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Encyclopedia > Pantanal
Pantanal Conservation Area*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
The extent of the Pantanal in Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay.
State Party Flag of Brazil Brazil
Type Natural
Criteria vii, ix, x
Reference 999
Region Latin America
Inscription History
Inscription 2000  (24th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers. The region, whose name derives from the Portuguese word “pântano” (meaning “swamp” or “marsh” ), is situated in South America, mostly within the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. There are also small portions in Bolivia and Paraguay. In total, the Pantanal covers about 150,000 square kilometers (58,000 sq mi). [1] A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 778 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (832 × 641 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in North America, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Small Text A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Flag of Mato Grosso See other Brazilian States Capital Cuiabá Largest City Cuiabá Area 903,357. ... Flag of Mato Grosso do Sul See other Brazilian States Capital Campo Grande Largest City Campo Grande Area 358,158. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ...


The Pantanal floods during the wet season, submerging over 80% of the area, and nurturing the world's richest collection of aquatic plants. It is thought to be the world’s most dense flora and fauna ecosystem. It is often overshadowed by the Amazon Rainforest, partly because of its proximity, but is just as vital and interesting a part of the neotropic. A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF. Yellow line encloses the Amazon rainforest. ... The Neotropic ecozone is a terrestrial ecoregion which includes South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. ...

Contents

Geography

The Pantanal is a huge gently sloped basin that receives runoff from the upland areas (the Planalta highlands) and slowly releases the water through a single drainage channel, the Paraguay River. The formation of is a result of the large concave pre-Andean depression of the earth’s crust, related to the Andean orogeny of the Tertiary. It constitutes an enormous internal river delta, in which several rivers flowing from the surrounding plateau merge, depositing their sediments and erosion residues, which have been filling, throughout the years, the large depression area of the Pantanal. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Paraguay River near Asunción The River Paraguay (Rio Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major river in south central South America, running through Brazil and Paraguay and forming a border between Brazil and Bolivia as well as Paraguay and Argentina. ... See also architecture with non-sequential dynamic execution scheduling (ANDES). ... // Orogeny (Greek for mountain generating) is the process of mountain building, and may be studied as a tectonic structural event, as a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity, affect certain regions of rocks and crust and happen within... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... Sedimentation describes the motion of particles in solutions or suspensions in response to an external force such as gravity, centrifugal force or electric force. ...


The Pantanal is bounded by the Chiquitano dry forests to the west and northwest, by the Arid Chaco dry forests to the southwest, and the Humid Chaco to the south. The Cerrado savannas lie to the north, east, and southeast. Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is an arid, sparsely populated, very hot, semi-desertic, lowland region of the River Plate basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in Brazil called... Landscape in the Gran Chaco, Paraguay The Gran Chaco (Quechua chaqu, hunting land), dubbed by some as the last South American frontier, is an arid, sparsely populated, very hot, semi-desertic, lowland region of the River Plate basin, divided between Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and a small portion in Brazil called... The cerrado (Portuguese: thick, dense) is a vast area of savanna-like grasslands in Brazil. ...


The Pantanal has an average yearly rainfall of 1,000-1,400 mm (40-55 in), but is fed by the upper Paraguay River. Its average temperature is +25 °C (77 °F), but temperatures can fluctuate from 0 to 40 °C (32 to 104 °F).

Pantanal in flood condition, with a private fazenda visible in the background.
Pantanal in flood condition, with a private fazenda visible in the background.

During the rainy season (December to May), the Pantanal water levels rise more than three meters. Just as annual floods on the Nile allow for fertile, farmable land, the dramatic increase of water during the rainy season nourishes the producers of Pantanal, which in turn nourishes all the other species as well. Humans have taken advantage of this so much that it has become a problem. Approximately 99% of the land in the Pantanal is privately owned for the purpose of agriculture, and ranching in particular. There are some 2500 fazendas in the region, with up to 8 million head of cattle. [2] Image File history File links Pantanal. ... Image File history File links Pantanal. ... Fazenda is a parish in the district of Lajes das Flores, in the Azores. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Ranching is the raising of cattle or sheep on rangeland, although one might also speak of ranching with regard to less common livestock such as elk, bison or emu. ... Fazenda is a parish in the district of Lajes das Flores, in the Azores. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...


The Pantanal is a natural water treatment facility. It supplies freshwater to the nearby areas by removing chemicals and other pollutants from the water which flows through it. However, when this “cleaning system” becomes overloaded, species which call the Pantanal home begin to suffer. Industrial development (especially gold mining) has begun to cause these problems. Water treatment in a general sense reffers to the treatement of water to make it more acceptable for what will be done with it (either usage or discharge into the environment). ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ...


Main located cities inside of the Pantanal

Corumbá, main center of support to the tourist
Corumbá, main center of support to the tourist

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... , ) Aquidauana is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. ... The following places are called Cáceres: The Cáceres province in Spain. ... Nickname: Location in Brazil Coordinates: , Country Brazil Region Center-West State Mato Grosso do Sul Founded 1778 Government  - Mayor Ruiter Cunha de Oliveira (Workers Party) Area  - City 65,000 km²  (25,096. ... Coxim is a municipality located in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. ...

Flora and fauna

This ecosystem is home to a known 3,500 species of plants, as well as over 650 birds, 400 species of fish, around 100 species of mammals, and 80 species of reptiles, including the caiman, a species closely related to the alligator, of which there are an estimated 10 million. The Pantanal is a natural home for the Hyacinth Macaw. This bird is endangered due to its US$10,000 price tag on the black market. Other threatened species include the Jaguar, Caiman, Maned Wolf, Bush Dog, Giant Otter, Giant Armadillo, Capybara, Jabiru and Brazilian Tapir. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Binomial name Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) Capybara range The capybara (also capibara), Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Water pig) is a semi-aquatic herbivorous animal. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) Native to the forests of central South America, the Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) is the largest macaw and the largest flying parrot species in the world, though the flightless Kakapo of New Zealand can outweigh it at up to 3. ... ISO 4217 Code USD User(s) the United States, the British Indian Ocean Territory,[1] the British Virgin Islands, East Timor, Ecuador, El Salvador, the Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Palau, Panama, Caicos Islands, and the insular areas of the United States Inflation 2. ... For other uses, see Jaguar (disambiguation). ... Genera Alligator Caiman Melanosuchus Paleosuchus Alligators and caimans are reptiles closely related to the crocodiles and forming the family Alligatoridae (sometimes regarded instead as the subfamily Alligatorinae). ... Binomial name Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1815) The Maned Wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) is the largest canid of South America, resembling a dog with reddish fur. ... Binomial name Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) The Bush Dog (Speothos venaticus) is a canid found in Central and South America, including Panama, Venezuela, Bolivia, Peru (West of the Andes), Ecuador, the Guianas, Paraguay, northeast Argentina (Misiones province), and Brazil (from the Amazon rainforest to the state of Amazonas). ... Binomial name Pteronura brasiliensis (Gmelin, 1788) The Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, (also known as the river wolf) is the longest of the worlds otters, as well as one of the largest mustelids[2]. It is native to South America but is endangered and is also very rare in captivity. ... Binomial name Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) The Giant Armadillo (Priodontes maximus) is the largest species of armadillo. ... Binomial name Jabiru mycteria ( Lichtenstein, 1819) This article is about the Jabiru bird. ... Binomial name Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) The Brazilian Tapir (anta in Portuguese), also known as the Lowland Tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is one of four species in the tapir family, along with the Mountain Tapir, the Malayan Tapir, and the Bairds Tapir. ...


Giant two-metre water lilies float on the lakes.

See also: List of plants of Pantanal vegetation of Brazil

This is a list of plants found in the wild in Pantanal vegetation of Brazil. ...

Threats to the Pantanal

The ecosystem of the Pantanal is under threat from human activities, including uncontrolled recreational fishing, the hunting and smuggling of endangered species (caiman, panther, wild cats, parrots and macaws), uncontrolled tourism, and deforestation and forest fires for agricultural use in the neighbouring areas. In recent rainy seasons, flooding has been very high and caused the inundation of many cultivated areas surrounding the park. Receding flood waters carried large amounts of pesticides into the rivers and lakes, killing a great number of fish. [citation needed] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ...


Pressure for economic development (such as oil pipelines and shipping canals) is of particular concern. A plan to dredge the Paraguay and Parana Rivers to allow ocean-going ships to travel far inland could have serious consequences for the ecosystem by affecting the flooding and drainage cycles. An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline Pipeline transport is a transportation of goods through a tube. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Protected areas

Typical Pantanal Fazenda scenery.
Typical Pantanal Fazenda scenery.

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Pantanal Matogrossense National Park

A portion of the Pantanal in Brazil has been protected as the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park. This 1,350 km² (520 sq mi) park was established in September 1981. It is located in the municipality of Poconé in the State of Mato Grosso, between the mouths of the Bahía de Sao Marcos and the Gurupi River. The Gurupí River is a river in north-central Brazil which forms the boundary between Maranhão and Pará states. ...


This park has been designated a Ramsar Site of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention since May 24, 1993. The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ...


SESC Pantanal Private Natural Heritage Reserve

The SESC Pantanal Private Natural Heritage Reserve (Reserva Particular do Patrimonio Natural SESC Pantanal) is a privately owned reserve in Brazil, established in 1998 and 878.7 km² (339.3 sq mi) in size. It is located in the north-eastern portion, known as "Poconé" Pantanal, not far from the Pantanal National Park. It is a mix of permanent rivers, seasonal streams, permanent and seasonal floodplain freshwater lakes, shrub dominated wetlands and seasonally flooded forests. Despite being privately owned, the reserve is currently entirely and exclusively dedicated to nature preservation.


This park has also been designated a Ramsar Site of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention.


In fiction

  • Large parts of John Grisham's novel The Testament take place in the Pantanal.
  • Pantanal is the title of a Brazilian-produced telenovela whose setting was the Brazilian Pantanal.

John Ray Grisham Jr. ... The Testament is a legal/suspense thriller by American author John Grisham. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.ladatco.com/PAN-GATE.htm
  2. ^ http://www.ladatco.com/PAN-GATE.htm

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pantanal, Brazil: Travel information & Tours, Flights and Lodging (843 words)
Pantanal is more like an African savannah, in the pick of the summer, or an infinite water lake, with few signs of vegetable life, most of the year.
The Pantanal is a place with too much water and mud (Pantanal is a word derived from the Portuguese word for swamp), where trips may me difficult, and may have to be done on horseback, or special trucks and jeeps, or by boat.
The average temperature in Pantanal is near 30º, but it can drop very much in May and June (and may rise to 40º C in January and February).
Pantanal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (473 words)
The Pantanal is the world’s largest wetland area, a flat landscape, with gently sloping and meandering rivers.
The Pantanal has an average yearly rainfall of 1,000-1,400 mm, but is fed by the Upper Paraguay River.
The Pantanal is a natural water treatment facility.
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