FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Panthay rebellion

The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义 (1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people, Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China. It was part of a wave of Hui-lead multi-ethnic unrest during the Qing Dynasty. 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calaber). ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... for Imam Muslim, see Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... Yunnan (Simplified Chinese: 云南; Traditional Chinese: 雲南; pinyin: Yúnnán) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ...


History

The leader of the rebellion was Du Wenxiu (杜文秀; pinyin: Dù Wénxiù) (1823 - 1872), an ethnic Hui born in Yongcheng. He became the Sultan of Dali. He was beheaded by Qing troops after his death. His body is entombed in Xiadui. Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: 汉语拼音; Traditional Chinese: 漢語拼音; Hanyu Pinyin: , lit. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Hui people (Chinese: 回族; Pinyin: ) are a Chinese ethnic group, typically distinguished by their practice of the Islamic religion. ... Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture Old City gate Night View of Dali Ancient Walled Downtown The Three Pagodas of Chong Sheng Temple Dali (Chinese: 大理; Pinyin: ; Bai: Darl•lit) is a city in Yunnan province in the south of the Peoples Republic of China, located on a fertile plateau between the...


The rebellion successfully captured the city of Dali, which became the base for the rebels' operations, and declared themselves a separate political entity from China. The rebels identified their nation as Pingnan Guo (平南国 The Pacified Southern Nation); their leader Sulayman ibn `Abd ar-Rahman, known as Du Wenxiu [originally Yang Xiu]) (d. 1873) was styled Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin ('Leader of the Community of Muslims'), but is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan) and ruled 1856 - 26 December 1872. DALI (Danish Audiophile Loudspeaker Industry) is a manufacturer of high-end loudspeakers situated in Denmark. ...


The rebellion sieged the city of Kunming multiple times (in 1857, 1861, 1863 and 1868). Ma Rulong, a Hui rebel leader from southern Yunnan, seiged the city in 1862 but through the offers of a military post joined forces with the Qing officials. His decision was not fully accepted by his followers who took the opportunity of his absence to kill the Governor-General (Pan Duo) wrest control of the city from the Qing in 1863, and intended to hand the city over to Du Wenxiu. But before Du's forces could arrive, Ma Rulong with the assistance of a rising Qing military officier, Cen Yuying, raced back to Kunming and regained control of the provincial capital. Kunming (Chinese: 昆明; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kun-ming) is the capital of Yunnan province, China with a population estimated on 1,055. ...


Later, as the Qing troops began to gain the upperhand versus the rebellion, the rebellion sent a letter to Queen Victoria, asking the British Empire for formal recognition and for military assistance; the fledgling state was turned down by the British. The rebellion was eventually suppressed by Qing troops, who killed and decapitated the 'sultan'. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and Empress of India from 1 January 1877, until her death. ... The British Empire was, at one time, the foremost global power, and the most extensive empire in the history of the world. ...


In the brutal suppression over 80,000 Chinese Muslims were killed; many surviving Huis escaped over the border to neighboring countries, Burma, Thailand and Laos, forming the basis of a minority Chinese Hui population in those nations.


The rebellion had a significant negative impact on the Burmese Konbaung Dynasty. After losing lower Burma to the British, Burma lost access to vast tracts of rice-growing land. Not wishing to upset China, the Burmese kingdom agreed to refuse trade with the Panthay rebels in accordance with China's demands. Without the ability to import rice from China, Burma was forced to import rice from the British. In addition, the Burmese economy had relied heavily on cotton exports to China, and suddenly lost access to the vast Chinese market. The Konbaung Dynasty (1752-1885) was the last Burmese dynasty. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice refers to two species (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) of grass, native to tropical and subtropical southeastern Asia and to Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans. ... Cotton plant as imagined and drawn by John Mandeville in the 14th century Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant (Gossypium spp. ...


Sources and references

  • Atwill, David G., The Chinese Sultanate: Islam, Ethnicity and the Panthay Rebellion in Southwest China, 1856-1873, ISBN 0804751595
  • Fitzgerald, C.P., The Southern Expansion of the Chinese People, ISBN 9748495817
  • Thant Myint-U, The Making of Modern Burma, ISBN 0521799147
  • WorldStatesmen - China
  • "Religious toleration in China" Contemporary Review v. 86 (July 1904)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Panthay at AllExperts (1835 words)
The dominant group in the villages were the Panthay, chiefly Hui migrants from Dali, Baoshan, Shanning, Menghua and elsewhere in southern and western Yunnan.
Yet official estimates put the Panthay population of Burma at 2,202 for 1911 (1,427 males and 775 females), whilst by the 1921 Census of India this had declined to 1,517 (1,076 males and 441 females), and by 1931 to 1,106 (685 males and 421 females).
The traditional dominance of Panthay in the trade of the Burma-Yunnan frontier region was also set back by the construction of the Burma Road between Lashio and Kunming in 1937-38, and by the exodus of thousands of Yunnanese refugees and Kuomintang troops following the seizure of power by the Chinese Communists in 1949.
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Panthay Rebellion (477 words)
The Panthay Rebellion (known in Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Qiyi 杜文秀起义, 1856 - 1873) was a separatist movement of the Hui people and Chinese Muslims, against the imperial Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, China, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.
The leader of the rebellion was Du Wenxiu (杜文秀; pinyin: Dù Wénxiù) (1823 - 1872), an ethnic Hui born in Yongcheng.
Later, as imperial troops began to gain the upperhand versus the rebellion, the rebellion sent a letter to Queen Victoria, asking the British Empire for formal recognition and for military assistance; the fledgling state was turned down by the British.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m