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Encyclopedia > Pandora's Box

In Greek mythology, Pandoras box is the box carried by Pandora that contained all the evils of mankind—greed, vanity, slander, lying, envy, pining—and hope. Look up Pandoras box in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... For other uses, see Pandora (disambiguation) and Pandoras box (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Greed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vanity (disambiguation). ... In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... A lie is a statement made by someone who believes or suspects it to be false, in the expectation that the hearers may believe it. ... For other uses, see Envy (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hope (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Etymology of "box"

The original Greek word used was pithos which is a large jar. A pithos (plural pithoi: the word is Greek) is a large clay jar used for storage. ...


The mistranslation of pithos as "box" is usually attributed to the 16th century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam when he translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Hesiod's pithos refers to a storage jar for oil or grain. Erasmus, however, translated pithos into the Latin word pyxis, meaning "box".[1] The phrase "Pandora's box" has endured ever since. This misconception was further backed by Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Pandora.[2] (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article deals with the Erasmus, the theologian. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 – April 09, 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. ...

Opening of the box

After Prometheus' theft of the secret of fire, Zeus ordered Hephaestus to create the woman Pandora as part of the punishment for mankind. Pandora was given many seductive gifts from Aphrodite, Hermes, Charites, and Horae (according to Works and Days). For fear of additional reprisals, Prometheus warned his brother Epimetheus not to accept any gifts from Zeus, but Epimetheus did not listen, and married Pandora. Pandora had been given a box and instructed by Zeus to keep it closed, but she had also been given the gift of curiosity, and ultimately opened it. When she opened it, all of the evils of mankind escaped from the box, although Pandora was quick enough to close it again and keep one value inside- Hope. Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... For the game of graces, see Game of graces. ... Horae in Meyers, 1888 In Greek mythology, the Horae were three goddesses controlling orderly life. ... The book Works and Days Works and Days (in ancient Greek , which sometimes goes by the Latin name Opera et Dies, as in the OCT) is a Greek poem of some 800 verses written by Hesiod (around 700 BC). ... In Greek mythology, Epimetheus (hindsight, literally hind-thought) was the brother of Prometheus (foresight, literally fore-thought), a pair of Titans who acted as representatives of mankind (Kerenyi 1951, p 207). ...


Feminist interpretations of Pandora's box

Nicolas Régnier, c. 1626, is aware it should be Pandora's jar, not box
Nicolas Régnier, c. 1626, is aware it should be Pandora's jar, not box

Following Jane Ellen Harrison,[3] in an earlier set of myths, Pandora was a manifestation of the Great Goddess, provider of the gifts that made life and culture possible, and Hesiod's tale can be seen as part of a propaganda campaign to demote her from her previously revered status. The Hesiodic myth's misogyny is apparent in the transformation from a goddess to a man who gives all good things to mankind into a mortal woman created as a punishment who introduces all evils to mankind. Modern feminist literary criticism has also focused on the gendered symbolism inherent in the myth. Pandora's jar, according to this school of thought, represents the female womb. That the jar releases a myriad evils upon the earth suggests the phallocentric culture's unease with friendly female sexuality.[4] For such an alternate view of Pandora, see Charlene Spretnak, Lost Goddesses of Early Greece; A Collection of Pre-Hellenic Mythology, 1977. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Nicolas Régnier, c. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... In Eva Prima Pandora, by Jean Cousin (Louvre Museum), Eve, the equivalent of Pandora embodies Original Sin Misogyny (pronounced ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Charlene Spretnak is an author, academic and feminist credited with pioneering work in ecological thought and social criticism. ...


Pandora's box in popular culture

  • In Blood Ties, The TV series Season two episode three 5:55 Vicki dreams over and over of pandora's box being open and releasing all the evil into the world. It takes her and henry - her vampire partner - to save the world from this event.
  • In Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines, as he is dying, Lieutenant General Robert Brewster says that he has opened Pandora's Box.
  • In Terranigma, a creature called Yomi is released from a box, resulting in the world being filled instantly with evil entities.
  • In House of the Dead 4, the opening of Pandora's Box releases the final bosses of the game.
  • In God of War, the protagonist Kratos is trying to get the box in order to defeat Ares.
  • In the fourth episode of Xena: Warrior Princess, entitled 'Cradle of Hope', Xena and Gabrielle help Pandora get the box back from King Gregor and his evil adviser Nemos.
  • In Lara Croft, Tomb Raider: The Cradle of Life, the antagonist is searching for the box in order to create unstoppable biological weapons. The box is also claimed to be the source of life.
  • In City of Heroes and City of Villains, the opening of Pandora's Box in the early 20th Century is responsible for the proliferation of super-powered beings in the world.
  • In Charmed episode Little Box of Horrors, the box is guarded by women known as Guardians. The box moves on to the new Guardian after the previous one has been killed. The Guardian is the only one who can unleash, and return, all of the world's evil.
  • In Devil May Cry 4, Pandora's box appears as a suitcase with 666 different weapon configurations. The attack "PF666: Omen" opens the suitcase, dealing large amounts of damage to enemies in front of it.
  • In The Librarian (on TNT), someone almost opens the box, releasing evil into the world for 10,000 years.
  • In Mulholland Drive, Diane Selwyn is given a key to her personal Pandora's box.
  • In the video game Pandora's Box, when Pandora opens the box it releases people symbolizing mischief so you must solve puzzles to put them back in the box.
  • In Blood Ties, Vicky Nelson is repeating the same day in order to stop Pandora's Box from being opened. In the end, only Henry, a vampire and therefore not a living person, can resist opening the box.
  • In Panzer Dragoon Orta, Pandora's Box is an option in one of the game menu, and opening Pandora's box will take the player to the features that the player unlocked while playing the game.
  • On Aerosmith's album Get Your Wings", the final track is called "Pandora's Box". Aerosmith also released a compilation entitled Pandora's Box.
  • In Microsoft's PC game Crimson Skies, the name of the zeppelin that is used as your base of operations is "Pandora's Box".
  • In Final Fantasy VI, Banon tells Terra the story of Pandora's Box to convince her to join the Returners.
  • In Final Fantasy VII, there is a unique enemy skill called "Pandora's Box" that the player has only one chance to obtain per new game, due to a bug in the game's scripting. The skill is a powerful non-elemental attack that hits all enemies. The attack ends with a large question mark being shown on the screen that is surrounded by the blackness of space.
  • British pop band OMD had a single called "Pandora's Box" in 1991.
  • In Saint Seiya, Pandora is the one who opens the box and sets the spirit of Hades free.
  • In AdventureQuest, the box that Hope is in is similar to Pandora's Box, both letting out Omega (evil) and Hope out at once.
  • In Violinist of Hameln, the box is opened by a woman named Pandora, and the Demon King as well as hordes of demons escape only to wreak havoc on humanity. Only a person with holy blood can open Pandora's box, since it is a divine item.
  • In "Storm" by Nox Arcana, the band mentions Pandora's Box, when, for the first time on the cd, they sing as a band. They also have a song titled "Pandora's Music Box" on their album Carnival of Lost Souls.
  • In 'The L Word" In one episode Jenny, after being intruded upon by her new housemate putting cameras all over the house, refers to him "opening Pandoras box" by doing so.
  • In Heroes Season 2 Episode 11 - At the end of the final episode of season 2 Angela Petrelli is seen to be on the phone to a unknown person and she refers to pandora's box being opened by this person after the death / shooting of her son Nathan Petrelli.
  • Shades of Simon Grey, the Book References Pandora's Box by naming a cat Pandora
  • In an episode of The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, Pandora appears as a Dora The Explorer-like character with a lunch box that contains evil lunch foods.
  • In the episode "Nob And Nobility" of the British sitcom Blackadder III, Blackadder compares his dogsbody Baldrick's trousers to Pandora's box, imploring him "never to allow curiosity to lead you to open your trousers".

Blood Ties is episode 13 of season 5 of the television show Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines (commonly abbreviated T3) is a 2003 movie directed by Jonathan Mostow and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Nick Stahl, Claire Danes, and Kristanna Loken. ... Terranigma or Tenchi Souzou , Creation of Heaven and Earth) in Japan, is a 1995 action role-playing game for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System developed by Quintet and published by Enix. ... House of the Dead 4 is a Light gun arcade game with a horror theme and the third sequel to the House of the Dead series of arcade games developed by Sega. ... God of War is a video game for the PlayStation 2 console released on March 22, 2005. ... Kratos is the fictional protagonist of the God of War series. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Xena. ... Categories: Movie stubs | Action films | Adventure films | 2003 films | Films based on video games ... City of Heroes (CoH) is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCsoft. ... City of Villains is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCSoft. ... For other uses, see Charm. ... List of Charmed episodes // The Charmed Ones are in a race against time when the mythological Pandoras Box falls into the hands of Katya, a shapeshifting demon who intends to open the box and fill the world with all of its sorrows. ... Devil May Cry 4 is the fourth installment of the Devil May Cry series, the events in the game are located third in the chronological order of the series plot, between those in Devil May Cry and Devil May Cry 2. ... The Librarian of the Unseen University is one of the most popular characters in Terry Pratchetts Discworld series of fantasy novels. ... For the street in Los Angeles, see Mulholland Drive. ... Panzer Dragoon Orta is an Xbox video game developed by Smilebit. ... This article is about the band Aerosmith. ... Crimson Skies logo. ... Final Fantasy VI ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) in 1994 as a part of the Final Fantasy series. ... Final Fantasy VII ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square, and the seventh installment in the Final Fantasy series. ... Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark (often abbreviated to OMD) are a synth pop group whose founder members are originally from the Wirral Peninsula, UK. OMD record for Virgin Records (originally for Virgins DinDisc subsidiary). ... Pandoras Box, (subtitled Its a Long, Long, Way) was the second single released by Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark from the album Sugar Tax. ... Seiya redirects here. ... AdventureQuest (also referred to by its website name BattleOn or simply as AQ) is an online single-player RPG developed by Artix Entertainment in 2002. ... Violinist of Hameln ) is an adventure/fanstasy story created by Watanabe Michiaki. ... // Music from the Shadows for Creatures of the Night Joseph Vargo and William Piotrowski, collectively known as Nox Arcana, unleashed the first of their gothic concept albums in 2003 with the release of DARKLORE MANOR, an eerie soundscape set in a haunted Victorian Mansion with a dark and sinister history. ... The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy is an Annie- and Emmy-winning[1] American animated television series aired on Cartoon Network. ... For other uses, see Pandora (disambiguation) and Pandoras box (disambiguation). ... Dora the Explorer is an animated television series that is carried on the Nickelodeon cable television network. ... For the Marilyn Manson single, see Lunchbox (single). ... Rowan Atkinson as Blackadder the Third. ... Baldrick is a fictional character featured in the television series Blackadder. ...

References

  1. ^ In his notes to Hesiod's Works and Days (p.168) M.L. West has surmised that Erasmus may have confused the story of Pandora with the story found elsewhere of a box which was opened by Psyche.
  2. ^ Pandora by Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
  3. ^ Harrison, Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, 1922:280-83, "The Making of a Goddess".
  4. ^ See, for example, Reeder 1995, 195-99 and 277-279; Zeitlin 1995 passim, but particularly the chapter on Pandora: "Signifying Difference: The Case of Hesiod's Pandora." For an extensive bibliography on women in ancient Greek myth and society, see the list of references compiled by John Porter: http://homepage.usask.ca/~jrp638/Biblios/Womenindrama.html
The Abduction of Psyche by William-Adolphe Bouguereau The tale of Eros and Psyche first appeared as a digressionary story told by an old woman in Lucius Apuleius novel, The Golden Ass, written in the second century CE. Apuleius probably used an earlier tale as the basis for his story... Dante Gabriel Rossetti (May 12, 1828 – April 09, 1882) was an English poet, illustrator, painter and translator. ...

 
 

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