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Encyclopedia > Pandyan
Pandyas
பாண்டியர்

Extent of the Pandya Territories c. 1250 C.E.
Official languages Tamil
Capitals Korkai
Madurai
Government Monarchy
Preceding state Unknown
Succeeding states Delhi Sultanate, Nayak, Vijayanagar

The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. Pandyas were one of the three ancient Tamil kingdoms (Chola and Chera being the other two) who ruled the Tamil country from pre-historic times until end of the 15th century. They ruled initially from Korkai, a sea port on the southern most tip of the Indian peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. Pandyas are mentioned in Sangam Literature (c. 100 - 200 CE) as well as by Greek and Roman sources during this period. Image File history File links Pandya_territories. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Tamil (தமிழ் ) is a classical language and one of the major languages of the Dravidian language family. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Madurai   (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Places where monarchies maintain rule appear in blue. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... A Nayak (also Nayaka, Nayaker/Naicker (Tamil) or Nayadu/Naidu (Telegu) or Nair (Malayalam) Nayake/Naike (Sinhala) or Naik (Marathi) ) is the title of a government official, equivalent to a provincial governor or viceroy, in the Telugu kingdoms of southern India, including the Kakatiya kingdom of Warangal (11th-14th centuries... Vijayanagara (often written Vijayanagar), in northern Karnataka, is the name of the now ruined capital city of the historic Vijayanagar empire in the Southern part of India. ... The Tamil people are an ethnic group from South Asia with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... South India is a linguistic-cultural region of India that comprises the four Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, whose inhabitants are collectively referred to as South Indians. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chera dynasty. ... Madurai   (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Sangam Literature is the collective name for the Tamil literature created over 1800 years ago. ... -1... For other uses, see number 200. ...


The early Pandyan dynasty of the Sangam literature went into obscurity during the invasion of the Kalabhras. The dynasty revived under Kadungon in the early 6th century, pushed the Kalabhras out of the Tamil country and ruled from Madurai. They again went into decline with the rise of the Cholas in the 9th century and were in constant conflict with them. Pandyas allied themselves with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes during the late 13th century. Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... Madurai   (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Pandyas entered their golden age under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan (c. 1251) who expanded their empire in to Telugu country and invaded Sri Lanka to conquer the northern half of the island. They also had extensive trade links with the Southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors. During their history Pandyas were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas and finally the Muslim invaders from the Delhi Sultanate. The Pandyan Kingdom finally became extinct after the establishment of the Madurai Sultanate in the 16th century. The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Map of Southeast Asia at end of 12th century. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ...


The Pandyas excelled in both trade and literature. They controlled the pearl fisheries along the south Indian coast, between Sri Lanka and India, which produced one of the finest pearls known in the ancient world. Tradition holds that the legendary Sangams were held in Madurai under their patronage. Some of the Sangam poets were Pandya kings. White pearls strung on a necklace. ...

Contents

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Sources

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Sangam Literature

Various Pandya kings find mention in a number of poems in the Sangam Literature. Among them Nedunjeliyan, 'the victor of Talaiyalanganam', yet another Nedunjeliyan 'the conqueror of the Aryan army' and Mudukudimi Peruvaludi 'of several sacrifices' deserve special mention. Besides several short poems found in the Akananuru and the Purananuru collections, there are two major works - Mathuraikkanci and the Netunalvatai (in the collection of Pattupattu) give a glimpse into the society and commercial activities in the Pandyan kingdom during the Sangam age. Sangam Literature is the collective name for the Tamil literature created over 1800 years ago. ... Akananuru (அகநானுறு) is the seventh book in the Sangam literature anthology Ettuthokai. ... Pura Nanooru or Pura Nanuru is an ancient Tamil Sangam collection of poems, dating from 900 BCE to 220 CE. It is one of the oldest Tamil anthologies. ... Mathuraikkanci, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Mathuraikkanci contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. ... Netunalvatai, is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Netunalvatai is part of the Pattupattu collection, which is the oldest available collection of long poems in Tamil literature. ... Pattupattu (பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mind length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. ...


It is difficult to estimate the exact date of these Sangam age Pandyas. The period covered by the extant literature of the Sangam is unfortunately not easy to determine with any measure of certainty. Except the longer epics Cilappatikaram and Manimekalai, which by common consent belong to the age later than the Sangam age, the poems have reached us in the forms of systematic anthologies. Each individual poem has generally attached to it a colophon on the authorship and subject matter of the poem, the name of the king or chieftain to whom the poem relates and the occasion which called forth the eulogy are also found. Estimation is approximate or uncertain calculation of a result, often based on approximate, uncertain, incomplete, or noisy inputs. ... now. ... Cilappatikaram (Tamil: சிலப்பதிகாரம் IPA tʃɪlʌppʌθɪkɑːɹʌm),[1] is one of the five great epics of ancient Tamil Literature. ... Manimekalai is one of the masterpieces of Tamil literature and belongs to The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature. ...


It is from these colophons and rarely from the texts of the poems themselves, that we gather the names of many kings and chieftains and the poets and poetesses patronised by them. The task of reducing these names to an ordered scheme in which the different generations of contemporaries can be marked off one another has not been easy. To add to the confusions, some historians have even denounced these colophons as later additions and untrustworthy as historical documents.


Any attempt at extracting a systematic chronology and data from these poems should be aware of the casual nature of these poems and the wide difference between the purposes of the anthologist who collected these poems and the historian’s attempts are arriving at a continuous history. Pictoral chronology of intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency Chronology is the science of locating events in time. ... In general, data consist of propositions that reflect reality. ...

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Epigraphy

The earliest Pandya to be found in epigraph, is Nedunjeliyan figuring in the Minakshipuram record assigned from the second to the first centuries BCE. The record documents a gift of rock-cut beds, to a Jain ascetic. Punch marked coins in the Pandya country dating from around the same time have also been found. JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...


Pandyas are also mentioned in the Pillars of Ashoka (inscribed 273 - 232 BCE). Asoka in his inscriptions refers to the peoples of south India as the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Satiyaputras. These kingdoms, although not part of the Mauryan Empire, were in friendly terms with Asoka. The pillars of Ashoka are a series of columns dispersed throughout the northern Indian subcontinent, and erected by the Mauryan king Ashoka during his reign in the 3rd century BCE. SAlMAN Ashish Many of the pillars are carved with proclamations reflecting Buddhist teachings: the Edicts of Ashoka. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 320s BC 310s BC 300s BC 290s BC 280s BC - 270s BC - 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 278 BC 277 BC 276 BC 275 BC 274 BC - 273 BC - 272 BC 271 BC 270... (Redirected from 232 BCE) Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC - 230s BC - 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC Years: 237 BC 236 BC 235 BC 234 BC 233 BC - 232 BC... This article is about Ashoka, the emperor. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... The Cheras were one of the three ancient Tamil dynasties who ruled the southern tip of the peninsula of India for most of its early history. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ...

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Foreign Sources

The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (c. 60 - 100 CE) describes the riches of a 'Pandian Kingdom': The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea (Periplus Maris Erythraei ) is a Greek periplus, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along East Africa and India. ... Events Boudicca sacks London (approximate date). ... -1...

...Nelcynda is distant from Muziris by river and sea about five hundred stadia, and is of another Kingdom, the Pandian. This place also is situated on a river, about one hundred and twenty stadia from the sea....

Chinese biographer Yu Huan in his text Weilue mentions a The Kingdom of Panyue - '...The kingdom of Panyue is also called Hanyuewang. It is several thousand li to the southeast of Tianzhu (Northern India)...The inhabitants are small; they are the same height as the Chinese...'


The Roman emperor Julian received an embassy from a Pandya about 361. A Roman trading centre was located on the Pandyan coast (Alagankulam - at the mouth of the Vaigai river, southeast of Madurai). Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... Flavius Claudius Iulianus, also known as Julian the Apostate, was the last Pagan Roman Emperor. ... Events Emperor Ai succeeds Emperor Mu as emperor of China. ... The Vaigai is a river in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... Madurai   (மதுரை in Tamil ; IPA: ) is a city and a municipal corporation situated on the banks of River Vaigai in Madurai district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Pandyas also had trade contacts with Ptolemaic Egypt and, through Egypt, with Rome by the first century, and with China by the 3rd century. The 1st century Greek historian Nicolaus of Damascus met, at Damascus, the ambassador sent by an Indian King "named Pandion or, according to others, Porus" to Caesar Augustus around 13 CE. Ptolemaic Egypt refers to the time period of hellenistic rule in Egypt. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Location within Province of Rome in the Region of Latium Coordinates: Region Latium Province Province of Rome Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (496. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos DamaskÄ“nos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The famous statue of Octavian at the Prima Porta Caesar Augustus (Latin:IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS) ¹ (23 September 63 BC–19 August AD 14), known to modern historians as Octavian for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, is considered the first and one of the most... Thirteen can also refer to the cardgame Events Last year (5th) of shijianguo era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty Abgarus of Edessa is reinstalled as king of Osroene Senate passed a senatus consultum restricting the reduced Vigintisexviri to the Ordo Equester Tiberius made his triumphant procession through Rome after siege...

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List of Pandyan Kings

Although there are many instances of the Pandya kingdom being referred in ancient literature and texts, we currently have no way of determining a cogent genealogy of these ancient kings. In order to maintain verifiability of this article, the names of these early Pandya Kings have been omitted. We have a connected history of the Pandyas from the fall of Kalabhras during the middle of the 6th century. Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...


The following lists of the Pandya kings are based on the authoritative A History of South India from the Early Times to the Fall of Vijayanagar by K.A.N. Sastri, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 1998).

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First Empire

After the close of the Sangam age, the first Pandyan empire was established by Kadungon in the 6th century defeating the Kalabhras. The following is a chronological list of the Pandya emperors is based on an inscription found on the Vaigai riverbeds. Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Vaigai is a river in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ...

  • Kadungon 560 - 590
  • Maravarman Avani Culamani 590 - 620
  • Cezhiyan Cendan 620 - 640
  • Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaaran 640 - 674
  • Kochadaiyan Ranadhiran 675 - 730
  • Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman Rajasinga 730 - 765
  • Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan 765 - 790
  • Rasasingan II 790 - 800
  • Varagunan I 800 - 830
  • Sirmara Srivallabha 830 - 862
  • Varaguna II 862 - 880
  • Parantaka Viranarayana 862 - 905
  • Rajasimha III 905 - 920

After the defeat of the Kalabhras, the Pandya kingdom grew from strength to strength and witnessed a steady increase in its power and territory. With the Cholas in obscurity, the Tamil country was divided between the Pallavas and the Pandyas, the river Kaveri being the frontier between them. Events Ceawlin of Wessex becomes King of Wessex (traditional date). ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... Events Medina is converted to Islam. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Events Dagobert II and Theuderic I succeed Childeric II as king(s) of the Franks First glass windows placed in English Churches Arabic siege of Constantinople begins Cenfus and then Aescwine succeed to the throne of Wessex Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Mercia Seaxburh, queen of Japan - Temmu Emperor of... Events The abbey of Abingdon, England is founded Aldhelm made abbot Aethelred succeeds his brother Wulfhere as king of Mercia Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Japan - Temmu Emperor of Japan (672-686) Categories: 675 ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... Events Emperor Leo III of the Byzantine Empire orders the destruction of all icons. ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Events Papal privileges are restored in Beneventino and Tuscany and partly in Spoleto. ... Events A revolt against Empress Irene leads to Constantine VI being declared sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events A revolt against Empress Irene leads to Constantine VI being declared sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ... Events Christian missionary Ansgar visits Birka, trade city of the Swedes. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... For other uses, see number 880. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ... Events The golden age of the Empire of Ghana began in Africa. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Look up country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Pallavas were hereditary Hindu rulers who dominated southeastern India between the 4th and 9th centuries. ...


After Vijayalaya Chola conquered Thanjavur defeating the Muttarayar chieftains around 850. the Pandyas went into a period of decline. They were constantly harassing their Chola overlords occupying their territories. Parantaka Chola I invaded the Pandya territories and defeated Rajasinha II. However Pandyas reversed this defeat to gain back most of their lost territories. Vijayalaya was the Chola king of South India who captured Thanjavur during c. ... Thanjavur (தஞ்சாவூர் in Tamil), formerly known as Tanjore, is a city in Tamil Nadu, in southeastern India. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ...

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Under the Cholas

The Chola domination of the Tamil country began in earnest during the reign of Parantaka Chola II. Chola armies led by Aditya Karikala, son of Parantaka Chola II defeated Vira Pandya in battle. The Pandyas were assisted by the Sinhalese forces of Mahinda IVPandyas were driven out of their territories and had to seek refuge in the island of Sri Lanka. This was the start of the long exile of the Pandyas. They were replaced by a series of Chola viceroys with the title Chola Pandyas who ruled from Madurai from c. 1020. Parantak Chola II (957 c. ...


The following list gives the names of the Pandya kings who were active during the 10th and the first half of 11th century. It is difficult to give their date of accession and duration of their rule. Nevertheless their presence in the southern country require recognition.

  • Sundara Pandya I
  • Vira Pandya I
  • Vira Pandya II
  • Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa
  • Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pandya
  • Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pandya
  • Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pandya
  • Jatavarman Chola Pandya
  • Srivallabha Manakulachala (1101 - 1124)
  • Maaravaramban Seervallaban (1132 - 1161)
  • Parakrama Pandiyan (1161 - 1162)
  • Kulasekara Pandyan III
  • Vira Pandyan III
  • Jatavarman Srivallaban (1175 - 1180)
  • Jatavarman Kulasekara Devan (1180 - 1216)
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Events A second wave of crusaders arrives in the newly established Kingdom of Jerusalem, after being heavily defeated by Kilij Arslan I at Heraclia. ... Events March 26 - Henry I of Englands forces defeat Norman rebels at Bourgtheroulde. ... Events Diarmaid Mac Murrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned and the abbess raped. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events Bartholomew Iscanus becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Events June 3 - Thomas Becket consecrated as Archbishop of Canterbury. ... Events Ruaidri Ua Conchobair (Rory OConner), last High King of Ireland, submits to Henry II as vassal of Ireland with the Treaty of Windsor Ly Cao Ton becomes ruler of Vietnam William of Tyre becomes archbishop of Tyre Massacre of Abergavenny ends with several noblemen dead at the hands... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between... Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ...

Pandya Revival

The 13th century is the greatest period in the history of the Pandyan Empire. Their power reached its zenith under Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in the middle of the 13th century. The foundation for such a great empire was laid by Maravarman Sundara Pandya early in the 13th century. The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ...

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Events Prince Louis of France, the future King Louis VIII, invades England in the First Barons War Henry III becomes King of England. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Conradin (right) is executed by Charles I of Sicily, thus extinguishing the Hohenstaufen dynasty, in 1268. ... Events Bolingbroke Castle passes to the House of Lancaster. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of...

End of Pandyas

After being overshadowed by the Pallavas and Cholas for centuries, Pandyan glory was briefly revived by the much celebrated Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan in 1251 and the Pandya power extended from the Telugu countries on banks of the Godavari river to the northern half of Sri Lanka. On the death of Maaravaramban Kulasekara Pandyan I in 1308, a conflict stemming from succession disputes arose amongst his sons. Sundara Pandya and Vira Pandya fought each other for the throne. Soon Madurai fell into the hands of the invading armies of the Delhi Sultanate. Pandyas and their descendants where confined to a small region around Thirunelveli for a few more years and after the 17th century C.E. we hear no more of them. After Madurai fell into the hands of the invading armies of the Delhi Sultanate, the Pandyas saught the help of Vijayanagar Empire. Vijayanagar Empire replaced the Delhi Sultanate in Madurai and appointed Nayaks governers to rule from Madurai. Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... The Godavari River is a major waterway in India, next to the Ganges and Indus rivers. ... Events Henry VII is elected as king of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Tirunelveli is a city in Tamil Nadu state of southern India. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ...

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References

  • Carswell, John. 1991. "The Port of Mantai, Sri Lanka." RAI, pp. 197-203.
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [1]
  • Nagaswamy, R. Tamil Coins - a study (1981)
  • Ray, Himanshu Prabha, ed. 1996. Tradition and Archaeology: Early Maritime Contacts in the Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the International Seminar Techno-Archaeological Perspectives of Seafaring in the Indian Ocean 4th cent. B.C. – 15th cent. A.D. New Delhi, February 28 – March 4, 1994. New Delhi, and Jean-François SALLES, Lyon. First published 1996. Reprinted 1998. Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi.
  • Reddy, P. Krishna Mohan. 2001. "Maritime Trade of Early South India: New Archaeological Evidences from Motupalli, Andhra Pradesh." East and West Vol. 51 – Nos. 1-2 (June 2001), pp. 143-156.
  • Shaffer, Lynda Norene. 1996. Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500. Armonk, New York, M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
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External links

  • Inscriptions of India -- Complete listing of historical inscriptions from Indian temples and monuments



MIDDLE KINGDOMS OF INDIA
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Foreign Kingdoms

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 2nd century
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10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... Coin of the Western Kshatrapas Bhratadaman (278 to 295 CE). ...






Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Nanda dynasty is said to be established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... The Maurya Empire at its largest extent. ... The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted about 450 years. ... Approximate greatest extent of the Sunga empire (185 BCE-73 BCE) For other uses of the term Sunga see Sunga (disambiguation) The Sunga empire (or Shunga empire) controlled the eastern part of India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ...

  • Pandyan Kingdom



The Gupta Empire in 400 CE (not including vassal states) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ...



It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Chera dynasty. ... The Chola dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: Chola pronounced Sola) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century CE. The dynasty originated in the fertile valley of the Kaveri River. ... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...



Pallavas were a South Indian dynasty. ...


(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


The Chalukya dynasty (Kannada: ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) was a powerful Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th century C.E. They began to assert their independence at the decline of the Satavahana empire and rapidly rose to prominence during the reign of... The current version of the article or section reads like an advertisement. ... Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Dynasty was a dynasty in the ancient Persian Empire, including Cyrus II the Great, Darius I and Xerxes I. At the height of their power, the Achaemenid rulers of Persia ruled over territories roughly emcompassing some parts of todays Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks



(Islamic invasion of India)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Greco-Indian Kingdom) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenic kings[1], often in conflict with each other. ... Early anepigraphic coinage of the Indo-Scythians (c. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 AD), first king of the Indo-Parthians kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Approximate territory of the Western Kshatrapas ( 35- 405 CE). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanian king Varahran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires in India) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



 
 

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