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Encyclopedia > Pansy
Pansy
A five-petaled pansy
A five-petaled pansy
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Violales
Family: Violaceae
Genus: Viola
Species: V. tricolor
Subspecies: V. t. hortensis
Trinomial name
Viola tricolor hortensis

The pansy or pansy violet is a plant cultivated as a garden flower. Pansies are derived from Viola tricolor also called the Heartsease or 'Johnny Jump Up'. However, many garden varieties are hybrids and are referred to as Viola × wittrockiana but sometimes they listed under the name Viola tricolor hortensis. The name "pansy" also appears as part of the common name of a number of wildflowers belonging, like the cultivated pansy, to the genus Viola. Some unrelated species, such as the Pansy Monkeyflower, also have "pansy" in their name. Isabella Macdonald Alden (November 3, 1841 – August 5, 1930) was an American author, writing under the pseudonym of Pansy. Alden was born in Rochester, New York, in addition to much fiction for older readers, her works include the Pansy Books. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixels Full resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Orders See text. ... Families see text Violales used to be an order of flowering plants in the Cronquist classification. ... Genera Agatea Allexis Amphirrhox Anchietea Corynostylis Decorsella Fusispermum Gloeospermum Hybanthus Hymenanthera Isodendron Leonia Mayanaea Melicytus Noisettia Orthion Paypayrola Rinorea Rinoreocarpus Schweiggeria Viola Violaceae is a family of flowering plants. ... Species List of Viola species Violets (Viola) are a genus of flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species throughout the world, mainly in the temperate Northern Hemisphere but also in Hawaii, Australasia, and the Andes in South America. ... Trinomial nomenclature is a taxonomic naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Viola tricolor L. The Heartsease, Viola triocolor is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. ... Binomial name Viola tricolor L. The Heartsease (Viola tricolor) is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. ... This article is about a biological term. ... For other uses, see Wildflower (disambiguation). ... Species Viola bicolor Pursh Viola beckwithii Viola nephrophylla Viola pedunculata Viola odorata Viola tricolor Viola × wittrockiana List all species Violets (genus Viola) are flowers of the family Violaceae, with around 400 species throughout temperate areas of the world. ... Species See text. ...

Contents

Cultivation, breeding and life cycle

A pansy flower
A pansy flower

Pansy breeding has produced a wide range of flower colors including yellow, gold, orange, purple, violet, red and even black (dark purple)many with large showy face markings. A large number of bicolored flowers have also been produced. They are generally very cold hardy plants surviving freezing even during their blooming period. Plants grow well in sunny or partially sunny positions in well draining soils. Pansies are developed from viola species that are normally biennials with a two-year life cycle. The first year plant produce greenery and then bear flowers and seeds their second year of growth and afterwards die like annuals. Because of selective human breeding, most garden pansies bloom the first year, some in as little as 12 weeks after sowing. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (860x613, 79 KB) This is a picture I took in my garden. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (860x613, 79 KB) This is a picture I took in my garden. ... Hardiness of plants is a term used to describe their ability to survive adverse growing conditions. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Peas are an annual plant. ...


Most biennials are purchased as packs of young plants from the garden centre and planted directly into the garden soil. Under favorable conditions, pansies and viola can often be grown as perennial plants, but are generally treated as annuals or biennial plants because after a few years of growth the stems become long and scraggly. Plants grow up to 9 inches (23 cm) tall, and the flowers are two to three inches (about 6 cm) in diameter, though there are some smaller and larger flowering cultivars available too. A garden centre is a retail firm that sells plants and products related to gardens as its primary business. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland Soil is a complex mixture of materials, principally ground up rock and water. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... A Biennial plant is a plant that takes between twelve and twenty-four months to complete its lifecycle. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


Pansies are winter hardy in zones 4-8. They can survive light freezes and short periods of snow cover, in areas with prolonged snow cover they survive best with a covering of a dry winter mulch. In warmer climates, zones 9-11, pansies can bloom over the winter, and are often planted in the fall. In these climates, pansies have been known to reseed themselves and come back the next year. Pansies are not very heat-tolerant — they are best used as a cool season planting, warm temperatures inhibit blooming and hot muggy air causes rot and death. Plant Hardiness Zone Map Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones USDA Plant Hardiness Zones are areas in North America categorized according to their lowest winter temperatures. ... Plant Hardiness Zone Map Temperature scale of hardiness zones, showing the average annual minimum temperature boundaries for the zones USDA Plant Hardiness Zones are areas in North America categorized according to their lowest winter temperatures. ...


Pansies should be watered thoroughly about once a week, depending on climate and rainfall. To maximize blooming, use plant food about every other week, according to the plant food directions. Regular deadheading can extend the blooming period.


Anatomy

A purple pansy
A purple pansy

The pansy has two top petals overlapping slightly, two side petals, beards where the three lower petals join the center of the flower, and a single bottom petal with a slight indentation. ImageMetadata File history File links Purple_Pansy. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Purple_Pansy. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ...


Diseases

Stem rot

Stem rot, also known as pansy sickness, is a soil-borne fungus and a possible hazard with unsterilized animal manure. The plant may collapse without warning in the middle of the season. The foliage will flag and lose color. Flowers will fade and shrivel prematurely. Stem will snap at the soil line if tugged slightly. The plant is probably a total loss unless tufted. To treat stem rot, use Cheshunt or modern Benomyl fungicide prior to planting. Destroy (burn) infected plants. Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ... Statistics Population: 51,998 (Census 2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TL358021 Administration District: Broxbourne Shire county: Hertfordshire Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Hertfordshire Historic county: Hertfordshire Services Police force: Hertfordshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: East of England Post... Benomyl (also marketed as Benlate) is a fungicide which was introduced in 1968 by Du Pont. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


Cheshunt recipe

Mix thoroughly and stand for 2 hours in sealed container. Dissolve 1 ounce (28 g) in a little hot water and add this to 2 gallons of cold water and use immediately. Flash point non flammable Related Compounds Other cations Nickel(II) sulfate Zinc sulfate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Copper(II) sulfate (sulphate in most Commonwealth nations) is the chemical compound with the formula... Ammonium carbonate. ...


Watering

Make sure not to overwater.Overwatering may cause flooding, thus killing the pansy


Leaf spot

Leaf spot (Ramularia deflectens) is a fungal infection. Symptoms include dark spots on leaf margins followed by a white web covering the leaves. It is associated with cool damp springs. To treat, spray with fungicide. Subkingdom/Phyla Chytridiomycota Blastocladiomycota Neocallimastigomycota Glomeromycota Zygomycota Dikarya (inc. ... A Fungicide is one of three main methods of pest control- chemical control of fungi in this case. ...


Mildew

Mildew (Oidium) is a fungal infection. Symptoms include violet-gray powder on fringes and underside of leaves. It is caused by stagnant air and can be limited but not necessarily eliminated by spraying (especially leaf undersides). Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ...


Cucumber mosaic virus

The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids. Pansies with the virus have fine yellow veining on young leaves, stunted growth and anomalous flowers. The virus can lay dormant, affect the entire plant and be passed to next generations and to other species. Prevention is key: purchase healthy plants, use pH-balanced soil which is neither too damp not too dry. The soil should have balanced amounts of nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Eliminate other diseases which may weaken the plant. Synonyms banana infectious chlorosis virus coleus mosaic virus cowpea banding mosaic virus cowpea ringspot virus cucumber virus 1 lily ringspot virus pea top necrosis virus peanut yellow mosaic virus southern celery mosaic virus soybean stunt virus spinach blight virus tomato fern leaf virus pea western ringspot virus Cucumber mosaic virus... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. ... Potash Potash (or carbonate of potash) is an impure form of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) mixed with other potassium salts. ...


Pests

Slugs and snails

To ward off slugs and snails, lay sharp, gritty sand or top-dress soil with chipped bark. Clean area of leaves and foreign matter, etc. Beer in little bowls buried to the rims in the flower beds will also keep them at bay. This article is about Terrestrial Slugs. ... For other uses, see Snail (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...


Aphids

To combat aphids, which spread the cucumber mosaic virius, spray with diluted soft soap (2 ounces per gallon). Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ...


Cultivars

The Universal Plus series of 21 cultivars covers all the common pansy colors except orange and black.


Name origin and significance

The name pansy is derived from the French word pensée meaning "thought", and was so named because the flower resembles a human face; in August it nods forward as if deep in thought. Because of this the pansy has long been a symbol of Freethought[1] and has been used in the literature of the American Secular Union. Humanists use it too, as the pansy's current appearance was developed from the Heartsease by two centuries of intentional crossbreeding of wild plant hybrids. The Freedom From Religion Foundation (FFRF) uses the pansy symbol extensively in its lapel pins and literature. Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that beliefs should be formed on the basis of science and logical principles and not be compromised by authority, tradition, or any other dogma. ... The American Secular Union was a social movement from the 1800s in the United States After the implosion of the Socialistic Labor Party, the Liberals reorganized as a nonpolitical American Secular Union. ... Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Viola tricolor L. The Heartsease (Viola tricolor) is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. ... The term crossbreed or crossbred refers to a hybrid animal of two purebred parents created by means of crossbreeding. ... This article is about a biological term. ... The Freedom From Religion Foundation is an American Freethought organization based in Madison, Wisconsin. ...


The word "pansy" has indicated an effeminate male since Elizabethan times and its usage as a disparaging term for a man or boy who is effeminate (as well as for an avowedly homosexual man) is still used. (There is a queercore musical band called Pansy Division, drawing on this association.) The word "ponce" (which has now come to mean a pimp) and the adjective "poncey" (effeminate) also derive from "pansy". Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... Homosexuality refers to sexual interaction and / or romantic attraction between individuals of the same sex. ... Queercore is a cultural and social movement that began in the mid 1980s as an offshoot of punk. ... Pansy Division is a punk band that was a founding example of the queercore genre. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Pansies in the arts and culture

A solid red coloured cultivar.
A solid red coloured cultivar.

The pansy remains a favorite image in the arts, culture, and crafts, from needlepoint to ceramics. It is also the flower of Osaka, Japan. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1767x1704, 1730 KB) Summary A red Pansy cultivar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1767x1704, 1730 KB) Summary A red Pansy cultivar. ... Needlepoint is a form of canvas work created on a mesh canvas. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... Osaka )   is a city in Japan, located at the mouth of the Yodo River on Osaka Bay, in the Kansai region of the main island of HonshÅ«. The city is the capital of Osaka Prefecture. ...

  • In 1827, Pierre-Joseph Redouté painted Bouquet of Pansies.
  • In 1926, Georgia O'Keeffe created a famous painting of a black pansy called simply, Pansy. She followed with White Pansy in 1927.
  • D. H. Lawrence wrote a book of poetry entitled Pansies: Poems by D. H. Lawrence.
  • In William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, the juice of a pansy blossom ("before, milk-white, now purple with love's wound, And maidens call it love-in-idleness") is a love potion: "the juice of it, on sleeping eyelids laid, will make or man or woman madly dote upon the next live creature that it sees." (Act II, Scene I see also: Oberon at II, i). Since the cultivated pansy had not yet been developed, "pansy" here means the wild Heartsease, and the idea of using it as a love potion was no doubt suggested by that name. The folkloric language of flowers is more traditional than scientific, with conventional interpretations, similar to the clichés about animals such as the "clever fox" or "wise owl". Ophelia's oft-quoted line, "There's pansies, that's for thoughts", in Hamlet (Act IV, Scene V) comes from this tradition: if a maiden found a honeyflower and a pansy left for her by an admirer, it would mean "I am thinking of our forbidden love" in symbol rather than in writing.

Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pierre-Joseph Redouté (1759 - 1840) was a French painter, best known for his paintings of the flowers at Malmaison. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georgia Tottoeanocomita OKeeffe (November 15, 1887—March 6, 1986) was an American artist. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Herbert Richards Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century, whose prolific and diverse output included novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, paintings, translations, literary criticism, and personal letters. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... ... Love potion can refer to many things: A potion that is said to have the power to cause its imbiber to fall in love with the person who gave it to them. ... Binomial name Viola tricolor L. The Heartsease (Viola tricolor) is a common European wild flower, growing as an annual or short-lived perennial. ... For the indie pop band, see Language of Flowers (band). ... John William Waterhouses painting Ophelia (1894) Ophelia is a fictional character in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ...

External links

  • Wikimedia Commons logo Media related to Viola x wittrockiana from the Wikimedia Commons.
  • PansyFlowers.com – pictures and information about pansies

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  1. ^ Gaylor, Annie Laurie (June/July 1997). "Rediscovering A Forgotten Symbol Of Freethought - A Pansy For Your Thoughts". Freethought Today. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pansy (2427 words)
The pansy is a delicate looking flower often with a "face." The pansy is quite durable and a "flower for all seasons." Pansies are growing in gardens during the winter in the South or Southwest and during the summer in the North.
Pansy blooms are single with five petals that are rounded in shape.
Moving the pansies from container to garden is a stress on the plants; it is crucial that they receive plenty of water during this adjustment period.
Pansy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (965 words)
The Pansy or Pansy Violet is a cultivated garden flower.
Pansies have been bred in a rainbow of colours, ranging from gold and orange though to purple, violet, and a blue so deep as to be almost fl.
Pansies are technically biennials that normally have two-year life cycles.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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