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Encyclopedia > Pangaea
Map of Pangaea
Map of Pangaea

Pangaea, Pangæa or Pangea (IPA: /pænˈdʒiːə/[1], from παν, pan, meaning entire, and Γαῖα, Gaea, meaning Earth in Ancient Greek) was the supercontinent that existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras about 250 million years ago, before each of the component continents were separated into their current configuration [2]. Pangæa can be: Pangaea, the ancient supercontinent In Greek mythology, Pangaea was a mountain involved in war between the Titans and the Greek gods Pangaea is a band from Brisbane. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (758x853, 43 KB)Image of the pangaea made by User:Kieff. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (758x853, 43 KB)Image of the pangaea made by User:Kieff. ... Beginning of Homers Odyssey The Ancient Greek language is the historical stage of the Greek language[1] as it existed during the Archaic (9th–6th centuries BC) and Classical (5th–4th centuries BC) periods in Ancient Greece. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ... The Paleozoic Era (from the Greek palaio, old and zoion, animals, meaning ancient life) is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Mesozoic Era is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


The name was first used by the German originator of the continental drift theory, Alfred Wegener, in the 1920 edition of his book The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane), in which a postulated supercontinent Pangaea played a key role. A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ... Alfred Wegener, around 1925 Alfred Lothar Wegener (Berlin, November 1, 1880 – Greenland, November 2 or 3, 1930) was a German interdisciplinary scientist and meteorologist, who became famous for his theory of continental drift (Kontinentalverschiebung or die Verschiebung der Kontinente in his words). ...

Contents

Configuration of Pangaea

Physical map of the supercontinent Pangaea (~230 million years ago)
Physical map of the supercontinent Pangaea (~230 million years ago)

Paleogeographic reconstructions show Pangaea as a C-shaped landmass that was spread across the equator. The body of water that was enclosed within the resulting crescent has been named the Tethys Sea. Owing to Pangaea's massive size, the inland regions appear to have been very dry. The large supercontinent would potentially have allowed terrestrial animals to migrate freely. Image File history File links Pangaea_(230_million_years_ago). ... Image File history File links Pangaea_(230_million_years_ago). ... Palaeogeography is the study of the ancient geography of the Earths surface. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... The Tethys Sea was a shallow inland body of water that existed between Laurasia and Gondwana, the geological ancestor of the modern Black, Caspian and Aral Seas. ...


The vast ocean that once surrounded the supercontinent of Pangaea has been named Panthalassa. The break-up of Pangaea began about 180 million years ago (180 mya) in the Jurassic Period, first into two supercontinents (Gondwana to the south and Laurasia to the north), thereafter into the continents we have today. Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... Annum is a Latin noun meaning year. ... The Jurassic Period is a major unit of the geologic timescale that extends from about 199. ... A geologic period is a subdivision of geologic time that divides an era into smaller timeframes. ... For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Laurasia was a supercontinent that most recently existed as a part of the split of the Pangaean supercontinent in the late Mesozoic era. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ...


Formation of Pangaea

Rodinia, which formed 1.1 billion years ago during the Proterozoic, was the supercontinent from which all subsequent continents, sub or super, derived. Rodinia does not preclude the possibility of prior supercontinents as the breakup and formation of supercontinents appear to be cyclical through Earth's 4.6 billion years. In geology, Rodinia (from the Russian родина, or motherland) refers to one of the oldest known supercontinents, which contained most or all of Earths then-current landmass. ... The Proterozoic (IPA: ) is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. ... The Earths first supercontinent thought to have existed is Vaalbara. ... The supercontinent cycle describes the quasi-periodic aggregration and dispersal of Earths continental crust. ...


Gondwana followed with several iterations before the formation of Pangaea, which succeeded Pannotia, before the beginning of the Paleozoic Era (545 Ma) and the Phanerozoic Eon. For other uses of Gondwana and Gondwanaland, see Gondwana (disambiguation). ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ... The Palaeozoic is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... The Phanerozoic (occasionally Phaenerozoic) Eon is the period of geologic time during which abundant animal life has existed. ...


The minor supercontinent of Proto-Laurasia rifted away from Gondwana and moved across the Panthalassic Ocean. A new ocean was forming between the two continents, the Proto-Tethys Ocean. Soon, Proto-Laurasia rifted apart itself to create Laurentia, Siberia and Baltica. The rifting also spawned two new oceans, the Iapetus and Khanty Oceans. Baltica remained east of Laurentia, and Siberia sat northeast of Laurentia. Proto-Laurasia (first Laurasia) was an ancient supercontinent. ... The blue ocean surrounding Pangaea is Panthalassa Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... Proto-Tethys Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed from the latest Ediacaran to the Carboniferous. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Siberia (Sometimes called Angara) is the craton located in the heart of the region of Siberia. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... Khanty Ocean was an ancient, small ocean that existed near the end of the Precambrian time to the Silurian. ...


In the Cambrian the independent continent of Laurentia on what would become North America sat on the equator, with three bordering oceans: the Panthalassic Ocean to the north and west, the Iapetus Ocean to the south and the Khanty Ocean to the east. In the Earliest Ordovician, the microcontinent of Avalonia, a landmass that would become the northeastern United States, Nova Scotia and England, broke free from Gondwana and began its journey to Laurentia.[3] For other uses, see Cambrian (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... North American redirects here. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ... The blue ocean surrounding Pangaea is Panthalassa Panthalassa (Greek for all seas) was the vast ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea during the late Paleozoic era and the early Mesozoic era. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ... Khanty Ocean was an ancient, small ocean that existed near the end of the Precambrian time to the Silurian. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Euramerica's formation
Euramerica's formation
Appalachian orogeny
Appalachian orogeny

Baltica collided with Laurentia by the end of the Ordovician, and northern Avalonia collided with Baltica and Laurentia. Laurentia, Baltica and Avalonia formed to create a minor supercontinent of Euramerica or Laurussia, closing the Iapetus Ocean, while the Rheic Ocean expanded in the southern coast of Avalonia. The collision also resulted in the formation of the northern Appalachians. Siberia sat near Euramerica, with the Khanty Ocean between the two continents. While all this was happening, Gondwana drifted slowly towards the South Pole. This was the first step of the formation of Pangaea.[4] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Appalachian_orogeny. ... Image File history File links Appalachian_orogeny. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... Euramerica (also known as Laurussia) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica (Scandian Orogeny). ... The Rheic Ocean was an ocean in the Paleozoic Era that existed between the continent of Baltica (northern Europe) and number of terranes broken up from Gondwana, including the future southern Europe. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Siberia (Sometimes called Angara) is the craton located in the heart of the region of Siberia. ... Khanty Ocean was an ancient, small ocean that existed near the end of the Precambrian time to the Silurian. ...


The second step in the formation of Pangaea was the collision of Gondwana with Euramerica. By Silurian time, Baltica had already collided with Laurentia to form Euramerica. Avalonia hadn't collided with Laurentia yet, and a seaway between them, a remnant of the Iapetus Ocean, was still shrinking as Avalonia slowly inched towards Laurentia. Euramerica (also known as Laurussia) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica (Scandian Orogeny). ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... Avalonia was a paleomicrocontinent also known as a Terrane. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Iapetus Ocean was an Ocean that existed in the Southern Hemisphere between Scotland, England and Scandinavia between 400 and 600 million years ago. ...


Meanwhile, southern Europe fragmented from Gondwana and started to head towards Euramerica across the newly formed Rheic Ocean and collided with southern Baltica in the Devonian, though this microcontinent was an underwater plate. The Iapetus Ocean's sister ocean, the Khanty Ocean, was also shrinking as an island arc from Siberia collided with eastern Baltica (now part of Euramerica). Behind this island arc was a new ocean, the Ural Ocean. The southern half of Europe is shown in shades of red. ... The Rheic Ocean was an ocean in the Paleozoic Era that existed between the continent of Baltica (northern Europe) and number of terranes broken up from Gondwana, including the future southern Europe. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... An island arc is a type of archipelago formed by plate tectonics as one oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another and produces magma. ... Ural Ocean was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica. ...


By late Silurian time, North and South China rifted away from Gondwana and started to head northward across the shrinking Proto-Tethys Ocean, and on its southern end the new Paleo-Tethys Ocean was opening. In the Devonian Period, Gondwana itself headed towards Euramerica, which caused the Rheic Ocean to shrink. The North China Craton is one of the smaller continental cratons of the Earth. ... South China continent, also known as South China craton (or the South Chinese craton) was an ancient continent (craton) that contained todays South and Southeast China (named after), Indochina, and parts of Southeast Asia (ie. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ...


In the Early Carboniferous, northwest Africa had touched the southeastern coast of Euramerica, creating the southern portion of the Appalachian Mountains, and the Meseta Mountains. South America moved northward to southern Euramerica, while the eastern portion of Gondwana (India, Antarctica and Australia) headed towards the South Pole from the equator. President Bush- Deres gold in dem dere mines The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Euramerica (also known as Laurussia) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian by the collision of Laurentia and Baltica (Scandian Orogeny). ... The Appalachian Mountains are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


North China and South China were on independent continents. The Kazakhstania microcontinent had collided with Siberia (Siberia had been a separate continent for millions of years since the deformation of the supercontinent Pannotia) in the Middle Carboniferous. Kazakhstania, also known as the Kazakhstan Block, is a small continental region in the interior of Asia. ... Siberia (Sometimes called Angara) is the craton located in the heart of the region of Siberia. ... Pannotia is the name given to a hypothetical supercontinent that existed from about 600 to about 540 mya. ...


Western Kazakhstania collided with Baltica in the Late Carboniferous, closing the Ural Ocean between them, and the western Proto-Tethys in them (Uralian orogeny), causing the formation of the Ural Mountains, and the formation of the supercontinent of Laurasia. This was the last step of the formation of Pangaea. Kazakhstania, also known as the Kazakhstan Block, is a small continental region in the interior of Asia. ... Baltica (green) Baltica is a Late Proterozoic-Early Palaeozoic continent that now includes the East European craton of northwestern Eurasia. ... Ural Ocean was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica. ... The Uralian orogeny refers to the long series of geological events that raised the Ural Mountains starting in the Late Carboniferous and Permian periods of the Palaeozoic Era, ca. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


Meanwhile, South America had collided with southern Laurentia, closing the Rheic Ocean, and forming the southernmost part of the Appalachians and Ouachita Mountains. By this time, Gondwana was positioned near the South Pole, and glaciers were forming in Antarctica, India, Australia, southern Africa and South America. The North China block collided with Siberia by Late Carboniferous time, completely closing the Proto-Tethys Ocean. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Rheic Ocean was an ocean in the Paleozoic Era that existed between the continent of Baltica (northern Europe) and number of terranes broken up from Gondwana, including the future southern Europe. ... The Appalachian Mountains are a system of North American mountains running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada to Alabama in the United States, although the northernmost mainland portion ends at the Gaspe Peninsula of Quebec. ... Ouachita Mountains The Ouachita Mountains are a mountain range located in west central Arkansas and east central Oklahoma. ... Northern Peoples Republic of China region. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


By Early Permian time, the Cimmerian plate rifted away from Gondwana and headed towards Laurasia, with a new ocean forming in its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, and the closure of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Most of the landmasses were all in one. By the Triassic Period, Pangaea rotated a little, in a southwest direction. The Cimmerian plate was still travelling across the shrinking Paleo-Tethys, until the Middle Jurassic time. The Paleo-Tethys had closed from west to east, creating the Cimmerian Orogeny. Pangaea looked like a C, with an ocean inside the C, the new Tethys Ocean. Pangaea had rifted by the Middle Jurassic, and its deformation is explained below. The Permian is a geologic period that extends from about 299. ... The Cimmerian plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ... Tethys Ocean (here labeled Tethys Sea) divides Pangea into two supercontinents, Laurasia and Gondwana The Tethys Ocean was a Mesozoic era ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia before the opening of the Indian Ocean. ... The Paleo-Tethys Ocean was an ancient Paleozoic ocean. ... The Triassic is a geologic period that extends from about 251 ± 0. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... The Cimmerian plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ...


Evidence of Pangaea's existence

Fossil evidence for Pangaea includes the presence of similar and identical species on continents that are now great distances apart. For example, fossils of the therapsid Lystrosaurus have been found in Argentina, South Africa, India and Australia, alongside members of the Glossopteris flora, whose distribution would have ranged from the polar circle to the equator if the continents would have been in their present position; similarly, the freshwater reptile Mesosaurus has only been found in localized regions of the coasts of Brazil and West-Africa.[5] Groups Biarmosuchia Dinocephalia Anomodontia Theriodontia    Cynodontia       (...mammals) Therapsids, previously known as the mammal-like reptiles, are a group of synapsids. ... Species Lystrosaurus curvatus Lystrosaurus declivus Lystrosaurus mccaigi Lystrosaurus murrayi Lystrosaurus oviceps Lystrosaurus platyceps Distribution of Lystrosaurus (brown) in the Gondwana supercontinent. ... Species see text Glossopteris (Greek glossa, meaning tongue, because the leaves were tongue-shaped) is the largest and best-known genus of the extinct order of seed ferns known as Glossopteridales (or in some cases as Arberiales or Dictyopteridiales). ... Mesosaurus is an extinct genus of anapsid reptile from the Permian period. ...


In addition, the geology of adjacent continents, such as the western coast of South America is similar to the eastern cost of Africa.


Rifting and break-up of Pangaea

Pangaea separation animation
Pangaea separation animation

There were three major phases in the break-up of Pangaea. The first phase began in the Early-Middle Jurassic, when Pangaea created a rift from the Tethys Ocean in the east and the Pacific in the west. The rifting took place between North America and Africa, and produced multiple failed rifts. The rift resulted in a new ocean, the Atlantic Ocean. Image File history File links Pangea_animation_03. ... Image File history File links Pangea_animation_03. ... Massive cliffs in Zion Canyon consist of Lower Jurassic formations, including (from bottom to top): the Wingate Sandstone, the Kayenta Formation, and the massive Navajo Sandstone. ... The Middle Jurassic, called the Dogger in the European system of classification, is the second epoch of the Jurassic period. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


The Atlantic Ocean did not open uniformly; rifting began in the north-central Atlantic. The South Atlantic did not open until the Cretaceous. Laurasia started to rotate clockwise and moved northward with North America to the north, and Eurasia to the south. The clockwise motion of Laurasia also led to the closing of the Tethys Ocean. Meanwhile, on the other side of Africa, new rifts were also forming along the adjacent margins of east Africa, Antarctica and Madagascar that would lead to the formation of the southwestern Indian Ocean that would also open up in the Cretaceous. For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... // The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


The second major phase in the break-up of Pangaea began in the Early Cretaceous (150–140 Ma), when the minor supercontinent of Gondwana separated into four multiple continents (Africa, South America, India and Antarctica/Australia). About 200 Ma, the continent of Cimmeria, as mentioned above (see "Formation of Pangaea"), collided with Eurasia. However, a subduction zone was forming, as soon as Cimmeria collided. The Early Cretaceous (timestratigraphic name) or the Lower Cretaceous (logstratigraphic name), is the earlier of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous period. ... The Cimmerian plate is an ancient tectonic plate that comprises parts of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, and Tibet. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ...


This subduction zone was called the Tethyan Trench. This trench might have subducted what is called the Tethyan mid-ocean ridge, a ridge responsible for the Tethys Ocean's expansion. It probably caused Africa, India and Australia to move northward. In the Early Cretaceous, Atlantica, today's South America and Africa, finally separated from eastern Gondwana (Antarctica, India and Australia), causing the opening of a "South Indian Ocean". In the Middle Cretaceous, Gondwana fragmented to open up the South Atlantic Ocean as South America started to move westward away from Africa. The South Atlantic did not develop uniformly; rather, it rifted from south to north. The Tethyan Trench was an ancient oceanic trench that existed in the northern part of the Tethys Ocean during the Jurassic era. ... Oceanic Ridge Oceanic crust is formed at an oceanic ridge, while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches. ... Atlantica was an ancient continent. ...


Also, at the same time, Madagascar and India began to separate from Antarctica and moved northward, opening up the Indian Ocean. Madagascar and India separated from each other 100–90 Ma in the Late Cretaceous. India continued to move northward toward Eurasia at 15 centimeters (6 in) per year (a plate tectonic record), closing the Tethys Ocean, while Madagascar stopped and became locked to the African Plate. New Zealand, New Caledonia and the rest of Zealandia began to separate from Australia, moving eastward towards the Pacific and opening the Coral Sea and Tasman Sea.  The African plate, shown in pinkish-orange The African Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of Africa and extending westward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... Topography of Zealandia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Map of the Coral Sea Islands A political map of the South Pacific. ... fuck you Map of the Tasman Sea Satellite photo of the Tasman Sea The Tasman Sea is the large body of water between Australia and New Zealand, some 2000 kilometres (1250 miles) across. ...


The third major and final phase of the break-up of Pangaea occurred in the early Cenozoic (Paleocene to Oligocene). North America/Greenland broke free from Eurasia, opening the Norwegian Sea about 60–55 Ma. The Atlantic and Indian Oceans continued to expand, closing the Tethys Ocean. Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ...


Meanwhile, Australia split from Antarctica and moved rapidly northward, just as India did more than 40 million years earlier, and is currently on a collision course with eastern Asia. Both Australia and India are currently moving in a northeastern direction at 5–6 centimeters (2–3 in) per year. Antarctica has been near or at the South Pole since the formation of Pangaea about 280 Ma. India started to collide with Asia beginning about 35 Ma, forming the Himalayan orogeny, and also finally closing the Tethys Seaway; this collision continues today. The African Plate started to change directions, from west to northwest toward Europe, and South America began to move in a northward direction, separating it from Antarctica and allowing complete oceanic circulation around Antarctica for the first time, causing a rapid cooling of the continent and allowing glaciers to form. Other major events took place during the Cenozoic, including the opening of the Gulf of California, the uplift of the Alps, and the opening of the Sea of Japan. The break-up of Pangaea continues today in the East Africa Rift; ongoing collisions may indicate the incipient creation of a new supercontinent. East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Fig 1: The earth in the Early Permian. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ... Mammals are the dominant creatures of Cenozoic. ... The Gulf of California (also known as the Sea of Cortez or Sea of Cortés; locally known in the Spanish language as Mar de Cortés or, much less frequently, Golfo de California) is a body of water that separates the Baja California Peninsula from the Mexican mainland. ... Alp redirects here. ... The Sea of Japan is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, bordered by Japan, Korea and Russia. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... In geology, a supercontinent is a land mass comprising more than one continental core, or craton. ...


See also

In reverse-chronological order (stratolithic order) comprising nearly all land at the time. ... The supercontinent cycle describes the quasi-periodic aggregration and dispersal of Earths continental crust. ... Geological time put in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons of the Earths history. ... Pangaea Ultima (also Neopangaea, or Pangaea II) is a possible future supercontinent configuration, which, consistent with the supercontinent cycle, may occur within the next 250 million years. ...

References

  1. ^ OED
  2. ^ Plate Tectonics and Crustal Evolution, Third Ed., 1989, by Kent C. Condie, Pergamon Press
  3. ^ Stanley, Steven (1998). Earth System History, 355-359. 
  4. ^ Stanley, Steven (1998). Earth System History, 386-392. 
  5. ^ Benton, M.J. Vertebrate Palaeontology. Third edition (Oxford 2005), 25.

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pangaea - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1797 words)
In configuration, Pangaea is believed to have been a C-shaped landmass that spread across the equator.
Owing to Pangaea's massive size, the inland regions appear to have been very dry, due to the lack of precipitation.
Pangaea is believed to have broken up about 180 million years ago (mya) in the Jurassic Period, first into two supercontinents (Gondwana to the south and Laurasia to the north), thereafter into the continents as we understand them today.Please go to www.alonsorocks.com.
Pangaea: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (1988 words)
Pangaea or Pangea (derived from Παγγαία, Greek meaning 'all earth') is the name given to the supercontinent that is believed to have existed during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras, before the process of plate tectonics separated each of the component continents into their current configuration.
Pangaea is believed to have broken up about 180 million years ago (mya) in the Jurassic Period, first into two supercontinents (Gondwana to the south and Laurasia to the north), thereafter into the continents as we understand them today.
Gondwana followed with several iterations before the formation of Pangaea, which began right after the break-up of the supercontinent of Pannotia, before the beginning of the Paleozoic Era (545 mya) and the Phanerozoic Eon.
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