomas the Apostle. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keep the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus - and rejected the dogmatic definitions of the Council... The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is a Christian body whose adherents are largely based in Eastern Europe and the Middle East, with a growing presence in the western world. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organization of Anglican Churches. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... In Western culture, canon law is the law of the Roman Catholic and Anglican churches. ... The Council of Chalcedon was an ecumenical council that took place from October 8—November 1, 451 at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor. ... Anathema (Greek Word: meaning 1. ...


Other non-Catholic Christian denominations do not accept the doctrine of Apostolic Succession, or do not understand it in hierarchical terms, and therefore do not accept the claim that the Pope is heir either to Petrine primacy of honour or to Petrine primacy of jurisdiction or they reject both claims of honor or jurisdiction as unscriptural. The Papacy's complex relationship with the Roman and Byzantine Empires, and other secular states, and the Papacy's territorial claims in Italy, are another focal point of these objections; as is the monarchical character of the office of Pope. In Western Christianity, these objections — and the vehement rhetoric they have at times been cast in — both contributed to, and are products of, the Protestant Reformation. These denominations vary from simply not accepting the pope's authority as legitimate and valid, to believing that the pope is the Antichrist or one of the beasts spoken of in the Book of Revelation. These denominations tend to be more heterogeneous amongst themselves than the aforementioned hierarchical churches, and their views regarding the Papacy and its institutional legitimacy (or lack thereof) vary considerably. In Christianity, the doctrine of apostolic succession maintains that the Christian Church is the spiritual successor of the Apostles. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus). ... The Byzantine Empire (Native Greek names: ΡΩΜΑΝΙΑ Romania or ΒΑΣΙΛΕΙΑ ΡΩΜΑΙΩΝ Basileia Romaion) is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Western Christianity refers to Catholicism, Protestantism, and Anglicanism. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... In Christian eschatology, the Antichrist is a person or other entity that is the embodiment of evil and utterly opposed to truth. ... Visions of John the Evangelist, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Some objectors to the papacy use empirical arguments, pointing to the corrupt characters of some of the holders of that office. For instance, some argue that claimed successors to St. Peter, like Popes Alexander VI and Callixtus III from the Borgia family, were so corrupt as to be unfit to wield power to bind and loose on Earth or in Heaven. An omniscient and omnibenevolent God, some argue, would not have given those people the powers claimed for them by the Catholic Church. Defenders of the papacy argue that the Bible shows God as willingly giving privileges even to corrupt men (citing examples like some of the kings of Israel, the apostle Judas Iscariot, and even St. Peter after he denied Jesus). They also argue that not even the worst of the corrupt popes used the office to try to rip the doctrine of the Church from its apostolic roots, and that this is evidence that the office is divinely protected. According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Alexander VI, né Rodrigo Borgia (January 1, 1431 – August 18, 1503) pope (1492-1503), is the most memorable of the secular popes of the Renaissance. ... Callixtus III, né Alphonso de Borgia (December 31, 1378 - August 6, 1458) was born in Xàtiva, Valencia, Spain and was pope from April 8, 1455 to August 6, 1458. ... This is a list of articles on Wikipedia. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... Judas Iscariot (died April AD 29–33, Hebrew יהודה איש־קריות Yəhûḏāh ʾΚ-qəriyyôṯ) was, according to the New Testament, one of twelve original apostles of Jesus, and the one who ultimately betrayed him. ...


Some objectors to the papacy occasionally refer to the Catholic Church and its members by the pejorative term papist to point up what they believe to be an inappropriate focus of attention on the office and an improper attribution of certain divine favors ex officio. A word or phrase is pejorative if it expresses contempt or disapproval. ...


Other Popes

An antipope is a person who claims the Pontificate without being canonically and properly elected to it. The existence of an antipope is usually due either to doctrinal controversy within the Church, or to confusion as to who is the legitimate pope at the time (see Papal Schism). An antipope is one whose claim to being Pope is the result of a disputed or contested election. ... In Christianity, the East-West Schism, usually called the Great Schism (though this latter term sometimes refers to the Western Schism of 1378), was the event that separated Eastern Orthodoxy and Western Catholicism in 1054. ...


The head of the Jesuit Order of Priests has always been called the Black Pope due to that order of priests always wearing a long black robe, including its leader (compared to the Pope's always wearing white robes), and to the order's specific allegiance to the Roman pontiff. The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Black Pope is nickname for the head of the Society of Jesus, more commonly known as the Jesuits. ...


The heads of the Coptic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church of Alexandria are also called "Popes" for historical reasons, the former being called "Coptic Pope" or "Pope of Alexandria" and the latter called "Pope and Patriarch of Alexandria and All Africa"; the parallel construction "Pope of Rome" is frequently used in the Eastern churches. Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The Orthodox Church of Alexandria is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Churches. ...


In Islam, the former office of Caliph held similar meaning, as the leader of all Muslims, subordinate only to the prophet Muhammad. Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Muhammad is a common male name for Muslims. ...


See also

Popes buried in St. ... His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI (Latin: ; born April 16, 1927 as Joseph Alois Ratzinger in Marktl am Inn, Bavaria) is the 265th and reigning pope, the head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City. ... The list of 10 longest-reigning Popes in Catholic reckoning, with one extra listing: St. ... This is a list of the 10 shortest-reigning popes. ... Since 1500 Related articles List of popes List of popes sorted alphabetically List of 10 longest-reigning popes List of 10 shortest-reigning popes Categories: Popes ... Vestments are liturgical garments and articles associated primarily with the Christian religions, especially the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Anglican Churches. ... The Immaculate Conception is a Roman Catholic doctrine which asserts that Mary, the mother of Jesus, was preserved by God from the stain of original sin at the time of her own conception. ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries According to Roman Catholic theology and the traditions of the Roman Catholic Church and Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, the body and soul of Mary, the mother of Jesus, venerated by these denominations as the Blessed Virgin Mary or... In Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, an ecumenical council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The College of Bishops is an organization consisting of all the bishops in the Roman Catholic Church. ... A Pontifical university is any of several universities that usually award academic degrees at seminaries. ... Caesaropapism is the phenomenon of combining the power of worldy (secular) government with the spiritual authority of the Christian Church; most especially, the subordination of the spiritual power of the Christian Church to governmental authority; in its extreme form, it is a political theory in which the head of state... The Investiture Controversy was the most significant conflict between secular and religious powers in medieval Europe. ... There have been three African popes of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Sixteen popes have had French ancestry, all in the second half of the medieval era. ... The papacy has been surrounded by numerous myths and legends. ... According to medieval legend, Pope Joan was a female pope who reigned from 855 to 858. ... The Prophecy of the Popes according to Saint Malachy is a list of 112 short phrases in Latin. ... Pope Benedict XVI. Born Joseph Ratzinger, he took the name Benedict upon his election to the Papacy on April 19, 2005. ... Papal liturgical sandals with Gauntlets of HH Paul VI Pius VII wearing papal slippers The Papal Slippers are a historical vestment of the Roman Catholic Church traditionally worn by the pope on his feet. ... Pope Pius XII, in coronation robes and wearing the 1877 Papal Tiara, is carried through St. ... Pope John Paul I at the first papal inauguration, in September 1978. ... According to the discipline of the Catholic Church, the pope (along with most other clergy) is expected to be celibate. ...

External links

  • The Holy See (http://www.vatican.va/)
  • Code of Canon Law (http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG1104/_INDEX.HTM) – Vatican site
  • The Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ (http://www.dailycatholic.org/history/20ecume3.htm), Fourth Session of the First Vatican Council
  • Eastern Church Defends Petrine Primacy and the Papacy (http://web.globalserve.net/~bumblebee/ecclesia/patriarchs.htm)
  • The Pope Blog (http://thepopeblog.blogspot.com/) – Unofficial weblog about the Pope
  • Pope Tribute (http://popetribute.com/) – A tribute to the Pope, present and past
  • Pope Benedikt XVI and other Popes (http://www.papst-benedikt.be) (germ.)
  • Papal information (http://www.geocities.com/hashanayobel/papalinfo.htm) News about ongoing Papal Events
  • Pope Election News Roundup (http://www.punditguy.com/2005/04/german_pope.html)
  • Cardinal Jorge Arturo Medina Estevez announcing Habemus Papam (We have a Pope!) (http://www.angelfire.com/tv2/benedictxvi/) (Windows Media Player Video).
  • American Catholic - Pope Benedict XVI Starts His Papacy (http://www.americancatholic.org/news/BenedictXVI/)
  • Swiss Watchers - article about the Papal Guards in THE GUARDIAN (http://www.guardian.co.uk/pope/story/0,12272,1452750,00.html)

Windows Media Player is a free software media player used for playing audio and video on personal computers running Microsoft Windows. ...

Objections

  • Endtime Issues Newsletters by Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi (http://www.biblicalperspectives.com/endtimeissues) The Papacy: Retrospect and Prospect: Part I Revelation 17 and the Papacy, The Future of the Papacy, The Legacy of Pope John Paul II
  • The Last Pope (http://www.biblelight.net/satan.htm) and Satan's Impersonation of Christ Predicted? Revelation 17 Expounded
  • The High Priest in Hebrews (http://www.biblelight.net/pontifex.htm)

 
 

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