FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Pangolin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pangolin
Pangolins[1]
Sunda Pangolin, Manis javanica
Sunda Pangolin, Manis javanica
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
Superorder: Laurasiatheria
Order: Pholidota
Weber, 1904
Family: Manidae
Gray, 1821
Genus: Manis
Linnaeus, 1758
Species

Manis culionensis
Manis gigantea
Manis temminckii
Manis tricuspis
Manis tetradactyla
Manis crassicaudata
Manis pentadactyla
Manis javanica Manis may refer to: Types of Animals Pangolin, a scaly anteater Ghost catshark, or Apristurus manis Individuals Manis, the orangutan star of Every Which Way But Loose Andrew M. Manis, author Brian Manis, film producer Manis Friedman, dean of the Bais Chana Institute of Jewish Studies and host of Torah... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 413 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (551 × 800 pixel, file size: 112 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to de. ... Binomial name Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822 The Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica), also known as the Malayan Pangolin, is a species of pangolin found in many South-East Asian nations, including Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, and Malaysia and Singapore. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes Subphylum Urochordata - Tunicates Ascidiacea Thaliacea Larvacea Subphylum Cephalochordata - Lancelets Subphylum Myxini - Hagfishes Subphylum Vertebrata - Vertebrates Petromyzontida - Lampreys Placodermi (extinct) Chondrichthyes - Cartilaginous fishes Acanthodii (extinct) Actinopterygii - Ray-finned fishes Actinistia - Coelacanths Dipnoi - Lungfishes Amphibia - Amphibians Reptilia - Reptiles Aves - Birds Mammalia - Mammals Chordates (phylum Chordata) include the vertebrates, together with... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Orders[1] Bobolestes Eomaia Maelestes Montanalestes Murtoilestes Prokennalestes Placentalia Superorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Laurasiatheria is a proposed clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, of the Epitheria infraclass of the Placentalia (living) or Eutheria (Placentals and their extinct ancestors) subclass of Mammals, based on molecular and DNA research It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires. ... John Edward Gray. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Binomial name Manis gigantea , The Giant Pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, found in Africa. ... Binomial name Manis temminckii Smuts, 1832 The Temmincks Pangolin (Manis temminckii) is one of four species of pangolin which can be found in Africa and the only one in southern and eastern Africa. ... Common Name: Tree Pangolin Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Pholidota Family Manidae Genus Manis Species Tricuspis Scientific Name: Manis tricuspis The pangolin is found in secondary forests and are native to most of mainland and insular Southeast Asia, China, Taiwan, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka but Manis tricuspis... The Long-tailed Pangolin, Manis tetradactyla, is an arboreal pangolin native to the Sub-Saharan forests of Africa. ... Binomial name Manis crassicaudata Gray, 1827 Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is pangolin or scaly ant-eater that is found in the slopes of Himalayan mountain range. ... Binomial name Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 The Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) is a pangolin that is found in north India, Nepal, Bhutan, possibly Bangladesh, across Myanmar to northern Indochina, through most of the southern China, including the islands of Hainan and Taiwan. ... Binomial name Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822 The Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica), also known as the Malayan Pangolin, is a species of pangolin found in many South-East Asian nations, including Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, and Malaysia and Singapore. ...

Pangolins (pronounced /ˈpæŋgəlɪn/) or scaly anteaters are mammals in the order Pholidota. There is only one extant family (Manidae) and one genus (Manis) of pangolins, comprising eight species. (There are also a number of extinct taxa within Pholidota.) Pangolins have large scales on their skin and are found in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. The name "pangolin" is derived from the Malay word pengguling ("something that rolls up"). Pangolins are nocturnal animals, using their well developed sense of smell to find insects. The long-tailed pangolin is also active by day. Pangolins spend most of their daytime hours sleeping, curled up into a ball.[2] The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to show pronounciation in English. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including those that produce milk, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... In this SEM image of a butterfly wing the scales are clearly visible, and the tiny platelets on each individual scale are just barely visible in the striping. ... Beyond overall skin structure, refer below to: See-also. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ...


In older classifications, pangolins were classified with various other orders, for example Xenarthra, which includes the ordinary anteaters, sloths, and the similar-looking armadillos. Newer genetic evidence,[3] however, indicates that the closest living relatives of pangolins are the Carnivora, with which they form a clade, the Ferae[4]. Some paleontologists have classified the pangolins in the order Cimolesta, together with several extinct groups. Orders and suborders Order Pilosa Suborder Vermilingua Suborder Folivora Order Cingulata See text for more details The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. ... Families Cyclopedidae Myrmecophagidae Anteaters are the four mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua commonly known for eating ants and termites. ... This article is about the South American mammal. ... For other uses, see Armadillo (disambiguation). ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... A clade consisting of the orders Pholidota and Carnivora. ... Extinct biological order, part of the Ferae and possibly a sistertaxon to the Perissodactyla. ...

Contents

Physical description and behavior

The physical appearance of pangolins is marked by large, hardened, plate-like scales. The scales, which are soft on newborn pangolins but harden as the animal matures, are made of keratin, the same material of which human fingernails and tetrapod claws are made. The pangolin is often compared to a walking pine cone or globe artichoke. It can curl up into a ball when threatened, with its overlapping scales acting as armour and its face tucked under its tail. The scales are razor-sharp, and provide extra defense for this reason. The front claws are so long that they are unsuited for walking, and so the animal walks with its fore paws curled over to protect them. Pangolins can also emit a noxious smelling acid from glands near the anus, similar to the spray of a skunk. Pangolins have short legs, with sharp claws which they use for burrowing into termite and ant mounds, as well as climbing. Not to be confused with kerogen or carotene. ... For other uses, see Nail. ... Groups See text. ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... Mature female European Black Pine cone Male cones of a pine A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures. ... Binomial name Cynara scolymus L. The Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial, thistle-like plant, originating in southern Europe around the Mediterranean. ... Armour in animals is external or superficial protection against attack by predators, formed as part of the body (rather than the behavioural use of protective external objects), usually through the hardening of body tissues, outgrowths or secretions. ... For other uses, see Acid (disambiguation). ... Human submaxillary gland. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... For other uses, see Skunk (disambiguation). ... Cat claw A claw is a curved pointed appendage, found at the end of a toe or finger or, in arthropods, of the tarsus. ... A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. ...


The size of pangolins varies by species, ranging from 30 cm to 100 cm (12 to 39 inches). Females are generally smaller than males.


The tongues of pangolins are extremely elongated and extend into the abdominal cavity. By convergent evolution pangolins, the giant anteater, and the tube-lipped nectar bat, all have tongues which are unattached from their hyoid bone and extend past their pharynx deep into the thorax.[5] This extension lies between the sternum and the trachea. Large pangolins can extend their tongues as much as 40 cm (16 inches), with a diameter of only 0.5 cm (1/4 inch).[2] The abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The Giant Anteater, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, is the largest species of anteater. ... Binomial name Anoura fistulata Muchhala, 2005 The Tube-lipped Nectar Bat (Anoura fistulata) is a bat from Ecuador which was first described in 2005. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Diagram of a tsetse fly, showing the head, thorax and abdomen The thorax is a division of an animals body that lies between the head and the abdomen. ... The sternum (from Greek στέρνον, sternon, chest) or breastbone is a long, flat bone located in the center of the thorax (chest). ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ...


In pangolins, the section of the brain that relates to problem solving is highly developed. Although their problem solving ability is primarily used to find food in obscure locations, when kept in captivity pangolins are remarkable escape artists and thus are often referred to as the Houdini Ant-eater. Harry Houdini (March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926), born Ehrich Weiss, was a Hungarian/American magician, escapologist, stunt performer, as well as an investigator of spiritualists, and amateur aviator. ...


Arboreal pangolins live in hollow trees, whereas the ground dwelling species dig tunnels underground, up to a depth of 3.5 meters (11 feet).[2] Pangolins are also good swimmers.[2]


Diet

A drawing of a pangolin
A drawing of a pangolin

Pangolins lack teeth and the ability to chew. Instead, they tear open anthills or termite mounds with their powerful front claws and probe deep into them with their very long tongues. Pangolins have an enormous salivary gland in their chests to lubricate the tongue with sticky, ant-catching saliva. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 459 pixel Image in higher resolution (910 × 522 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Fig. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 459 pixel Image in higher resolution (910 × 522 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Original caption: Fig. ... Types of teeth Molars are used for grinding up foods Carnassials are used for slicing food. ... Chewing is the process by which food is torn and/or crushed by teeth. ... Categories: Stub | Myrmecology ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ...


Some species, such as the Tree Pangolin, use their strong tails to hang from tree branches and strip away bark from the trunk, exposing insect nests inside. Common Name: Tree Pangolin Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Pholidota Family Manidae Genus Manis Species Tricuspis Scientific Name: Manis tricuspis The pangolin is found in secondary forests and are native to most of mainland and insular Southeast Asia, China, Taiwan, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka but Manis tricuspis...


Reproduction

Gestation is 120-150 days. African pangolin females usually give birth to a single offspring at a time, but the Asiatic species can give birth from one to three.[2] Weight at birth is 80-450 g (3-18 ounces).


Threats

Pangolin are hunted and eaten in many parts of Africa and it is one of the more popular types of bush meat. Pangolins are also in great demand in China because their meat is considered a delicacy and some Chinese believe pangolin scales reduce swelling, promote blood circulation and help breast-feeding women produce milk. This, coupled with deforestation, has led to a large decrease in the numbers of Giant Pangolins. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Bushmeat (from the French viande de brousse) hunting is common in sub-Saharan Africas dense forests. ... Edema (BE: oedema, formerly known as dropsy) is swelling of any organ or tissue due to accumulation of excess fluid. ... A breastfeeding infant Breastfeeding is the practice of a woman feeding an infant (or sometimes a toddler or a young child) with milk produced from her mammary glands, usually directly from the nipples. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... Binomial name Manis gigantea , The Giant Pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, found in Africa. ...


Pangolin populations have suffered from illegal trafficking. In May 2007, for example, Guardian Unlimited reported that 31 pangolins were found aboard an abandoned vessel off the Coast of China. The boat contained some 5,000 endangered animals.


The Guardian recently provided a description of the killing and eating of pangolins: "A Guangdong chef interviewed last year in the Beijing Science and Technology Daily described how to cook a pangolin: 'We keep them alive in cages until the customer makes an order. Then we hammer them unconscious, cut their throats and drain the blood. It is a slow death. We then boil them to remove the scales. We cut the meat into small pieces and use it to make a number of dishes, including braised meat and soup. Usually the customers take the blood home with them afterwards.'" [6]


On November 10, 2007, Thai Customs officers announced that they had rescued over 100 pangolins as the animals were being smuggled out of the country, en route to China, where they were to be sold for cooking. [7]


Only three pangolins are kept in legitimate captivity. Their diet, which consists solely of ants in the wild, makes raising them in captivity extremely challenging. Two pangolins are kept at the Taipei Zoo in Taiwan. Another has recently arrived at the Los Angeles Zoo.[8] The Taipei Zoo (Chinese: 臺北市立動物園) is a public institution affiliated to Taipei City in Taiwan. ... A summer crowd of the LA Zoo The Los Angeles Zoo is a large zoo located in Los Angeles, California. ...


Taxonomy

The pangolin raids a termite cathedral mound for a meal.
The pangolin raids a termite cathedral mound for a meal.

Image File history File links Manis_temmincki_ugglan. ... Image File history File links Manis_temmincki_ugglan. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Eurotamandua (European tamandua) is an extinct genus of pangolin. ... Eurotamandua (European tamandua) is an extinct genus of pangolin. ... Eomanis is the earliest known pangolin from the Middle Eocene Europe. ... Species † (type species) † † Necromanis is an extinct genus of pangolin from the Miocene of France. ... Binomial name Manis crassicaudata Gray, 1827 Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata) is pangolin or scaly ant-eater that is found in the slopes of Himalayan mountain range. ... Binomial name Manis pentadactyla Linnaeus, 1758 The Chinese Pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) is a pangolin that is found in north India, Nepal, Bhutan, possibly Bangladesh, across Myanmar to northern Indochina, through most of the southern China, including the islands of Hainan and Taiwan. ... Binomial name Manis javanica Desmarest, 1822 The Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica), also known as the Malayan Pangolin, is a species of pangolin found in many South-East Asian nations, including Thailand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia, and Malaysia and Singapore. ... Binomial name Manis gigantea , The Giant Pangolin is the largest species of pangolin, found in Africa. ... Binomial name Manis temminckii Smuts, 1832 The Temmincks Pangolin (Manis temminckii) is one of four species of pangolin which can be found in Africa and the only one in southern and eastern Africa. ... Common Name: Tree Pangolin Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Pholidota Family Manidae Genus Manis Species Tricuspis Scientific Name: Manis tricuspis The pangolin is found in secondary forests and are native to most of mainland and insular Southeast Asia, China, Taiwan, Thailand, India, and Sri Lanka but Manis tricuspis... The Long-tailed Pangolin, Manis tetradactyla, is an arboreal pangolin native to the Sub-Saharan forests of Africa. ...

References

  1. ^ Schlitter, Duane A. (November 16, 2005). in Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds): Mammal Species of the World, 3rd edition, Johns Hopkins University Press, 530-531. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d e (1988) in Mondadori, Arnoldo Ed.: Great Book of the Animal Kingdom. New York: Arch Cape Press, p252. 
  3. ^ Murphy, Willian J., et al (2001-12-14). "Resolution of the Early Placental Mammal Radiation Using Bayesian Phylogenetics". Science 294 (5550): 2348-2351. doi:10.1126/science.1067179. 
  4. ^ http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/6/93
  5. ^ Chan, Lap-Ki (1995). "Extrinsic Lingual Musculature of Two Pangolins (Pholidota: Manidae)". Journal of Mammalogy 76 (2): 472-480. 
  6. ^ Watts, Jonathan (2007-05-26), "'Noah's Ark' of 5,000 rare animals found floating off the coast of China", The Guardian, <http://environment.guardian.co.uk/conservation/story/0,,2088590,00.html>
  7. ^ Thailand saves pangolins bound for China restaurants, AFP, 2007-11-10, <http://news.yahoo.com/s/afp/20071110/sc_afp/thailandindonesiamalaysiachinawildlife_071110190314>. Retrieved on 2007-11-11
  8. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/asithappens/STEAM/2005/pangolin_2005021.html#top

Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Pholidota
Wikispecies has information related to:
Look up Pangolin in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is a pangolin? (0 words)
The pangolin's body is covered with large, flat, imbricated horny scales; it somewhat resembles the New World armadillo in terms of its feeding habits and its employment of a curled up, hedgehog-like defensive posture.
Pangolins can amble along on all fours, but for speed they stand up on two feet using their long tail for support.
Pangolins are endangered (CITES Appendix II or III, depending on species) because their skin makes attractive leather for boots, similar to snakeskin or armadillo boots.
Pangolin - LoveToKnow 1911 (573 words)
PANGOLIN, the Malay name for one of the species of the scaly anteaters, which belong to the order Edentata, and typify the family Manidae and the genus Manis.
Pangolins range from I to 3 ft. in length, exclusive of the tail, which may be much shorter than or nearly twice the length of the rest of the animal.
The Asiatic pangolins are characterized by having the central series of body-scales continued to the extreme end of the tail, by having many isolated hairs growing between the scales of the back, and by their small external ears.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m