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Encyclopedia > Pangaea Ultima

Pangaea Ultima (also Neopangaea, or Pangaea II) is a possible future supercontinent configuration, which, consistent with the supercontinent cycle, may occur within the next 250 million years. This potential configuration, hypothesized by Christopher Scotese, earned its name from its similarity to the previous Pangaea supercontinent.[1] In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... The supercontinent cycle describes the quasi-periodic aggregration and dispersal of Earths continental crust. ... Christopher Scotese is geologist at the University of Texas at Arlington. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ...


Supercontinents describe the merger of all, or nearly all, of the Earth's landmass into a single continuous continent. In the Pangaea Ultima scenario, subduction at the western Atlantic, east of the Americas (signs of it can be seen today, the Puerto Rico Trench), leads to the subduction of the Atlantic mid-ocean ridge followed by subduction destroying the Atlantic oceanic basin, causing the Atlantic Ocean to close, bringing the Americas back together with Africa and Europe. As with most supercontinents, the interior of Pangaea Ultima would probably become a semi-arid desert prone to temperature extremes.[2] This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... A mid-ocean ridge or mid-oceanic ridge is an underwater mountain range, formed by plate tectonics. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Diagrammatic cross-section of an ocean basin, showing the various geographic features. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...

Contents

Formation

The Atlantic and Indian Oceans will continue to widen until new subduction zones bring the continents back together, forming a Future Pangea. It seems that most continents and microcontinents will collide to Eurasia, such as India, and in the future, Africa, and Australia, just as they did when most continents collided to Laurentia. Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Fifty million years into future looks slightly strange. North America will rotate slightly counterclockwise (Alaska would then be near the subtropical latitudes) and Eurasia would rotate clockwise bringing Great Britain closer to the North Pole and Siberia southward towards warm, subtropical latitudes. Africa will collide with Europe and Arabia, closing the Mediterranean Sea (completely closing the Tethys Ocean (or Neotethys)) and the Red Sea. A long mountain range will extend from Spain, across Southern Europe (the Mediterranean Mountain Range), through the Mideast and into Asia. Some will even have peaks higher than Mt. Everest. Similarly, Australia will beach itself on the doorstep of Southeast Asia and a new subduction zone will encircle Australia and extend westward across the Central Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, Baja California will have already collided with Alaska, forming new mountain ranges between them. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Eurasia Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is an immense landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² (or about 10. ... It has been suggested that Western Siberia be merged into this article or section. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... Composite satellite image of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... This article is about the Alpine mountain. ... Baja California (literally lower California in Spanish) is the northernmost state of Mexico. ...


One of the most important changes in the geography of the future, is the beginning of subduction along the eastern coasts of North America and South America. The Atlantic Ocean will have widened, even though the Puerto Rican Trench and Scotia Arc (on the eastern edges of Caribbean plate and Scotia plate, respectively) may propagate northward and southward along the east coast of North and South America. In time, this new westward-dipping subduction zone will consume the Atlantic Ocean. The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ...  The Scotia plate, shown in blue-green towards the bottom of the map The Scotia Plate is an oceanic tectonic plate bordering the South American Plate on the north, the South Sandwich microplate to the east, and the Antarctic Plate on the south and west. ...


About 100 million years from now, the Atlantic ocean will stop widening and begin to shrink because a bit of the Atlantic Ocean mid-ridge will have been subducted. A mid-ocean ridge between South America and Africa will probably be subducted first. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


In 150 million years, the Atlantic Ocean will have narrowed as a result of subduction beneath the Americas. The Indian Ocean will also be smaller due to northward subduction of oceanic crust into the Central Indian trench. Antarctica will collide along the southern margin of Australia because the Central Indian Trench and the South Australian Trench pushes Antarctica northward to Australia, which at this point has collided with Southeast Asia. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the last vestige of sea floor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean, will have been nearly subducted beneath eastern North America. The rock layers that will contain the remains of New York City, Boston and Washington will lie atop high mountain ranges. Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ...


When the last bit of the Mid-Atlantic spreading ridge is subducted beneath the Americas, the Atlantic Ocean will rapidly close and a new Pangea will form.


At 250 million years in the future, the Atlantic and Indian oceans will have closed. North America will have already collided with Africa, but be in a more southerly position than where it rifted. South America will be wrapped around the southern tip of Africa, with Patagonia in contact with Indonesia, enclosing a remnant of the Indian Ocean (called the Indo-Atlantic Ocean). Antarctica will be once again at the South Pole and the Pacific will have grown wider, encircling half the Earth. North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Patagonia, as most commonly defined (in orange). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


The Breakup and the Future

The breakup of Pangea-Ultima may occur more than 300 million years into the future, and it will probably create a new ocean, just like the Atlantic, but it is unknown what the Earth will look like when Pangea-Ultima breaks. The Pangea Ultima will probably break into two or more continents like its predecessors. More rifting will continue, and the fragmented pieces may collide with each other, creating a new supercontinent. The supercontinent cycle will continue well into the future until the Sun expands into a red giant phase, which will possibly consume the Earth and the other inner planets, thereby ending the cycle once and for all, more than 5 billion years from now. Even if the Earth escapes the red giant phase, billions of years from now, its core and the mantle will probably cool, stopping the cycle and turning the Earth into a cold world orbiting what's left of the dead Sun, a shining, white dwarf. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The supercontinent cycle describes the quasi-periodic aggregration and dispersal of Earths continental crust. ... The Sun (Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System. ... According to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, a red giant is a large non-main sequence star of stellar classification K or M; so-named because of the reddish appearance of the cooler giant stars. ... In the solar system the inner planets are the solid planets nearest the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. ... The planetary core consists of the innermost layers of a planet. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


It is by no means certain that this configuration will actually occur. An alternative scenario, in which the Atlantic continues to grow and the Pacific is largely consumed by the collision between the Americas and Asia, is referred to as the Amasia supercontinent. For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... There is a concern the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ...


Appearances in culture

  • The National Geographic series Naked Science: Colliding Continents, mentions the formation of Pangaea Ultima.
  • In the Michael Swanwick novel Bones of the Earth, a version of this supercontinent - called Ultima Pangea - is depicted in the fictitious Telezoic Era roughly 500 million years into the future. It is the home of the Unchanging, a new dominant avian species.
  • In the TV series The Future Is Wild, it shows that the Earth's continents will all reunite into a supercontinent in 200 million years.
  • Chris Roberson's novel Paragaea is set on a world whose one continent is a version of Pangea Ultima.

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Naked Science is one of the shows from National Geographic Channel. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Michael Swanwick (born November 18, 1950) is an American science fiction author. ... Bones of the Earth is a 2002 science fiction novel by Michael Swanwick. ... The word Avian can refer to different things: .. Most commonly it is used referring to the class of animals named birds. Avians are a fantasy race in several fantasy settings. ... The Future Is Wild was a 2003 joint Animal Planet/ORF (Austria) and ZDF (Germany) co-production and a book based on the show, which used computer-generated imagery to show the possible future of life on Earth. ...

See also

For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... There is a concern the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ...

References

  1. ^ Scotese, Christopher R.. Pangea Ultima will form 250 million years in the Future. Paleomap Project. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
  2. ^ Kargel, Jeffrey S. [2004-08-01]. "New World", Mars. Springer. ISBN 1-85233-568-8. 

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • A map of Pangaea Ultima according to Professor Scotese

  Results from FactBites:
 
Clinton Goveas :: Wikipedia Reference (1849 words)
Pangaea or Pangea (derived from Παγγαία, Greek meaning 'all earth') is the name given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, before the process of plate tectonics separated each of the component continents into their current configuration.
In configuration, Pangaea is believed to have been a C-shaped landmass that spread across the equator.
Pangaea is believed to have broken up about 180 million years ago (mya) in the Jurassic Period, first into two supercontinents (Gondwana to the south and Laurasia to the north), thereafter into the continents as we understand them today.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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