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Encyclopedia > Panthéon
The Panthéon

The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. It was originally built as a church dedicated to Ste Genevieve, but after many vicissitudes now combines liturgical functions with its role as a famous burial place. It is an early example of Neoclassicism, with a façade modelled on the Pantheon in Rome, surmounted by a small dome that owes some of its character to Bramante's "Tempietto." Located in the Ve arrondissement on the top of Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, the Panthéon looks out over all of Paris. The Panthéon, Paris Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Panthéon, Paris Image by ChrisO File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Quartier Latin (Latin Quarter) is an area in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France, around the Sorbonne University. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of famous cemeteries, mausoleums and other places people are buried, world-wide. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... The Pantheon, Rome The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely... St Peters Basilica, Rome A dome is a common structural element of architecture that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere. ... Donato Bramante Donato Bramante (1444 - March 11, 1514), Italian architect, who introduced the Early Renaissance style to Milan and the High Renaissance style to Rome, where his most famous design was St. ... The 5e arrondissement is one of the central arrondissements of Paris, France, located on the Left Bank. ...

Contents

History

King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from an illness he would replace the ruined church of Sainte-Geneviève (see entry Genevieve) with an edifice worthy of the patron saint of Paris. The Marquis of Marigny was entrusted with the fulfillment of the vow after the king regained his health. Marigny's protégé Jacques-Germain Soufflot (1713-1780) was charged with the plans, and the construction of the Panthéon began. Louis XV King of France and Navarre Louis XV (February 15, 1710 - May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was king of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births May 19 - Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen-Consort of King George III of Great Britain July 17 -Elbridge Gerry, American... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Jacques Germain Soufflot (July 22, 1713 - Paris, August 29, 1780) was a French architect in the international circle that introduced Neoclassicism. ...

Enlarge
The area west of the Panthéon is quite busy at night.

The overall design was that of a Greek cross with a massive portico of Corinthian columns. Its ambitious lines called for a vast buidling 110 metres long by 84 metres wide, and 83 metres high. No less vast was its crypt. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... In medieval terms, a crypt (from the Latin crypta and the Greek kryptē) is a stone chamber or vault, usually beneath the floor of a church, usually containing tombs of important people such as saints or saints relics. ...


The foundations were laid in 1758, but due to financial difficulties, it was only completed after Soufflot's death by his pupil, Jean-Baptiste Rondelet, in 1789. As it was completed at the start of the French Revolution, the new Revolutionary government ordered it to be changed from a church to a mausoleum for the interment of great Frenchmen. Events June 12 - French and Indian War: Siege of Louisbourg - James Wolfes attack at Louisbourg, Nova Scotia commences. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ...


Twice since then it has reverted to being a church, only to become again a temple to the great men of France.


In 1851 physicist Léon Foucault demonstrated the rotation of the Earth by his experiment conducted in the Panthéon, by constructing a 67 metre Foucault pendulum beneath the central dome. The original iron sphere from the pendulum was returned to the Panthéon in 1995 from the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Events January 23 - The flip of a coin determines whether a new city in Oregon is named after Boston, Massachusetts, or Portland, Maine, with Portland winning. ... J. B. Léon Foucault Jean Bernard Léon Foucault ( 18 September 1819– 11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earths rotation. ... Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... For the novel Foucaults Pendulum by Umberto Eco, See Foucaults Pendulum (book). ...

Foucault Pendulum in the Panthéon
Foucault Pendulum in the Panthéon

Foucaults Pendulum, The Pantheon, Paris. ...

Burial place

The inscription above the entrance reads AUX GRANDS HOMMES  LA PATRIE RECONNAISSANTE ("For great men the grateful Nation").


Among those buried in its necropolis are Voltaire, Rousseau, Honoré Mirabeau, Marat, Victor Hugo, Émile Zola, Jean Moulin, Marie Curie, René Descartes, Louis Braille and Soufflot, its architect. A necropolis (plural: necropolises or necropoleis) is a cemetery or burying-place, literally a city of the dead. Apart from the occasional application of the word to modern cemeteries outside large towns, the term is chiefly used of burial grounds near the sites of the centers of ancient civilizations. ... Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panth on, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) ( March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 - July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born scientist and physician, who made much of his career in England, but is best known as a French Revolutionary. ... Victor Hugo Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 - May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ... mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a member of the French Resistance during World War II. Before the War Jean Moulin was born in Béziers, France, and enrolled in the French Army in 1918, but World War I came to an end before he could see any... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... René Descartes René Descartes (IPA: , March 31, 1596 – February 11, 1650), also known as Cartesius, worked as a philosopher and mathematician. ... Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 - January 6, 1852) was the inventor of the Braille writing system for the blind. ...


On November 30, 2002, in an elaborate but solemn procession, six Republican Guards carried the coffin of Alexandre Dumas (1802-1870), the author of The Three Musketeers, to the Panthéon. Draped in a blue-velvet cloth inscribed with the Musketeers' motto: "Un pour tous, tous pour un" ("One for all, all for one,") the remains had been transported from their original internment site in the Cimetière de Villers-Cotterêts in Aisne, France. In his speech, President Jacques Chirac stated that an injustice was being corrected with the proper honoring of one of France's greatest authors. November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Two republican guards in ceremony uniform in front of a side entrance of the Élysée Palace The Republican Guard mans the honour guards welcoming foreign heads of state or government; here, president Jacques Chirac welcomes then king of Cambodia Norodom Sihanouk to the Élysée Palace. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie ( July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870), is best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him the most widely read French author in the world. ... The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a novel by Alexandre Dumas, père. ... Aisne is a département in the northern part of France named after the Aisne River. ... Jacques (René) Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician. ...


Full list of buried people

Date of burial
in the Panthéon
Name Notes
1791 Honoré Mirabeau Removed in 1794
1791 Voltaire
1792 Nicolas-Joseph Beaurepaire Disappeared
1793 Louis Michel Le Peletier de Saint-Fargeau Assassinated deputy, removed from the Panthéon
1793 Augustin-Marie Picot, marquis de Dampierre Disappeared
1794 Jean-Paul Marat Removed from the Panthéon
1794 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1806 Claude-Louis Petiet
1806 François Denis Tronchet
1807 Jean-Étienne-Marie Portalis
1807 Louis-Pierre-Pantaléon Resnier
1807 Louis-Joseph-Charles-Amable d'Albert, duc de Luynes Removed from the Panthéon
1807 Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Bévière
1808 Francois Barthélemy, comte Béguinot
1808 Pierre Jean George Cabanis
1808 Gabriel-Louis, marquis de Caulaincourt
1808 Jean-Frédéric, comte de Perrégaux
1808 Antoine-César de Choiseul, duc de Praslin
1808 Jean-Pierre-Firmin, comte Malher Urn with his heart
1809 Jean Baptiste Papin, comte de Saint-Christau
1809 Joseph-Marie, comte Vien
1809 Pierre Garnier, comte de Laboissière
1809 Jean Pierre, comte Sers Urn with his heart
1809 Jérôme-Louis-François-Joseph, comte de Durazzo Urn with his heart
1809 Justin-Bonaventure, comte Morard de Galles Urn with his heart
1809 Emmanuel Crétet, comte de Champnol
1810 Giovanni Baptista, cardinal Caprara
1810 Louis-Joseph-Vincent-Leblon, comte de Saint-Hilaire
1810 Jean-Baptiste, comte Treilhard
1810 Jean Lannes, duc de Montebello
1810 Charles-Pierre-Claret, comte de Fleurieu de La Tourette
1811 Louis Antoine de Bougainville
1811 Charles, cardinal Erskine of Kellie
1811 Alexandre-Antoine Hureau, baron de Sénarmont Urn with his heart
1811 Ippolito Antonio, cardinal Vicenti Mareri
1811 Nicolas-Marie, comte de Songis des Courbons
1811 Michel, comte Ordener
1812 Jean-Marie-François Lepaige, comte Dorsenne
1812 Jean Guillaume De Winter, comte de Huessen
1813 Hyacinthe-Hugues-Timoléon de Cossé, comte de Brissac
1813 Jean-Ignace Jacqueminot, comte de Ham
1813 Joseph Louis, comte Lagrange
1813 Jean, comte Rousseau
1813 François-Marie-Joseph-Justin, comte de Viry
1814 Jean-Nicolas, comte Démeunier
1814 Jean-Louis-Ebenezer, comte Reynier
1814 Claude-Ambroise Régnier, duc de Massa di Carrara
1815 Antoine-Jean-Marie, comte Thévenard
1815 Claude-Juste-Alexandre, comte Legrand
1829 Jacques-Germain Soufflot
1885 Victor Hugo
1889 Lazare Carnot Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution
1889 Théophile-Malo Corret de la Tour d'Auvergne Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution
1889 Jean-Baptiste Baudin Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution
1889 François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers Buried at the time of the centennial celebration of the French Revolution – Only a part of his body is buried there
1894 Marie François Sadi Carnot Buried immediately after his assassination
1907 Marcellin Berthelot Mme Sophie Berthelot is buried with her husband
1908 Émile Zola
1920 Léon Gambetta Urn with his heart
1924 Jean Jaurès
1933 Paul Painlevé
1948 Paul Langevin
1948 Jean Perrin Buried the same day as Paul Langevin
1949 Félix Éboué First "colored" person in the Panthéon
1949 Victor Schoelcher His father Marc, is also in the Panthéon. Victor wanted to be buried with his father
1952 Louis Braille
1964 Jean Moulin His body is not in the Panthéon, it was never found
1987 René Cassin
1988 Jean Monnet Entered the Panthéon 100 years after his birth
1989 Abbé Baptiste-Henri Grégoire Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution
1989 Gaspard Monge Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution
1989 Marquis de Condorcet Buried at the time of the bicentennial celebration of the French Revolution
1995 Pierre Curie
1995 Marie Curie 1st woman buried in the Panthéon for her works
1996 André Malraux
2002 Alexandre Dumas, père

Events January 25 - The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada March 3 - The U.S. Congress passes a resolution calling for the establishment of the United States Mint (U.S. Mint not created until next year). ... Portrait of Mirabeau Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Comte de Mirabeau, (often referred to simply as Mirabeau) ( March 9, 1749 - April 2, 1791) was a French writer, popular orator and statesman. ... Events February 11 - 1st session of the United States Senate is open to the public. ... Events January 25 - The British Parliament passes the Constitutional Act of 1791, splitting the old province of Quebec into Upper and Lower Canada March 3 - The U.S. Congress passes a resolution calling for the establishment of the United States Mint (U.S. Mint not created until next year). ... Voltaire François-Marie Arouet (November 21, 1694 – May 30, 1778), better known by the pen name Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, deist and philosopher. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Events February 11 - 1st session of the United States Senate is open to the public. ... Jean-Paul Marat Jean-Paul Marat (May 24, 1743 - July 13, 1793), was a Swiss-born scientist and physician, who made much of his career in England, but is best known as a French Revolutionary. ... Events February 11 - 1st session of the United States Senate is open to the public. ... Jean-Jacques Rousseau Jean Jacques Rousseau (June 28, 1712 - July 2, 1778) was a Swiss-French philosopher, writer, political theorist, and self-taught composer of The Age of Enlightenment Biography of Rousseau The tomb of Rousseau in the crypt of the Panth on, Paris Rousseau was born in Geneva, Switzerland... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... Pierre Jean George Cabanis (June 5, 1757 - May 5, 1808), was a French physiologist. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... Events January 1 - Importation of slaves into the United States is banned February 11 - Russia issues an ultimatum to France, Finland. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Jean Lannes, duke of Montebello (April 11, 1769 - May 31, 1809), marshal of France, was born at Lectoure (Gers). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811) Louis Antoine de Bougainville (November 11, 1729–August 31, 1811) was a French navigator and military commander. ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ... Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 8 - Hanging of body-selling murderer William Burke - his associate William Hare, who testified against him, is released January 19 - Johann Wolfgang von Goethes Faust premieres March 4 - Andrew Jackson succeeds John Quincy Adams as the President of the United States of America. ... Jacques Germain Soufflot (July 22, 1713 - Paris, August 29, 1780) was a French architect in the international circle that introduced Neoclassicism. ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Victor Hugo Victor Hugo (February 26, 1802 - May 22, 1885) was a French author, the most important of the Romantic authors in the French language. ... Events January-April January 8 - Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine January 22 - Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, DC. February 11 - Japan adopted; 1st Diet convenes in 1890 January 30 ? Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his mistress Marie Vetsera commit a double suicide in... Lazare Carnot Lazare Nicolas Marguerite Carnot (Nolay, May 13, 1753 - Magdeburg, August 22, 1823) was a French politician and mathematician. ... Events January-April January 8 - Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine January 22 - Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, DC. February 11 - Japan adopted; 1st Diet convenes in 1890 January 30 ? Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his mistress Marie Vetsera commit a double suicide in... Events January-April January 8 - Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine January 22 - Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, DC. February 11 - Japan adopted; 1st Diet convenes in 1890 January 30 ? Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his mistress Marie Vetsera commit a double suicide in... Events January-April January 8 - Herman Hollerith receives a patent for his electric tabulating machine January 22 - Columbia Phonograph is formed in Washington, DC. February 11 - Japan adopted; 1st Diet convenes in 1890 January 30 ? Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria and his mistress Marie Vetsera commit a double suicide in... François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers ( March 1, 1769 - September 21, 1796), French general, was born at Chartres. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Marie François Sadi-Carnot, President of France Marie François Sadi Carnot (August 11, 1837 - June 24, 1894) was a French statesman, the fourth president of the third French Republic. ... Marcellin Berthelot Marcellin Pierre Eugène Berthelot (October 29, 1827 - March 18, 1907) was a French chemist and politician. ... Émile Zola ( April 2, 1840 – September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism (literature), and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Painting of Léon Gambetta by Léon Bonnat Léon Gambetta ( April 2, 1838 - December 31, 1882), French statesman, was born at Cahors. ... Jean Jaurès Jean Léon Jaurès ( September 3, 1859 - July 31, 1914) was a French Socialist leader. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Paul Painlevé, French politician Paul Painlevé (December 5, 1863–October 29, 1933, both at Paris, France) was a French mathematician and politician. ... Paul Langevin (January 23, 1872 - December 19, 1946) was a French physicist. ... Jean Baptiste Perrin, generally known as Jean Perrin (Lille, September 30, 1870 – April 17, New York, 1942), was a French physicist. ... Victor Schoelcher (1804-1893) was a French abolitionist writer in the 1800s and the main spokesman for a group from Paris who worked for the abolition of slavery, and formed an abolition society in 1834. ... Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 - January 6, 1852) was the inventor of the Braille writing system for the blind. ... Jean Moulin (June 20, 1899–July 8, 1943) was a member of the French Resistance during World War II. Before the War Jean Moulin was born in Béziers, France, and enrolled in the French Army in 1918, but World War I came to an end before he could see any... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean Monnet Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet (November 9, 1888 – March 16, 1979) is regarded by many as the architect of European Unity. ... Gaspard Monge. ... Marie Jean Antoine Nicolas Caritat, marquis de Condorcet (September 17, 1743 - March 28, 1794) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and early political scientist who devised the concept of a Condorcet method. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – April 19, 1906) was a pioneer in the study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... André Malraux, French author, adventurer, and statesman André Malraux ( November 3, 1901 - November 23, 1976) was a French author, adventurer and statesman whose preeminence in the world of French politics and culture was as much fact as it was a product of his own imagination. ... Alexandre Dumas, père, born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie ( July 24, 1802 – December 5, 1870), is best known for his numerous historical novels of high adventure which have made him the most widely read French author in the world. ...

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