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Encyclopedia > Panavision
Panavision Incorporated
Type Private
Founded 1953
Headquarters Woodland Hills, California, U.S.
Key people Robert Gottschalk, founder
Robert Beitcher, CEO
Ronald Perelman, chief shareholder
Industry Movie camera rental
Motion picture equipment
Products Panaflex cameras
Genesis HD camera
Lee Lighting
Grip equipment
Lee Filters
Revenue $233.3 million USD (2005)
Employees 1,211 (as of December 31, 2005)
Slogan Inspired by the past. Focused on the future.
Website www.panavision.com

Panavision is a motion picture equipment company specializing in cameras and lenses, based in Woodland Hills, California. Formed by Robert Gottschalk as a small partnership to create anamorphic projection lenses during the widescreen boom in the 1950s, Panavision expanded its product lines to meet the demands of modern filmmakers. The company introduced its first products in 1954; originally a provider of CinemaScope accessories, the company's line of anamorphic widescreen lenses soon became the industry leader. In 1972, Panavision helped revolutionize filmmaking with the lightweight Panaflex 35 mm movie camera. The company has introduced other groundbreaking cameras such as the Millennium XL (1999) and the digital video Genesis (2004). Panavision corporate logo. ... A private company is a company that is independently owned. ... Woodland Hills, California in the foreground, including Warner Center. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Robert Gottschalk (12 March 1918 - 3 June 1982) was a camera technician and founder of Panavision. ... Ronald Owen Perelman (born January 1, 1943) is an American billionaire investor that made his fortune buying beleaguered corporations and re-selling them later for enormous profits. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... This is Panavisions high-end digital camera, which uses a propriatary, full frame 35mm 1. ... In the U.S. and Canada, grips are lighting and rigging technicians in the film and video industries. ... For the tax agency in Ireland of the same name, see Revenue Commissioners. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... USD redirects here. ... This article is about work. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up slogan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... The term company may refer to a separate legal entity, as in English law, or may simply refer to a business, as is the common use in the United States. ... This article is about the photographing device. ... Photographic lens One of Canons most popular wide angle lenses - 17-40 f/4 L The zoom lens of the Canon Elph A photographic lens (or more correctly, objective) is an optical lens or assembly of lenses used in conjunction with a camera body and mechanism to make images... Woodland Hills, California in the foreground, including Warner Center. ... Robert Gottschalk (12 March 1918 - 3 June 1982) was a camera technician and founder of Panavision. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... 35 mm film frames. ... The Arricam ST, a popular 35 mm film camera currently used on major productions. ...


Panavision operates exclusively as a rental facility—the company owns its entire inventory, unlike most of its competitors. This allows investment in research and development, and the integration of high-quality manufacturing, without worrying about the end retail value. Maintaining its entire inventory also allows Panavision to regularly update all of its equipment, rather than just the newest models.

Contents

Early history

Robert Gottschalk founded Panavision in late 1953, in partnership with Richard Moore, Meredith Nicholson, Harry Eller, Walter Wallin, and William Mann;[1] the company was formally incorporated in 1954. Panavision was established principally for the manufacture of anamorphic projection lenses to meet the growing demands of theaters showing CinemaScope films.[2] At the time of Panavision's formation, Gottschalk owned a camera shop in Westwood Village, California, where many of his customers were cinematographers.[3] A few years earlier, he and Moore—who worked with him in the camera shop—were experimenting with underwater photography; Gottschalk became interested in the technology of anamorphic lenses, which allowed him to get a wider field of view from his underwater camera housing.[4] The technology was created during World War I to increase the field of view on tank periscopes; the periscope image was horizontally "squeezed" by the anamorphic lens. After it was unsqueezed by a complementary anamorphic optical element, the tank operator could see double the horizontal field of view without significant distortion.[3] Gottschalk and Moore bought some of these lenses from C.P. Goerz, a New York optics company, for use in their underwater photography. As widescreen filmmaking became popular, Gottschalk saw an opportunity to provide anamorphic lenses to the film industry—first for projectors, and then for cameras. Nicholson, a friend of Moore, started working as a cameraman on early tests of anamorphic photography.[5] Robert Gottschalk (12 March 1918 - 3 June 1982) was a camera technician and founder of Panavision. ... This article is about the cinematographer. ... William Hodges Mann (1843 - 1927) was a U.S. political figure. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... Projectors are used for displaying an image on a projection screen or similar surface for the view of an audience. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... Cameraman redirects here. ... Pink Anemonefish hiding in tentacles Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while underwater. ... Diagram of periscope. ... For the book by Sir Isaac Newton, see Opticks. ... This article is about the state. ... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... Projectors are used for displaying an image on a projection screen or similar surface for the view of an audience. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ...


In the 1950s, the motion picture industry was threatened by the advent of television—TV kept moviegoers at home, bringing down box office revenues. Film studios began searching for ways to lure audiences back to the theaters with attractions that television could not yet provide. These included a revival of color films, three-dimensional films, stereophonic sound, and widescreen movies. Cinerama was one of the first widescreen movie processes of the era.[6] In its initial conception, the cumbersome system required three cameras for shooting and three synchronized projectors working side-by-side to display a picture on one long screen. Along with the logistical and financial challenges of tripling equipment usage and cost, the process led to distracting vertical lines between the three projected images.[7] Looking for a high-impact method of widescreen filmmaking that was cheaper, simpler, and less visually distracting, 20th Century Fox acquired the rights to a process it branded CinemaScope: in this system, the film was shot with anamorphic lenses.[8] The film was then exhibited with a complementary anamorphic lens on the projector that expanded the image, creating a projected aspect ratio (the ratio of the image's width to its height) twice that of the image area on the physical frame of film. By the time the first CinemaScope movie—The Robe (1953)—was announced for production, Gottschalk, Moore and Nicholson had a demo reel of work with their anamorphic underwater system.[5] An undated color photograph from 1905 to 1915 by Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii Color photography was explored throughout the 1800s. ... In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ... Label for 2. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the six major American film studios. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... For other uses, see Aspect ratio. ... A cinema presenting The Robe The Robe is a 1953 Biblical epic film that tells the story of a Roman tribune who commands the unit that crucifies Jesus. ...


Gottschalk learned from one of his vendors that Bausch & Lomb, whom Fox had contracted to manufacture CinemaScope lenses, were having difficulty filling the lens orders for theatrical anamorphic projection.[5] He teamed up with William Mann, who provided optical manufacturing capability, and Walter Wallin, an acquaintance of Mann's who had formally studied optics. With Wallin's input, the anamorphic lens design they settled on was prismatic rather than the cylindrical design of the Bausch & Lomb CinemaScope lens.[5] This design meant the anamorphic lens extension factor—how much the image is horizontally unsqueezed—could be manually shifted, useful for projectionists switching between nonanamorphic ("flat" or "spherical") trailers and an anamorphic feature.[5] Bausch & Lomb is an American company based in Rochester, New York, specializing in eye health products such as contact lenses, lens care products and eye surgery devices and instruments. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... A right circular cylinder An elliptic cylinder In mathematics, a cylinder is a quadric surface, with the following equation in Cartesian coordinates: This equation is for an elliptic cylinder, a generalization of the ordinary, circular cylinder (a = b). ... Movie trailers are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema, on whose screen they are shown; they are commonly known as previews of coming attractions. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ...


Entering the market

Panavision's first product—the Super Panatar[9] projection lens—debuted in March 1954. Priced at $1,100, it captured the market.[10] The Super Panatar was a rectangular box that attached to the existing projection lens with a special bracket.[11] Its variable prismatic system allowed a range of film formats to be shown from the same projector with a simple adjustment of the lens. Panavision improved on the Super Panatar with the Ultra Panatar, a lighter cylindrical design that could be screwed directly to the front of the projection lens.[12] Panavision lenses gradually replaced CinemaScope as the leading anamorphic system for theatrical projection.[13]


In December 1954, the company created a specialized lens for film laboratories—the Micro Panatar. When fitted to an optical printer, the Micro Panatar could create "flat" (nonanamorphic) prints from anamorphic negatives. This allowed films to be distributed to theaters that did not have an anamorphic system installed. To accomplish this dual platform release strategy before the Micro Panatar, studios would sometimes shoot films with one anamorphic and one spherical camera, so that nonwidescreen theaters could still exhibit the film. The cost savings of eliminating the second camera and making flat prints in post-production with the Micro Panatar were enormous.[2] An optical printer with two projector heads, used in producing movie special effects. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


Another innovation of the era secured Panavision's leading position: the Auto Panatar camera lens for 35 mm anamorphic productions.[2] Early CinemaScope camera lenses were notoriously problematic in close-ups with an optical aberration that was commonly known as "the mumps": a widening of the face due to a loss of anamorphic power as a subject approaches the lens.[2] Because of the novelty of the new anamorphic process, early CinemaScope productions compensated for this aberration by avoiding tightly framed shots. As the anamorphic process became more popular, however, it became more of a problem. Panavision came up with a solution: adding a rotating lens element that moved in mechanical sync with the focus ring. This eliminated the distortion and allowed for natural close-up anamorphic photography. The Auto Panatar, released in 1958, was rapidly adopted industry-wide, eventually making CinemaScope lenses obsolete. This innovation earned Panavision the first of its 15 Academy Awards for technical achievement.[2] Close Up is a half hour long New Zealand current affairs program produced by Television New Zealand. ... An image that is partially in focus, but mostly out of focus in varying degrees. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ...

Screenshot of The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using the Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect ratio in which the film was presented.
Screenshot of The Big Fisherman (1959), the first film released using the Super Panavision 70 process. The image shows the 2.20:1 aspect ratio in which the film was presented.

Since 1954, Panavision had been working on a new widescreen process commissioned by MGM.[14] The resulting system used a 65 mm film camera in conjunction with the APO Panatar lens, which was an integrated anamorphic lens (as opposed to a standard prime lens with an anamorphoser mounted on it). This created a 1.25x anamorphic squeeze factor.[15] Movies using the process had an astounding potential aspect ratio of 2.76:1 when exhibited with 70 mm anamorphic projection prints. Introduced as MGM Camera 65, the system was used on just a few films, the first of which was Raintree County (1956).[14] However, the film was released only in 35 mm anamorphic prints because the circuit of 70 mm theaters was booked with Around the World in Eighty Days (1956), shot with the competing, nonanamorphic Todd-AO system. The first film to be presented in 70 mm anamorphic—Ben-Hur—was released by MGM in 1959.[14] Panavision also developed a nonanamorphic widescreen process called Super Panavision 70, which was essentially identical to Todd-AO. Super Panavision made its screen debut in 1959 with The Big Fisherman, released by Disney's Buena Vista division. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Big Fisherman is a 1959 film about the life of St. ... Super Panavision 70 was the marketing brand used to identify movies photographed with Panavision 65mm cameras and spherical optics between 1959 and 1970. ... For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... 70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a high-resolution motion picture film format. ... This Nikon 35mm wide-angle lens is a small, light-weight and fast prime lens with a maximum aperture of f/2 In film and photography, a prime lens is a photographic lens whose focal length is fixed, as opposed to a zoom lens, which has a variable focal length. ... 70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a wide high-resolution film gauge, of superior quality to standard 35 mm motion picture film format. ... MGM Camera 65 is a wide-screen film format developed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer in the 1950s, as a single-strip substitute for Cinerama. ... Raintree County is a novel by Ross Lockridge, Jr. ... Around the World in Eighty Days is a 1956 adventure film made by the Michael Todd Company and released by United Artists. ... Todd-AO was a widescreen film format developed in the mid 1950s. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third version of Lew Wallaces novel, Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Super Panavision 70 was the marketing brand used to identify movies photographed with Panavision 65mm cameras and spherical optics between 1959 and 1970. ... The Big Fisherman is a 1959 film about the life of St. ... Alternate meanings: Disney (disambiguation) The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney Enterprises, Inc. ... Buena Vista production logo, 1950s. ...


A move into cameras

By 1962, four of Panavision's founders had left the company to pursue private careers.[5] That year, MGM's Camera 65 production of Mutiny on the Bounty went so far over budget that the studio was forced to liquidate assets to cover its costs. As a result of this liquidation, Panavision acquired MGM's camera equipment division, as well as the rights to the Camera 65 system it had developed for MGM; the technology was renamed Ultra Panavision.[5] Only six more features were made with the system: It's a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World (1963), The Fall of the Roman Empire (1964), Battle of the Bulge (1965), The Greatest Story Ever Told (1965), The Hallelujah Trail (1965), and Khartoum (1966).[16] As 1.25x anamorphosers for 70 mm projectors have become rare, most of the 70 mm prints of these films still in circulation are designed for projection with nonanamorphic, spherical lenses. The result is a 2.20:1 aspect ratio, rather than the broader ratio originally intended. Mutiny on the Bounty, based on the 1932 novel by Charles Nordhoff, is a 1962 film starring Marlon Brando and Trevor Howard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with MGM Camera 65. ... Its a Mad, Mad, Mad, Mad World is an American motion picture directed by Stanley Kramer about the madcap pursuit of $350,000 of stolen cash by a diverse and colourful group of strangers. ... The Fall of the Roman Empire is a 1964 film starring Sophia Loren, Stephen Boyd, Alec Guinness, James Mason, and Christopher Plummer. ... For the 1965 film, see Battle of the Bulge (film). ... This article is about the film. ... The Hallelujah Trail is a 1965 Western spoof directed by John Sturges and starring Burt Lancaster and Lee Remick. ... Charlton Heston (right) as Gordon with Richard Johnson (left) as Colonel J.D.H. Stewart Khartoum is a 1966 film written by Robert Ardrey and directed by Basil Dearden. ...


Although Fox insisted on maintaining CinemaScope for a time, some actors disliked the system. For Fox's 1965 production Von Ryan's Express, Frank Sinatra reputedly demanded that Auto Panatar lenses be used. Such pressures led Fox to completely abandon CinemaScope for Auto Panatars that year; Von Ryan's Express was the studio's first picture with Panavision lenses.[17] To meet the extraordinary demand for Panavision projection lenses, Gottschalk had Bausch & Lomb CinemaScope lenses retrofitted into Panavision housings with a new astigmatic attachment, improving them greatly. This was revealed many years after Gottschalk's death; a lead designer from Bausch & Lomb, who had been involved with the original CinemaScope project, came to work as a designer for Panavision and—after opening some of the older lenses—figured out the secret.[3] Von Ryans Express is a 1965 World War II film produced and directed by Mark Robson. ... Sinatra redirects here. ...

The Panavision logo incorporates three aspect ratios into its design—1.33 (TV, standard "Academy" ratio) on the inside, 1.85 (standard U.S. widescreen) in the middle, and 2.35/2.40 (modern 35mm anamorphic) on the outside.
The Panavision logo incorporates three aspect ratios into its design—1.33 (TV, standard "Academy" ratio) on the inside, 1.85 (standard U.S. widescreen) in the middle, and 2.35/2.40 (modern 35mm anamorphic) on the outside.

In the mid-1960s, Gottschalk altered Panavision's business model. The company now maintained its full inventory, making its lenses and the cameras it had acquired from MGM available only by rental.[18] This meant that equipment could be maintained, modified, and regularly updated directly by the company. When Panavision eventually brought its own camera designs to market, it was relatively unconstrained by retrofitting and manufacturing costs, as it was not directly competing on sales price. This allowed Panavision to build cameras to new standards of durability.[19] Panavision corporate logo. ... Panavision corporate logo. ... For other uses, see Aspect ratio. ... The Academy ratio of 1. ... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... Anamorphic format is a term which can be used either for the cinematography technique of capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35 mm film, or other visual recording media with a non-widescreen native aspect ratio, or a photographic projection format in which the original image requires an optical anamorphic...


The new business model required additional upfront capital; to this end, the company was sold to Banner Productions in 1965, with Gottschalk remaining as president.[18] Panavision would soon begin branching out into markets beyond Hollywood, eventually including New York, Europe, Australia, Hong Kong, and Southeast Asia.[4] Kinney National Service bought out Banner in 1968 and took over Warner Brothers the following year, eventually renaming itself Warner Communications.[18] Kinney/Warner's financial resources made possible a massive expansion in Panavision's inventory, as well as substantial leaps in research and development. ... Kinney National Company was formed in 1966 when the Kinney Parking Company and the National Cleaning Company merged. ... Warner Bros. ... Warner Communications, formerly Kinney National Company, was the parent company for Warner Bros. ...


During this period, the company's R&D department focused on retrofitting the industry standard 35 mm camera, the Mitchell BNC. The effort to develop a lighter, quieter camera with a reflex viewfinder led to the introduction of the Panavision Silent Reflex (PSR) in 1967.[10] The camera could provide a shutter angle of up to 200 degrees. Many refinements were made to the PSR during the first few years after its introduction, and it soon became one of the most popular studio cameras in the world.[4] Panavision also began manufacturing spherical lenses for 1.85:1 photography, garnering a significant share of the market. A reflex finder is a viewfinder system with a mirror placed behind a lens. ... When the shutter is open, the film is exposed. ...


In 1968, Panavision released a handheld 65 mm camera.[5] By that time, however, the much cheaper process of blowing up 35 mm anamorphic films to 70 mm—introduced with The Cardinal (1964)—had made 65 mm production virtually obsolete.[20] In 1970, the last two feature films shot entirely with Super Panavision were released: Song of Norway and Ryan's Daughter. In the decades since, only a handful of films have been shot in 65 mm.[21] The Cardinal is a 1963 film which was produced independently and directed by Otto Preminger, and distributed by Columbia Pictures. ... Song of Norway is a musical written in 1944 by Robert Wright and George Forrest, adapted from the music of Edvard Grieg and the book by Milton Lazarus. ... Ryans Daughter is David Leans 1970 film which tells the story of an Irish girl who has an affair with a British soldier during World War I, despite opposition from her nationalist neighbours. ...


Panaflex is born

Albert Mayer led the next major project: the creation of a lightweight reflex camera adaptable to either handheld or studio conditions. After four years of development, the Panaflex debuted in 1972. A revolutionary camera that operated quietly, the Panaflex eliminated the need for a cumbersome sound blimp, and could synchronize handheld work. The Panaflex also included a digital electronic tachometer and magazine motors for the take-up reel.[22] Steven Spielberg's The Sugarland Express (1974) was the first motion picture filmed with the Panaflex.[23] Blimp can refer to: a non-rigid airship as opposed to a rigid airship (e. ... Tachometer showing engine RPM (revolutions per minute), and a redline from 6000 and 7000 RPM. A tachometer is an instrument that measures the speed of rotation of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. ... A camera magazine is a light-tight chamber or pair of chambers designed to hold and move motion picture film stock before and after it has been exposed in the camera. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... The Sugarland Express is a 1974 feature film starring Goldie Hawn and William Atherton. ...


During the 1970s, the Panaflex line was updated and marketed in new incarnations: the Panaflex X, Panaflex Lightweight (for steadicam), the high-speed Panastar, Panaflex Gold, and Panaflex G2. Panavision came out with a direct competitor to Tiffen's Steadicam stabilizer, the Panaglide harness.[18] The Panacam, a video camera, was also brought out, though the company largely left the video field to others. To film this recreated Victorian London street scene, the cameraman next to the lamp post is using a steadicam and wearing the harness required to support it. ... Tiffen Manufacturing Corporation is a company in Hauppauge, New York, U.S.A. which manufactures filters for photography, and other professional film and photography-related products. ... Video cameras are used primarily in two modes. ...


Robert Gottschalk died in 1982 at the age of 64. After Gottschalk's death, Kinney National sold the company to a consortium headed by Ted Field, John Farrand, and Alan Hirschfield,[18] and backed by Chicago newspaper and department store heir Frederick Field.[24] With new ownership came sweeping changes to the company, which had stagnated. Optics testing was computerized and, in 1986, the new Platinum model camera was introduced. The next year—responding to a perceived demand for the resurrection of the 65 mm camera—development began on a new model. The company was sold to Lee Lighting in 1987, but financing was overextended and ownership reverted to the investment firm Warburg Pincus two years later.[18] Ted Field (1953 - ), music producer, movie producer, and heir to the Marshall Fields department store fortune. ... Frederick Field (born 1953) is an American business man. ... Warburg Pincus is a private equity firm with offices in the United States, Europe and Asia. ...


In 1989, the company brought out Primo, a new line of lenses. Designed with a consistent color match between all the different focal-length instruments in the line, these were also the sharpest lenses yet manufactured by Panavision. Six years later, Oscars were awarded to the company and to three of its employees for their work on the Primo 3:1 zoom lens: Iain Neil for the optical design, Rick Gelbard for the mechanical design, and Eric Dubberke for the lens's engineering. According to the AMPAS citation, "The high contrast and absence of flare, along with its ability to provide close focusing and to maintain constant image size while changing focus, make the Primo 3:1 Zoom Lens truly unique."[25] In 1991, the company released its new 65 mm technology, System 65,[10] though Arri had beaten it to market by two years with the Arriflex 765. The gauge was not widely readopted, and only two major Hollywood films were shot with the new 65 mm Panavision process: Far and Away (1992) and Kenneth Branagh's Hamlet (1996), the last known feature film to be shot entirely on 65 mm.[21] This article is about focal length related to lenses and systems of lenses. ... A Canon Inc. ... Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... The ARRI Group has been the largest world wide supplier of high quality motion picture film equipment since 1917. ... DVD cover Far and Away is a 1992 drama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman. ... Kenneth Charles Branagh (born December 10, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated Northern Irish-born actor and film director. ... William Shakespeares Hamlet is a 1996 film version of William Shakespeares classic play of the same name, adapted and directed by Kenneth Branagh, who also starred in the title role. ...


In 1992, Panavision launched a project to develop a camera that involved rethinking every aspect of the company's existing 35 mm system. Nolan Murdock and Albert Mayer Sr. headed up the design team.[22] The new Millennium camera, replacing the Platinum as the company's flagship, was introduced in 1997. The Millennium XL (1999) and XL2 (2004) followed.[26] The first feature films to use these latter two systems were, respectively, The Perfect Storm (2000) and Just Like Heaven (2005). The XL series not only had a much smaller camera body—making it suitable for studio, handheld, and steadicam work—but also marked the first significant change to the film transport mechanism in the camera since the Panaflex: two smaller sprocket drums for feed and take-up (a design similar to the Moviecam and subsequent Arricam) instead of one large drum to do both.[27] As of 2006, Panavision has no further plans to develop additional camera models.[28] The Perfect Storm is a 2000 film adapted from the book of the same title by Sebastian Junger. ... Just Like Heaven is a romantic comedy film released on September 16, 2005, in the U.S. and Canada. ... Moviecam is a motion picture equipment company specializing in movie camera systems for 35 mm film. ... Arricam is a 35 mm movie camera line manufactured by Arri. ...


Digital revolution

Ronald Perelman's solely owned MacAndrews and Forbes Holdings (Mafco) acquired a majority interest in Panavision in 1998, via a Mafco subsidiary. After aborted attempts to create a film-style video camera in the 1970s and 1980s, Panavision joined the digital revolution in July 2000, establishing DHD Ventures in partnership with Sony. The new company's objective was to raise the quality of high definition digital video to the standards of top-level Hollywood motion-picture production.[29] This cooperative venture was established largely at the instigation of George Lucas to serve his designs for the Star Wars prequels.[30] The collaboration resulted in the Sony HDW-F900 CineAlta HDCAM high definition video camera. Sony produced the electronics and a stand-alone version of the camera; Panavision supplied custom-designed high definition lenses, trademarked Primo Digital, and retrofitted the camera body to incorporate standard film camera accessories, facilitating the equipment's integration into existing crew equipment as a "digital cinema camera."[31] The new system was used in the making of Lucasfilm's Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002), described as "the first digital major feature film."[29] Ronald Owen Perelman (born January 1, 1943) is an American billionaire investor that made his fortune buying beleaguered corporations and re-selling them later for enormous profits. ... Sony Corporation ) is a Japanese multinational corporation and one of the worlds largest media conglomerates with revenue of $66. ... This article is about high-definition video technology. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... This article is about the series. ... Steven Sodebergh shooting Full Frontal. ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Film poster for Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) is the fifth Star Wars science fiction movie released and the second part of the prequel trilogy which began with Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. ...


The next step in the evolution of the digital cinema camera also involved collaboration between Sony and Panavision; this time, Panavision participated in all stages of development. The aim was to create a system that could use the entire range of the company's 35 mm spherical lenses. This led to the 2004 introduction of the Genesis HD—a full bandwidth (4:4:4) HD SDI camera with improved colorimetry- and sensitometry-related specs. Its Super 35 mm film–sized recording area made it focally compatible with regular 35 mm lenses, giving it a true 35 mm depth of field.[32][33] The camera's electronics—including its CCD (charge-coupled device) image sensor—and HDCAM SR record deck were manufactured by Sony. The chassis and mechanics were designed by a Panavision team led by Albert Mayer Jr., son of the Panaflex designer.[32] The Genesis was first used on Flyboys (2006);[34] Scary Movie 4 (2006), shot afterward, went into general release first because of the extensive visual effects work needed to complete Flyboys.[35] Subsequent to the completion of major design work on the Genesis, Panavision bought out Sony's 49 percent share of DHD Ventures and fully consolidated it in September 2004.[36] In digital image processing, chroma subsampling is the use of lower resolution for the colour (chroma) information in an image than for the brightness (intensity or luma) information. ... This article is about the serial digital interface used in professional video. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Sensitometry is the scientific study of light-sensitive materials, especially photographic film. ... Comparing the film area of Super 35 to CinemaScope, standard widescreen and Techniscope. ... In optics, particularly film and photography, the depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front of and beyond the subject that appears to be in focus. ... A specially developed CCD used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package. ... A dismantled USB webcam, with and without a lens over its (Bayer format) image sensor. ... Betacam and VHS size comparison Betacam SP L, Betacam SP S, VHS Betacam is a family of half-inch professional videotape formats developed by Sony from 1982 onwards. ... A video tape recorder (VTR), is a tape recorder that can record video material. ... Look up Chassis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the 2006 film. ... Scary Movie 4 is a fourth film of the Scary Movie franchise and is directed by David Zucker, written by Jim Abrahams, Craig Mazin and Pat Proft, and produced by Craig Mazin and Robert K. Weiss. ...


During the same period, Panavision began acquiring related motion picture companies, including eFilm (acquired 2001; sold to Deluxe in full by 2004),[37] Technovision France (2004),[38] the motion picture camera rental arm of Canadian rental house William F. White International (2005),[39] digital camera rental company Plus8Digital (2006),[40] international lighting and equipment company AFM (2006),[41] and UK camera companies One8Six (2006) and JDC (2007).[42] On July 28, 2006, Mafco announced it was acquiring the remaining Panavision stock and returning the company to private status. A $345 million credit line from Bear Stearns and Credit Suisse was secured to finance the company's debt as well as to facilitate "global acquisitions."[43] That same year, Mafco acquired Deluxe Entertainment Services Group.[44] EFilm is wholly owned by Deluxe Laboratories. ... is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. ... The Credit Suisse Group (SWX:CSGN, NYSE: CS) is a financial services company, headquartered in Zürich, Switzerland. ...


See also

This article is intended for specific information for Panavisions various camera systems. ... This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... PV mount is a lens mount developed by Panavision for use with both 16 mm and 35 mm movie cameras. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Samuelson, David W. Panaflex Users' Manual. Focal Press, 1990. ISBN 0-2408-0267-5.
  2. ^ a b c d e Roudebush, James. "Filmed in Panavision: The Ultimate Wide Screen Experience." Secrets of Home Theater and High Fidelity vol. 2, no. 1 (HomeTheaterHiFi.com). January 1995. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  3. ^ a b c Samuelson, David W. "Golden Years." American Cinematographer, September 2003, pp. 70–77.
  4. ^ a b c Henderson, Scott. "The Panavision Story." American Cinematographer, April 1977.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Bijl, Adriaan. "The Importance of Panavision." The 70mm Newsletter no. 67 (in70mm.com). March 2002. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  6. ^ Hart, Martin. "A Little Pre-history." WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  7. ^ Pryor, Thomas M. "Cine-Miracle Joins Big Screen's Big Parade." New York Times 1955-07-13. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  8. ^ Gray, Peter. "CinemaScope, A Concise History." Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  9. ^ The Panatar name was in response to the Bausch & Lomb lens called the Baltar. Gray, Peter. History of CinemaScope, 2003. Retrieved 2007-06-14.
  10. ^ a b c "History" (official company history and timeline). Panavision.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  11. ^ Super Panatar Instruction Manual. Panavision, 1954. HTML transcription by WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  12. ^ Ultra Panatar Instruction Manual. Panavision, 1955. HTML transcription by WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  13. ^ Cook, David A. A History of Narrative Film. Norton & Company, 1990. ISBN 0-393-95553-2.
  14. ^ a b c Hart, Martin. "Solving The Mysteries of MGM Camera 65 and Ultra Panavision 70." WidescreenMuseum.com. September 2002. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  15. ^ Hart, Martin. MGM Camera 65 Circa 1959 Anamorphic 70mm Print. WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19
  16. ^ Hart, Martin. "Cinerama Single Film Presentations." WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  17. ^ "Honoring Our Own." Panavision.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  18. ^ a b c d e f Bijl, Adriaan. "The Importance of Panavision: Diffusion Phase." in70mm.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  19. ^ Panavision Inc. Panavision 8-K SEC Filing. SECInfo.com. 2004-08-08; "Panavision." Encyclopedia of Company Histories/Answers.com. Both retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  20. ^ Loring, Charles. "Breakthrough in 35mm-to-70mm Print-Up Process." American Cinematographer, April 1964.
  21. ^ a b Hart, Martin. "Super Panavision Filmography." WidescreenMuseum.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-19; Hauerslev, Thomas. "Super Panavision 70." in70mm.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-06.
  22. ^ a b Probst, Christopher. "A Camera for the 21st century." American Cinematographer, March 1999, pp. 201–211.
  23. ^ Brode, Douglas. The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel Press, 1995: p. 39. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6.
  24. ^ Slide, Anthony. "Panavision," in The American Film Industry: A Historical Dictionary. Limelight Editions, 1990: pp. 253–254. ISBN 0-8791-0139-3.
  25. ^ 1995 (68th Academy Awards)—Scientific and Engineering Award—Lenses and Filters. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved on 2007-10-09.
  26. ^ Kaczek, Frédéric-Gérard. "Panavision." European Federation of Cinematographers (Imago.org). Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  27. ^ Probst, Christopher. "Dawn of a New Millennium." American Cinematographer, February 2005, pp. 80–82.
  28. ^ Kirsner, Scott. "Studios Shift to Digital Movies, but Not Without Resistance", The New York Times, 2006-07-24. Retrieved 2007-10-13.
  29. ^ a b Panavision Inc. Panavision 10-K SEC Filing for 2002. Edgar-Online.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  30. ^ Hearn, Marcus. The Cinema of George Lucas. Abrams, 2005: p. 222. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7.
  31. ^ "Panavision Makes Major Purchase of Sony 24p CineAlta High Definition Camcorders." HDTVMagazine.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  32. ^ a b Holben, Jay. "Let There Be Digital: Panavision Unveils Digital Cinematography Camera." American Cinematographer, September 2004, pp. 94–98.
  33. ^ Lazotte, Suzanne. "Panavision Genesis™ Super 35 Digital Cinematography Camera System." Panavision.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-20.
  34. ^ Birchard, Robert S. "World War I Flying Aces." American Cinematographer (ASCMag.com). October 2006. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  35. ^ Scary Movie 4 (release dates); Flyboys (release dates). IMDb.com. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  36. ^ Panavision Inc. Panavision 10-K SEC Filing for 2005. SECInfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-31.
  37. ^ "Panavision Sells Interest in EFILM to Deluxe Labs" (press release). Panavision.com. 2004-08-09. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  38. ^ "Panavision Purchases Technovision France" (press release). Panavision.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-01-19.
  39. ^ "Panavision Canada Acquires Camera Assets of William F. White International Inc." (press release). Panavision.com. 2005-01-04. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  40. ^ "Panavision Acquires Plus 8 Digital" (press release). Panavision.com. 2006-10-02. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  41. ^ "Panavision Enters Into Agreement to Acquire AFM Group." PRNewswire.co.uk. 2006-11-07. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  42. ^ Giardina, Carolyn. "Panavision reels in Joe Dunton." The Hollywood Reporter. 2007-08-15. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  43. ^ Zeitchik, Steven. "Panavision Hones Its Focus." Variety.com. 2006-04-18. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  44. ^ "Deluxe" (corporate holdings description). MacAndrewsandForbes.com. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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Panavision (89 words)
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