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Encyclopedia > Pancreatic cancer
Pancreatic cancer
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 C25.
ICD-9 157
OMIM 260350
DiseasesDB 9510
MedlinePlus 000236
eMedicine med/1712 
MeSH D010190

Pancreatic cancer is a malignant tumor of the pancreas. Each year about 33,000 individuals in the United States are diagnosed with this condition, and more than 60,000 in Europe. Depending on the extent of the tumor at the time of diagnosis, the prognosis is generally regarded as poor, with few victims still alive five years after diagnosis, and complete remission still extremely rare.[1] About 95 percent of pancreatic tumors are adenocarcinomas (M8140/3). The remaining 5 percent include other tumors of the exocrine pancreas (e.g., serous cystadenomas), acinar cell cancers, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (such as insulinomas, M8150/1, M8150/3). These tumors have a completely different diagnostic and therapeutic profile, and generally a more favorable prognosis.[1] Image File history File links Illu_pancrease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // C00-D48 - Neoplasms (C00-C14) Malignant neoplasms, lip, oral cavity and pharynx (C00) Malignant neoplasm of lip (C01) Malignant neoplasm of base of tongue (C02) Malignant neoplasm of other and unspecified parts of tongue (C03) Malignant neoplasm of gum (C04) Malignant neoplasm of floor of mouth (C05) Malignant neoplasm of... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Remission is the state of absence of disease activity in patients with known chronic illness. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... Cystadenoma (or cystoma) refers to a type of cystic adenoma. ... Neuroendocrine tumors, or more properly gastro-entero-pancreatic or gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), are cancers of the interface between the endocrine (hormonal) system and the nervous system. ... An insulinoma is a tumour of the pancreas derived from the beta cells which while retaining the ability to synthesize and secrete insulin is autonomous of the normal feedback mechanisms. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ...

Contents

Signs and symptoms

Presentation

Early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is difficult because the symptoms are so non-specific and varied. Common symptoms include pain in the upper abdomen that typically radiates to the back and is relieved by leaning forward (seen in carcinoma of the body or tail of the pancreas), loss of appetite, significant weight loss and painless jaundice related to bile duct obstruction (carcinoma of the head of the pancreas). All of these symptoms can have multiple other causes. Therefore, pancreatic cancer is often not diagnosed until it is advanced. Abdominal pain can be one of the symptoms associated with transient disorders or serious disease. ... Anorexia (deriving from the Greek όρεξη (orexe) = appetite) is the decreased sensation of appetite. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry bile. ...


Jaundice occurs when the tumor grows and obstructs the common bile duct, which runs partially through the head of the pancreas. Tumors of the head of the pancreas (approximately 60% of cases) are more likely to cause jaundice by this mechanism. Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bile, which is synthesized in the liver, is carried to the right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct. ...


Trousseau sign, in which blood clots form spontaneously in the portal blood vessels, the deep veins of the extremities, or the superficial veins anywhere on the body, is sometimes associated with pancreatic cancer. Trousseaus sign of malignancy is a medical sign. ... This article discusses portal venous systems in general. ...


Clinical depression has been reported in association with pancreatic cancer, sometimes presenting before the cancer is diagnosed. However, the mechanism for this association is not known.[2] On the Threshold of Eternity. ...


Predisposing factors

Risk factors for pancreatic cancer include:[3]

  • Age
  • Male gender
  • African-American ethnicity[4]
  • Smoking. Cigarette smoking causes a 75% risk increase, and the risk persists for at least a decade after quitting. [5]
  • Diets high in red meat[6]
  • Obesity[7]
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Chronic pancreatitis has been linked, but is not known to be causal
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Occupational exposure to certain pesticides, dyes, and chemicals related to gasoline[citation needed]
  • Family history, 5-10% of pancreatic cancer patients have a family history of pancreatic cancer. The genes responsible for most of this clustering in families have yet to be identified. Pancreatic cancer has been associated with the following syndromes; autosomal recessive ataxia-telangiectasia and autosomal dominantly inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome due to mutations in the STK11 tumor suppressor gene, hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer (Lynch syndrome), familial adenomatous polyposis, and the familial atypical multiple mole melanoma-pancreatic cancer syndrome (FAMMM-PC) due to mutations in the CDKN2A tumor suppressor gene.[8][1]
  • Gingivitis or periodontal disease.[9]

The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Chronic pancreatitis can present as episodes of acute inflammation in a previously injured pancreas, or as chronic damage with persistent pain or malabsorption. ... Binomial name ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) ICD-9 code: 041. ... A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Petrol redirects here. ... In genetics, the term recessive gene refers to an allele that causes a phenotype (visible or detectable characteristic) that is only seen in a homozygous genotype (an organism that has two copies of the same allele). ... Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) (Boder-Sedgwick syndrome or Louis-Bar syndrome) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder that occurs in an estimated incidence of 1 in 40,000 to 1 in 300,000 births (Lederman, 2000). ... BRCA2 refers to either a gene (BReast-CAncer susceptibility gene 2, located on human chromosome 13, 13q12-13) or the protein coded for by that gene. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... Peutz-Jeghers is an autosomal dominant genetic disease. ... Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is characterized by an increased risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small intestine, hepatobiliary tract, upper urinary tract, brain, and skin. ...

Diagnosis

History — Most patients with pancreatic cancer experience pain, weight loss, or jaundice.[10] Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Pain is present in 80 to 85 percent of patients with locally advanced or advanced metastic disease. The pain is usually felt in the upper abdomen as a dull ache that radiates straight through to the back. It may be intermittent and made worse by eating. Weight loss can be profound; it may be associated with anorexia, early satiety, diarrhea, or steatorrhea. Jaundice is often accompanied by pruritus and dark urine. Painful jaundice is present in approximately one-half of patients with locally unresectable disease, while painless jaundice is present in approximately one-half of patients with a potentially resectable and curable lesion. The initial presentation varies according to tumor location. Tumors in the pancreatic body or tail usually present with pain and weight loss, while those in the head of the gland typically present with steatorrhea, weight loss, and jaundice. The recent onset of atypical diabetes mellitus, a history of recent but unexplained thrombophlebitis, or a previous attack of pancreatitis are sometimes noted. Anorexia can refer to: Anorexia nervosa, an eating disorder in which people do not eat correctly due to the obsessive fear of weight gain Anorexia (symptom), the general symptom of decreased appetite Sexual anorexia, a term used to describe a lack of appetite for sex. ... Satiety, or the feeling of fullness and disappearance of appetite after a meal, is a process mediated by the ventromedial nucleus in the hypothalamus. ... Steatorrhoea is the formation of bulky, grey or pale faeces. ... Look up jaundice in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into deep vein thrombosis. ... Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas. ...


Courvoisier sign defines the presence of jaundice and a painlessly distended gallbladder as strongly indicative of pancreatic cancer, and may be used to distinguish pancreatic cancer from gallstones. Courvoisiers law states that in the presence of a palpable gall bladder, jaundice is unlikely to be caused by gall stones. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst, sometimes gall bladder) is a pear-shaped organ that can accomodate up to 60 ml of bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Pancreatic cancer is usually discovered during the course of the evaluation of aforementioned symptoms. Liver function tests may show a combination of results indicative of bile duct obstruction (raised conjugated bilirubin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and alkaline phosphatase levels). CA19-9 (carbohydrate antigen 19.9) is a tumor marker that is frequently elevated in pancreatic cancer. Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), are groups of clinical biochemistry laboratory blood assays designed to give a doctor or other health professional information about the state of a patients liver. ... Bilirubin is a yellow breakdown product of normal heme catabolism. ... Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT or GGTP, or Gamma-GT) (EC 2. ... Ball and stick model of alkaline phosphatase Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (EC 3. ... CA19-9 or carbohydrate antigen 19-9 is a blood test from the tumor marker category. ... Tumor markers are substances found in the blood, urine or body tissues that can be elevated in cancer. ...


Imaging studies, such as ultrasound or abdominal CT may be used to identify tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is another procedure that can help visualize the tumor and obtain tissue to establish the diagnosis. Sonography redirects here. ... negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... Endoscopic ultrasound is an ultrasound that is placed into the stomach and duodenum via the upper GI tract. ...


Treatment

Surgery

Treatment of pancreatic cancer depends on the stage of the cancer.[11] The Whipple procedure is the most common surgical treatment for cancers involving the head of the pancreas. It can only be performed if the patient is likely to survive major surgery, and if the tumor is localised without invading local structures or metastasizing. It can therefore only be performed in the minority of cases. Recent advances have made possible resection (surgical removal) of tumors that were previously unresectable due to blood vessel involvement.[citation needed] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pancreaticoduodenectomy. ...


After surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine may be offered to eliminate whatever tumor tissue may remain in the body. This has been shown to increase 5-year survival rates. Addition of radiation therapy is not recommended.[12] Gemcitabine is a nucleoside used as chemotherapy. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Surgery may be performed for palliation, if the tumor is invading or compressing the duodenum or colon. In that case, bypass surgery may overcome the obstruction and improve quality of life, but it is not intended as a cure. In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ...


Chemotherapy

In patients not suitable for resection with curative intent, palliative chemotherapy may be used to improve quality of life and gain a modest survival benefit. Gemcitabine was approved by the US FDA in 1998 after a clinical trial reported improvements in quality of life in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. This marked the first FDA approval of a chemotherapy drug for a non-survival clinical trial endpoint. Gemcitabine is administered intravenously on a weekly basis. Addition of oxaliplatin (Gem/Ox) conferred benefit in small trials, but is not yet standard therapy.[13] Fluorouracil (5FU) may also be included. Chemotherapy, in its most general sense, refers to treatment of disease by chemicals that kill cells, specifically those of micro-organisms or cancer. ... Gemcitabine is a nucleoside used as chemotherapy. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... This box:      In health care, a clinical trial is a comparison test of a medication or other medical treatment (such as a medical device), versus a placebo (inactive look-a-like), other medications or devices, or the standard medical treatment for a patients condition. ... Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug in the same family as cisplatin and carboplatin. ... Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ...


On the back of the results of a Canadian led Phase III Randomised Controlled trial involving 569 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, the US FDA has licensed the use of erlotinib (Tarceva) in combination with gemcitabine as a palliative regimen for pancreatic cancer. This trial compared the action of gemcitabine/erlotinib vs gemcitabine/placebo and demonstrated improved survival rates, improved tumor response and improved progression-free survival rates. The survival improvement with the combination is on the order of less than four weeks, leading some cancer experts to question the incremental value of adding erlotinib to gemcitabine treatment. New trials are now investigating the effect of the above combination in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting.[14] A trial of anti-angiogenesis agent bevacizumab (Avastin) as an addition to chemotherapy has shown no improvement in survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. It may cause higher rates of high blood pressure, bleeding in the stomach and intestine, and intestinal perforations. Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva, Genentech/OSIP, originally coded as OSI-774) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. ... Gemcitabine is a nucleoside used as chemotherapy. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva, Genentech/OSIP, originally coded as OSI-774) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. ... Gemcitabine is a nucleoside used as chemotherapy. ... Bevacizumab (trade name Avastin) is a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor. ...


Ukrain is a semisynthetic combination of the herb greater celandine and the classic cancer drug ThioTepa. It was recently licensed as an orphan drug for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in the US and Australia after positive results in two small studies.[15][16] Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... Binomial name Chelidonium majus L. The greater celandine (Chelidonium majus) is a yellow-flowering poppy, native to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. ... The granting of the orphan drug status is designed to encourage the development of drugs which are necessary but would be prohibitively expensive/un-profitable to develop under normal circumstances. ...


Prognosis

Patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer typically have a poor prognosis partly because the cancer usually causes no symptoms early on, leading to locally advanced or metastatic disease at time of diagnosis. Median survival from diagnosis is around 3 to 6 months; 5-year survival is much less than 5%.[17] With 37,170 cases diagnosed in the United States in 2007, and 33,700 deaths, pancreatic cancer has the highest fatality rate of all cancers and is the fourth highest cancer killer in the United States among both men and women.[18] Although it accounts for only 2.5% of new cases, pancreatic cancer is responsible for 6% of cancer deaths each year.[19] Prognosis (older Greek πρόγνωσις, modern Greek πρόγνωση - literally fore-knowing, foreseeing) is a medical term denoting the doctors prediction of how a patients disease will progress, and whether there is chance of recovery. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ...


Pancreatic cancer may occasionally result in diabetes. Insulin production is hampered and it has been suggested that the cancer can also prompt the onset of diabetes and vice versa.[20] For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, see diabetes insipidus. ...


Prevention

According to the American Cancer Society, there are no established guidelines for preventing pancreatic cancer, although cigarette smoking is responsible for 20-30% of pancreatic cancers.[21] The American Cancer Society (ACS) is the nationwide community-based voluntary health organization dedicated to eliminating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer, saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through research, education, advocacy and service. ... The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ...


The ACS recommends keeping a healthy weight, and increasing consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while decreasing red meat intake, although there is no consistent evidence that this will prevent or reduce pancratic cancer specifically.[22][23] In 2006 a large prospective cohort study of over 80,000 subjects failed to prove a definite association.[24] The evidence in support of this lies mostly in small case-control studies.


In September 2006, a long-term study concluded that taking Vitamin D can substantially cut the risk of pancreatic cancer (as well as other cancers) by up to 50%.[25][26][27] More studies of this have been called for. Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ...


Several studies, including one published June 1, 2007, indicate that B vitamins such as B12, B6, and folate, can reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer when consumed in food, but not when ingested in vitamin tablet form.[28][29] The B vitamins are eight water-soluble vitamins that play important roles in cell metabolism. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ...


Awareness

  • November is Pancreatic Cancer Awareness Month
  • Purple is the traditional color chosen to represent pancreatic cancer awareness.
  • The National Cancer Institute’s cancer research budget was $4.824 billion in 2004, an estimated $52.7 million of which was devoted to pancreatic cancer.[30]
  • Research spending per pancreatic cancer patient is $1145, the lowest of any leading cancer.[31]
  • For a list of celebrities who have succumbed to this disease, see Category:Pancreatic cancer deaths. For a list of survivors see Category:Pancreatic cancer survivors.
  • The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) was created as an advocacy group for pancreatic cancer.

Awareness ribbons are short pieces of ribbon folded into a loop, or representations of such, which are used in the United States, Canada, Australia, UK and other parts of the world as a way for the wearer to make a subtle statement of support for a cause or issue. ... PanCAN is the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Ghaneh P, Costello E, Neoptolemos JP (2007). "Biology and management of pancreatic cancer". Gut 56 (8): 1134-52. doi:10.1136/gut.2006.103333. PMID 17625148. 
  2. ^ Carney CP, Jones L, Woolson RF, Noyes R Jr, Doebbeling BN. Relationship between depression and pancreatic cancer in the general population. Psychosom Med 2003;65:884-8. PMID 14508036.
  3. ^ ACS :: What Are the Risk Factors for Cancer of the Pancreas?. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  4. ^ What You Need To Know About Cancer of the Pancreas - National Cancer Institute. Retrieved on 2007-12-22.
  5. ^ Iodice S, Gandini S, Maisonneuve P, Lowenfels AB (2008). "Tobacco and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a review and meta-analysis". Langenbecks Arch Surg. doi:10.1007/s00423-007-0266-2. PMID 18193270. 
  6. ^ Red Meat May Be Linked to Pancreatic Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute. WebMD (2005-10-05). Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  7. ^ Obesity Linked to Pancreatic Cancer. American Cancer Society. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention (Vol. 14, No. 2: 459-466) (2005-03-06). Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
  8. ^ Efthimiou E, Crnogorac-Jurcevic T, Lemoine NR, Brentnall TA (Feb 2001). "Inherited predisposition to pancreatic cancer". Gut 48 (2): 143-7. doi:10.1136/gut.48.2.143. PMID 11156628. 
  9. ^ Michaud DS, Joshipura K, Giovannucci E, Fuchs CS (2007). "A prospective study of periodontal disease and pancreatic cancer in US male health professionals". J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 99 (2): 171-5. doi:10.1093/jnci/djk021. PMID 17228001. 
  10. ^ Bakkevold KE, Arnesjø B, Kambestad B (1992). "Carcinoma of the pancreas and papilla of Vater: presenting symptoms, signs, and diagnosis related to stage and tumour site. A prospective multicentre trial in 472 patients. Norwegian Pancreatic Cancer Trial". Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 27 (4): 317-25. doi:10.3109/00365529209000081. PMID 1589710. 
  11. ^ Pancreas (Pancreatic) Cancer
  12. ^ Neoptolemos JP, Stocken DD, Friess H, et al (2004). "A randomized trial of chemoradiotherapy and chemotherapy after resection of pancreatic cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 350 (12): 1200-10. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa032295. PMID 15028824. 
  13. ^ Demols A, Peeters M, Polus M, et al (2006). "Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) in gemcitabine refractory advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a phase II study". Br. J. Cancer 94 (4): 481-5. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602966. PMID 16434988. 
  14. ^ FDA approval briefing
  15. ^ Zemskov V, Prokopchuk O, Susak Y, et al (2002). "Efficacy of ukrain in the treatment of pancreatic cancer". Langenbecks Arch Surg 387 (2): 84-9. doi:10.1007/s00423-002-0293-y. PMID 12111260. 
  16. ^ Gansauge F, Ramadani M, Schwarz M, Beger HG, Lotspeich E, Poch B (2007). "The clinical efficacy of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and NSC-631570 in advanced pancreatic cancer". Hepatogastroenterology 54 (75): 917-20. PMID 17591092. 
  17. ^ WHO | Cancer
  18. ^ PanCAN - Working Together for a Cure™
  19. ^ Cancer Statistics, 2007 - Jemal et al. 57 (1): 43 - CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians
  20. ^ Molecular Cancer | Full text | The relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer
  21. ^ ACS :: Can Cancer of the Pancreas be Prevented?. Retrieved on 2007-12-13.
  22. ^ Coughlin, SS; Calle EE, Patel AV, Thun MJ. (2000 Dec). "Predictors of pancreatic cancer mortality among a large cohort of United States adults.". Cancer Causes Control. 11 (10): 915-23.. PMID 11142526. Retrieved on 2007-02-27. 
  23. ^ Zheng, W; et al (1993 Sep). "A cohort study of smoking, alcohol consumption, and dietary factors for pancreatic cancer (United States).". Cancer Causes Control. 4 (5): 477-82.. PMID 8218880. Retrieved on 2007-02-27. 
  24. ^ Larsson, Susanna; Niclas Håkansson, Ingmar Näslund, Leif Bergkvist and Alicja Wolk (February 2006). "Fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer risk: a prospective study.". Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention 15: 301-305. PMID 16492919. Retrieved on 2007-02-27. 
  25. ^ BBC NEWS | Health | Vitamin D 'slashes cancer risk'
  26. ^ Vitamin D May Cut Pancreatic Cancer
  27. ^ http://www.forbes.com/forbeslife/health/feeds/hscout/2006/09/14/hscout534925.html
  28. ^ Plasma Folate, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, and Homocysteine and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in Four Large Cohorts -- Schernhammer et al. 67 (11): 5553 -- Cancer Research. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  29. ^ United Press International - Consumer Health Daily - Briefing. Retrieved on 2007-06-04.
  30. ^ PanCAN - Working Together for a Cure™
  31. ^ PanCAN - Working Together for a Cure™

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External links

Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Thyroid cancer is cancer of the thyroid gland. ... Adrenocortical carcinoma is a carcinoma of the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland. ... A phaeochromocytoma (pheochromocytoma in the US) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually adrenaline and noradrenaline (epinephrine and norepinephrine in the US). ... Pituitary adenomas are tumors that occur in the pituitary gland, and account for about 10% of intracranial neoplasms. ... A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cancer research is research into cancer in order to identify causes and develop strategies for prevention, diagnosis, treatments and cure. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
vgn-ext-hidden_Cancer_Type_Home (6492 words)
Pancreatic cancer is a disease in which normal cells in the pancreas malfunction and begin to grow uncontrollably.
Because pancreatic cancer often does not cause specific symptoms early on in its development, it may not be detected until the cancer has metastasized beyond the pancreas to other areas of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or the peritoneum (the tissue lining the abdomen).
Pancreatitis is the inflammation of the pancreas, a painful disease of the pancreas.
Pancreatic cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (964 words)
Courvoisier's law defines the presence of jaundice and a painlessly distended gallbladder as strongly indicative of pancreatic cancer, and may be used to distinguish pancreatic cancer from gallstones.
Pancreatic cancer is usually discovered during the course of the evaluation of aforementioned symptoms.
Treatment of pancreatic cancer depends on the stage of the cancer [2] Recent advances have made resection (surgical removal) of tumors that were previously unresectable due to blood vessel involvement possible.
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