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Encyclopedia > Panavia Tornado
Tornado IDS/ECR

German Luftwaffe Tornado ECR   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ...

Type Ground attack
Electronic warfare
Manufacturer Panavia Aircraft GmbH
Maiden flight 14 August 1974
Introduced 1979
Status Operational
Primary users Royal Air Force
German Air Force
Italian Air Force
Royal Saudi Air Force
Produced 1979-1999
Number built 992
Variants Panavia Tornado ADV

The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine combat aircraft, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, West Germany and Italy. There are three primary versions of the Tornado; the Tornado IDS (Interdictor/Strike) fighter-bomber, the suppression of enemy air defences Tornado ECR (Electronic Combat/Reconnaissance) and the Tornado ADV (Air Defence Variant) interceptor. It is one of the world's most sophisticated and capable interdiction and attack aircraft, with a large payload, long range and high survivability. An aerospace manufacturer is a company or individual involved in the various aspects of designing, building, testing, selling, and maintaining aircraft, aircraft parts, missiles, rockets, and/or spacecraft. ... RAF Panavia Tornado GR4 Panavia Aircraft is a multinational company established by the three partner nations of the Tornado Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) project, Germany, Italy and the UK. The company is based and registered in Germany. ... The Maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground of its own accord. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of aviation-related events from 1974: Events July July 22 - the US Navy and Marine Corps evacuate 500 people from Greece and Turkey on the island September September 1 - a SR-71 Blackbird crosses the Atlantic Ocean in less than two hours. ... RAF redirects here. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... The Aeronautica Militare is the air force of Italy. ... The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: ‎, ), is the air force branch of Saudi Arabian armed forces. ... The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with military aviation. ... The Panavia Tornado was produced in three major variants; the strike/reconnaissance Interdictor/Strike (IDS), the IDS-based Electronic Combat/Reconnaissance (ECR) and the Air Defence Variant (ADV). ... An interdictor is a type of attack aircraft that operates far behind enemy lines, with the express intent of interdicting the enemy logistics effort. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ... The MiG-25 is a Russian interceptor that was the mainstay of the Soviet air defence. ...


Developed and built by Panavia, a tri-national consortium consisting of British Aerospace (then the British Aircraft Corporation), MBB of West Germany, and Alenia Aeronautica of Italy, the Tornado first flew on August 14, 1974, and saw action with the RAF and AMI (Italian Air Force) in the Gulf War. International co-operation continued after its entry into service within the Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment, a tri-nation training and evaluation unit operating from RAF Cottesmore, England. Including all variants, 992 aircraft were built for the three partner nations and Saudi Arabia. RAF Panavia Tornado GR4 Panavia Aircraft is a multinational company established by the three partner nations of the Tornado Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) project, Germany, Italy and the UK. The company is based and registered in Germany. ... British Aerospace (BAe) was a UK aircraft and defence systems manufacturer, now part of BAE Systems. ... The British Aircraft Corporation, or BAC, was a British aircraft manufacturer, formed from the merger (under government pressure) of English Electric Aviation Ltd. ... Messerschmitt is a famous German aircraft manufacturer, known primarily for their World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262. ... Alenia Aeronautica (formerly Aeritalia) is an aerospace engineering corporation in Italy, a subisidary of Finmeccanica. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... The Aeronautica Militare is the air force of Italy. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment was a unit based at RAF Cottesmore in Leicestershire, England. ... RAF Cottesmore is a Royal Air Force station in Rutland, England, situated between Cottesmore and Market Overton. ...

Contents

Development

Operators of the Panavia Tornado
Operators of the Panavia Tornado

During the 1960s, aeronautical designers looked to variable geometry designs to gain the manoeuvrability and efficient cruise of straight wings with the speed of swept-wing designs. Britain and France initiated the AFVG (Anglo French Variable Geometry) project in 1965, which ended with French withdrawal in 1967. In 1968, West Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy, and Canada formed a working group to examine replacements for the F-104 Starfighter, initially called the Multi Role Aircraft (MRA), and later called the Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA). Britain joined the MRCA group in 1968, and a memorandum of agreement was drafted between Britain, West Germany, and Italy. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x625, 28 KB) Operators of the Panavia Tornado. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1425x625, 28 KB) Operators of the Panavia Tornado. ... F-14 Tomcat with wings swept F-14 Tomcat with wings unswept A swing-wing is an airplane wing that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was a single-engined, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft that served with the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1958 until 1967. ...

A formation including a USAF F-15C, West German Tornado and RAF Tornado.

The program was intended to produce a single-seat replacement for the F-104G, and a two-seat strike fighter for Britain and West Germany. Canada and Belgium pulled out in 1969. The four remaining partner nations - United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands, formed Panavia Aircraft GmbH on 26 March 1969, though the Netherlands would pull out in 1970. The United Kingdom and West Germany each had a 42.5% stake, with the remaining 15% going to Italy. The scope of work for production was also agreed upon - the front fuselage and tail assembly in the United Kingdom, the center fuselage in West Germany, and the wings in Italy. A separate multinational company, Turbo Union, was formed in June 1970 to develop and build the RB199 engines for the aircraft, with ownership similarly split 40% Rolls-Royce, 40% MTU, and 20% FIAT. RAF Panavia Tornado GR4 Panavia Aircraft is a multinational company established by the three partner nations of the Tornado Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA) project, Germany, Italy and the UK. The company is based and registered in Germany. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... RB199s of Tornado F3 The Turbo Union RB199 is an aircraft jet engine designed and built jointly by Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio (now Avio). ... This article is about the aircraft engine company. ... MTU Aero Engines, Germanys leading aircraft engine manufacturer, develops, manufactures and provides service support for aircraft engines, military and civil alike. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ...


At the conclusion of the project definition phase in May 1970, the concepts were reduced to two designs; a single seat Panavia 100 which West Germany initially preferred, and the twin seat Panavia 200 which the RAF preferred and which would become the Tornado. In September 1971 the three governments signed an Intention to Proceed (ITP) document. At this point, the aircraft was intended solely for the low-level strike mission. The RAF decided it needed an air defence fighter, and initiated the development of the Tornado ADV. RAF redirects here. ... The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ...


The contract for the Batch 1 aircraft was signed on 29 July 1976. The first aircraft were delivered to the RAF and Luftwaffe on 5 June and 6 June 1979 respectively. The first Italian Tornado was delivered on 25 September 1981. On 29 January 1981 the Tri-national Tornado Training Establishment (TTTE) officially opened at RAF Cottesmore. is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... RAF Cottesmore is a Royal Air Force station in Rutland, England, situated between Cottesmore and Market Overton. ...


Production ended in 1998; The last aircraft was completed by British Aerospace on 24 September, a RSAF IDS. is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Design

The Tornado undergoing maintenance.
The Tornado undergoing maintenance.

The Tornado was designed as a low-level supersonic ground attack bomber, capable of taking off and landing in short distances. This requires good high-speed and low-speed flying characteristics. In general, an aircraft which is designed to fly at high speeds usually has poor low-speed characteristics. In order to achieve the desired high-speed performance, an aircraft has a highly swept or ‘delta’ wing platform. However, these wing designs are very inefficient at low speeds where unswept wing planforms are required. In order for an aircraft to be operated efficiently at both high and low speeds, variable wing sweep is a desirable feature; this was incorporated into the Tornado design. F-14 Tomcat with wings swept F-14 Tomcat with wings unswept A swing-wing is an airplane wing that may be swept back and then returned to its original position during flight. ...


When the wings are swept back, the Tornado IDS increases its high-speed low-level capability by reducing drag. When sweeping, the wings partially slide into the fuselage, reducing the exposed wing area. This gives the aircraft a low gust response in turbulent low-level winds. This not only makes flight much more comfortable for the aircrew but makes the aircraft a more stable platform from which to aim and deliver unguided weapons at low level.


The aircraft was designed to be land-based and operate from large airfields that were considered to be vulnerable to aerial attack. Therefore, during the development of the aircraft, short field landing capability was considered essential in order to enable the aircraft to operate from short strips on potentially damaged runways and taxiways. With the wings swept fully forwards the Tornado IDS generates greater lift because of the increased exposed wing area and the utility of full-span flaps and slats. This gives greater lift at lower speeds, reducing the minimum landing speed required and therefore giving shorter landing distances. Thrust reversers are also fitted to help in this respect, the Saab Viggen being the only other fighter aircraft to include this feature. The reversers contribute to the appearance of soot on the fin surface.


The cockpit is of conventional design with a centre stick and left hand throttles. In general, when the pilot wants to fly at low speed, a cockpit selection lever is used to sweep the wings forward. This maximises lift. When flying faster the wings are swept further back. In flight the Tornado GR4 uses three sweep angles - 25, 45 and 67 degrees, with a corresponding speed range appropriate for each angle. Sweep may also change automatically to accommodate different store configurations, as these directly affect lift and drag characteristics.


Operational history

German Air Force (Luftwaffe)

A (then) West German Tornado IDS in the colors of the German Navy.
A flight of Italian Tornado IDS's.
A flight of Italian Tornado IDS's.

The prototype model made its first flight on 14 August 1974 from Manching airbase in what was then West Germany. The first service delivery was made on 27 July 1979, with deliveries totaling 247 IDS variants, including 35 special ECR. German Tornados undertook NATO combat operations during the Kosovo War, the first combat operation for the Luftwaffe since World War II. British and Italian IDSs also participated. is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Manching is a municipality in the district of Pfaffenhofen, in Bavaria, Germany. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Beginning in 2000 German RECCE, IDS and ECR Tornadoes received the ASSTA 1 Upgrade. The integration of the ASSTA 2 upgrade began in 2005.


In 2007, a detachment of 6 Tornados of the Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 "Immelmann" (51st reconnaissance wing) deployed to Mazar-i-Sharif, Northern Afghanistan, to support NATO forces. [1] Mazār-e Sharīf, also known as Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-i Sharif and Mazar-i-Sharif (in Persian مزار شریف), is a city in northern Afghanistan and the capital of Balkh province. ...


German Navy (Marineflieger)

In addition to the order made by the Luftwaffe, the German Navy's Marineflieger also received 112 IDS variants [2]. These equipped two attack squadrons until 1994, when one was disbanded. The second was disbanded in 2005 with its aircraft and duties passed to the Luftwaffe. German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare)

The first Italian prototype made its maiden flight on 5 December 1975 from Turin, Italy. The Aeronautica Militare received 100 Tornado IDS (15 were later converted to ECR configuration). They took part in the first Gulf War in 1991, losing one plane to AAA, and in Kosovo in 1999, with the IDS in the bombing role and the ECR for suppression of enemy anti-aircraft radars (firing 115 HARM missiles). There is an ongoing Italian program for improve the Tornado's capabilities. For ten years the Italian Air force used 24 Tornado ADVs, leased from the Royal Air Force as stop-gap between the retirement of the F-104 Starfighter and the introduction of the Eurofighter. It is planned to replace the Tornado IDS/ECR fleet in Italian service with the F-35 Lightning II. is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Torino redirects here. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ... RAF redirects here. ... The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter was a single-engined, high-performance, supersonic interceptor aircraft that served with the United States Air Force (USAF) from 1958 until 1967. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


Royal Air Force

A British RAF Tornado GR1.
A British RAF Tornado GR1.

The first British prototype made its maiden flight on 30 October 1974. On 11 July 1985 the RAF reconnaissance version (GR1A) made its maiden flight. RAF Tornado GR1s were used during the Gulf War, Operation Desert Fox and the Kosovo War. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


For the Gulf War (Operation Granby), the ALARM missile and TIALD pod were rushed into service for RAF IDSs. Seven aircraft were lost to ground fire. [1] It is said[who?] that these Tornados were shot down by AAA fire and MANPADS during delivery of the JP233 missions, whereas in fact none of the losses occurred during the attack phase of a JP 233 mission. (One Tornado was shot down three minutes after the attack had been completed.) C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... For other uses, see Alarm (disambiguation). ... BAE TIALD pod on Panavia Tornado TIALD, the Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator pod, is manfactured by BAE SYSTEMS and is the UKs laser designator for laser-guided bombs. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... An SA-7 in use Russian Manportable SAM System SA-18/GROUSE MANPADS (Human-Portable Air-Defence System) are shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles. ... The JP233 was a British submunition delivery system consisting of a pair of large pods carrying several hundred submunitions designed to attack runways. ...


Laser guided bombing was introduced at Muharraq on 2 February using Buccaneers as airborne designators. Over 1500 bombing sorties and 100 JP233 sorties were flown by RAF Tornados during the Gulf War.[2] is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British attack aircraft serving with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. ...


On 14 February 1994 the RAF received the first GR.1B maritime strike aircraft. is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


As early as May 1984 the UK Ministry of Defence began studies for the first Tornado upgrade project, but the project stalled. In March 1993 a new Mid-Life Upgrade (MLU) project was launched. On 29 May the first GR.4 development aircraft made its maiden flight. On 29 July 1994 the UK signed a contract for MLU of GR1/GR1A/GR1Bs to GR.4/GR.4A standard. The first flight of an upgraded GR4 was on 4 April 1997, with the first delivery to the RAF on 31 October. The GR4 entered front line service on 28 April 1998. The Tornado GR4 made its operational debut in patrols during Operation Southern Watch. The aircraft flew from Ali Al Salem in Kuwait, and patrolled a large part of southern Iraq. Several times bombs were dropped when the aircraft were fired upon by Iraqi ground defences. The Ministry of Defence (MOD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Two F-16 Falcon aircraft prepare to depart on a patrol as part of Operation Southern Watch in 2000 Operation Southern Watch was a operation conducted by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) with the mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 33rd Parallel in Iraq, following...


The GR4 version's full wartime debut came in Operation Telic, the British part of the invasion of Iraq in 2003. The aircraft, according to all indications in the public domain[who?], performed well. The campaign in Iraq marked a number of firsts for the aircraft. No. 617 Squadron used the Storm Shadow Missile for the first time, and enhanced Paveway smart bombs were used to attack runways. On 23 March 2003 a Tornado GR4 was lost to friendly fire when it was engaged and shot down by a U.S. Patriot missile battery. Both crew members were killed. Operation (or Op) TELIC is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... A Paveway III seeker head, at the RAF Museum in Hendon, London. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


In early 2009, Tornado GR4s are due to replace the detachment of Harrier GR7/9 ground-attack aircraft that has been based at Afghanistan’s Kandahar airfield since November 2004.[3] The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II (GR5, GR7, and GR9 series) is a second generation vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jet aircraft used by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and, since 2006, the Royal Navy. ... This article is about the city in Afghanistan. ...


Royal Saudi Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Malakhiah as Sa'udiya)

Saudi Arabian Tornado ADV variant.
Saudi Arabian Tornado ADV variant.

On September 25, 1985, UK and Saudi Arabia signed the Al Yamamah I contract including, amongst other things, the sale of 48 IDS and 24 ADV model Tornados. The first flight of a RSAF Tornado IDS was on March 26, 1986, and the first Saudi ADV was delivered on February 9, 1989. Saudi Tornados undertook operations during the Gulf War. In June 1993 the Al Yamamah II contract was signed, the main element of which was 48 additional IDSs. is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... RSAF Tornado IDS Al Yamamah (The Dove) is the name of a series of massive arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which have been paid for by the delivery of up to 600,000 barrels of oil per day to the UK government. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... RSAF Tornado IDS Al Yamamah (The Dove) is the name of a series of massive arms sales by the United Kingdom to Saudi Arabia, which have been paid for by the delivery of up to 600,000 barrels of oil per day to the UK government. ...


In September 2006 it was reported that the Saudi government signed a contract worth £2.5 billion ($4.7 billion) with BAE Systems to upgrade possibly 80 aircraft in the Saudi Air Force fleet which it wants to keep until 2020.


Variants

The Tornado is cleared to carry almost all the air-launched weapons in the NATO inventory, including cluster bombs, anti-runway munitions, and nuclear weapons. The aircraft also has a limited air-to-air capability with Sidewinder AAMs. RAF IDS variants were initial designated the Tornado GR1 with later modified aircraft designated Tornado GR1A, Tornado GR1B, Tornado GR4 and Tornado GR4A. The GR1 was delivered in a dark sea-grey/dark-green wraparound camouflage, but this was changed to dark grey during the late 1990s. In operations over Iraq some GR1s received a sandy "pink" scheme. GR4s participating in the 2003 Iraq War were painted in a light grey scheme. German Navy examples normally sported a distinctive black/blue/gunmetal grey camouflage pattern. This article is about the military alliance. ... Cluster bomb exploding A cluster bomb is an air-dropped bomb that ejects multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... Generally, aircraft in British military service were known by names assigned by their manufacturer, or (for various imported types) bestowed upon them by the first military service to bring them into service. ...


RAF Tornado GR1

Formation flight of an RAF Tornado GR.1 and a Tornado F.2 prototype.
Formation flight of an RAF Tornado GR.1 and a Tornado F.2 prototype.

The RAF Tornado GR1 was the first generation version of the Panavia Tornado strike aircraft of the Royal Air Force. The first of 228 GR1s was delivered on June 5, 1979 and the type entered service in the early 1980s. 142 aircraft were upgraded to GR4 standard from 1997 to 2002, after which time the GR.1 designation was abandoned. RAF redirects here. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The Tornado was designed for ultra-low-level penetration strikes on Warsaw Pact targets in Europe using both conventional and tactical nuclear weapons, e.g WE.177. However, the end of the Cold War precluded it from ever seeing that use. A major feature of the GR.1 was its terrain-following radar, which allowed all-weather hands-off low-level flight, but current doctrine eschews extreme low-level flight and relies on inertial navigation with GPS updates rather than TFS. The RAF Tornado IDS aircraft have a Laser Range Finder and Marked Target Seeker (LRMTS) under the fuselage on the starboard side, just forward of the nose landing gear in an aerodynamic fairing. This system consists of a laser that can be used to measure the slant range of a point on the ground relative to the aircraft. This information is then used by the aircraft's avionics to compute targeting information for the crew. The LRMTS laser sensor can also be used to receive reflected laser energy from a third-party laser, allowing the crew to find targets that have been marked by troops on the ground or another aircraft. The laser cannot be used for guiding laser-guided bombs. IDS aircraft supplied to Italy, West Germany and the Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment do not have the LRMTS system, but the aircraft supplied to the Royal Saudi Air Force do.-1... An inert bomb originally used for training, shown here on its trolley in a museum WE.177 was the last British air-launched nuclear bomb. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Terrain-following radar is an aerospace technology that allows a very-low-flying aircraft to automatically maintain a constant altitude. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... Main and nosewheel undercarriage of a Qatar Airways Airbus A330 The undercarriage or landing gear is equipment which supports an aircraft when it is not flying. ... In telecommunication, slant range is the line-of-sight distance between two points, not at the same level relative to a specific datum. ... Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ... The Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment was a unit based at RAF Cottesmore in Leicestershire, England. ...


Its actual combat debut came in 1991 in the Gulf War. Nearly 60 GR1s were deployed by the United Kingdom to air bases at Muharraq (Bahrain), Tabuk and Dhahran in Saudi Arabia[4]. In the early stages of Operation Granby RAF Tornado GR.1s were used to target Iraqi military airfields using 1,000 lb (450 kg) unguided bombs in loft-bombing attacks and the JP233 runway denial weapon. Six RAF Tornados were lost, as was one Italian Tornado. Of the RAF aircraft, 4 were lost while delivering unguided bombs, one was lost after delivering JP233, and one was lost trying to deliver laser-guided bombs.[5] For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Categories: Geography stubs | Bahrain ... Tabuk (also spelled Tabouk) is the capital city of the Tabuk province in north western Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about Dhahran, the city. ... C Company, 1 STAFFS, in a live firing exercise, during Operation Granby, 6 January 1991. ... A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... Toss bombing (sometimes known as loft bombing) is a method of bombing where the attacking aircraft pulls upwards and releases its bomb load, giving the bomb additional forward velocity. ... The JP233 was a British submunition delivery system consisting of a pair of large pods carrying several hundred submunitions designed to attack runways. ... A laser-guided bomb (LGB) is a free-fall bomb, usually dropped from an aircraft, that is guided to its target by a laser designator The laser is directed at the target, illuminating it. ...


Following the end of the initial phase of the war, the GR.1s were switched to medium level strike missions. However they lacked both equipment and training to complete these missions properly. In an emergency deployment, the UK sent out a detachment of Blackburn Buccaneer aircraft equipped with the Pave Spike laser designator, allowing the GR.1s to drop precision guided weapons. A further crash program was initiated which saw some GR.1s fitted with the TIALD system. In the aftermath of the war, British forces remained in the Gulf, with GR1s being based at Ali Al Salem airbase in Kuwait for operations over the southern no fly zone. GR.1s based there took part in Operation Desert Fox in 1998. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... The Blackburn Buccaneer was a British attack aircraft serving with the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force. ... The Westinghouse Pave Spike is an electro-optical laser designator pod used to direct laser-guided bombs to target in daylight, visual conditions. ... A laser designator is a laser light source which illuminates a target. ... BAE TIALD pod on Panavia Tornado TIALD, the Thermal Imaging Airborne Laser Designator pod, is manfactured by BAE SYSTEMS and is the UKs laser designator for laser-guided bombs. ... Ali Al Salem is an airfield situated in Kuwait approximately 23 miles from the Iraqi border. ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


1999 saw further action for the GR1 in the Kosovo War. Aircraft operated from RAF Bruggen in Germany during the first part of the war, flying precision strike missions. They later moved to a base on Corsica shortly before the war ended to bring them closer to the combat zone. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... RAF Bruggen, Germany was until June 15, 2001 a major station of the Royal Air Force. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ...


Following the Kosovo War, the GR1 was phased out as more and more aircraft were upgraded to the GR4 standard. The final GR.1 was upgraded in 2003 and returned to the RAF on 10 June. [6]


RAF Tornado GR1B

The Tornado GR1B was a specialised anti-shipping variant of the RAF Tornado GR1. Based in Scotland at RAF Lossiemouth, they replaced the Blackburn Buccaneer in the anti-shipping role, delivering the Sea Eagle anti-ship missile. It did not have the ability to track shipping with its radar and relied on the missile's seeker for target acquisition. This article is about the country. ... RAF Lossiemouth (IATA: LMO, ICAO: EGQS) is a Royal Air Force station to the west of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, Scotland. ... The BAe Sea Eagle is a medium weight, fire-and-forget, sea-skimming anti-ship missile designed and built by BAe Dynamics (now MBDA) in service with the Indian Navy. ...


When the Tornado GR1 strike aircraft of the Royal Air Force were updated to the GR4 standard in the late 1990s there was no corresponding GR4B version of the GR4. It was judged that a specialised anti-shipping variant of the aircraft was no longer needed as the threat from surface warships the GR1B was designed to operate against had decreased, and also because the Sea Eagle missile was coming towards the end of its shelf-life and there were no plans to replace it due to the cost of doing so. Species Haliaeetus leucogaster Haliaeetus sanfordi Haliaeetus vocifer Haliaeetus vociferoides Haliaeetus leucoryphus Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Haliaeetus pelagicus The sea-eagles are a group of birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus[1] in the bird of prey family Accipitridae. ...


RAF Tornado GR4

RAF Tornado GR4 during Operation Iraqi Freedom.
RAF Tornado GR4 during Operation Iraqi Freedom.

As early as 1984 the UK Ministry of Defence began studies of a Mid-Life Update (MLU) of the aircraft to rectify shortcomings of the GR1. This update, to Tornado GR4 standard would improve capability in the medium level role while maintaining the Tornado's exceptional low-level penetration capability. The GR4 upgrade was not approved until 1994, after it had been revised to include lessons learned from the GR1's performance in the 1991 Gulf War. One major change was the move from low level penetration to medium level attacks, while maintaining the low level capability. The contracts were signed with British Aerospace (later BAE Systems) in 1994 for the upgrade of 142 GR1s to GR4 standard, work began in 1996 and was finished in 2003. RAF redirects here. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, England, UK, that has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ...


Upgrades to the more than twenty-year old aircraft included FLIR (Forward-Looking InfraRed), a wide-angle HUD (Heads-Up Display), improved cockpit displays, NVG (Night Vision Goggles) capabilities, new avionics and weapons systems, updated computer systems, and a Global Positioning System receiver. The updated weapons system allowed integration of the latest offensive weapons, for example the Storm Shadow and Brimstone missiles and reconnaissance equipment such as the RAPTOR pod. As of late 2006, the GR4 fleet is being fitted with a new 12.8-inch Multi-function display in the rear cockpit to replace the circular Combined Radar and Projected Map Display (CRPMD): The BAE Systems Tornado Advanced Radar Display Information System (TARDIS) is an Active-matrix liquid crystal display.[7] [8] TARDIS is currently being fitted to aircraft of the Fast Jet and Weapons Operational Evaluation Unit (No. 41 Squadron RAF), before being fitted to all GR4 aircraft. A forward looking infrared (FLIR) system is a television camera that takes pictures in infrared. ... For other meanings of Hud, see this article A Rafale fighter of the FS Charles de Gaulle, seen through the HUD of another Rafale. ... VC-10 (1960s) Airliner Cockpit. ... Experimental night vision goggles. ... Avionics is a portmanteau which literally means aviation electronics. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... GPS redirects here. ... Brimstone test firing from Panavia Tornado The Brimstone missile is an advanced Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) developed by MBDA. The missile is a development of Boeings AGM-114 Hellfire is designed to meet the RAFs requirement for a long range anti-armour weapon, allowing strike aircraft to... Look up raptor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... MFD Avidyne MFD used in many General Aviation aircraft A Multi-function display (MFD) is a small screen (CRT or LCD) in an aircraft surrounded by multiple buttons that can be used to display information to the pilot in numerous configurable ways. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, England, UK, that has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ... An active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) is a type of flat panel display, currently the overwhelming choice of notebook computer manufacturers, due to light weight, very good image quality, wide color gamut, and response time. ... No. ...


RAF Tornado GR1A/GR4A

The GR.1A was a reconnaissance variant of the RAF IDS. It is also in service with the Saudi Air Force. With the upgrade of the GR1 to GR4 standard, similarly the GR1A became the GR4A. The GR4A is equipped with the internally mounted TIRRS (Tornado Infra-Red Reconnaissance System), one on each side of the fuselage and a single IRLS (Infra-Red LineScan) reconnaissance sensor mounted on the underside of the fuselage. The sensor package replaced the 27 mm cannon. Unlike most reconnaissance packages which store their images on 35mm film or similar, the GR1A used video tape to save information.


The RAF ordered 30 airframes, either as rebuilds of GR1's or as new airframes, and 25 aircraft were upgraded to GR4A standard. The GR4A retains almost all of the offensive capabilities of the GR4. As RAPTOR becomes the principal reconnaissance sensor of Tornado in RAF service, TIRRS will be phased out. To this end, the RAF's Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at RAF Marham which comprises II Squadron and 13 Squadron now fly both GR4A and GR4 variants, since the sensors specific to the GR4A are not essential to the reconnaissance role. Look up raptor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... No. ... No. ...


Luftwaffe IDS

Tornado IDS of the (then) West German naval air arm (Marineflieger), June 1984.
Tornado IDS of the (then) West German naval air arm (Marineflieger), June 1984.

The German Air Force (Luftwaffe) received 212 Tornado IDSs. On January 13 2004 the then German Defence Minister Peter Struck announced major changes to the German armed forces. A major part of this announcement is the plan to cut the German fighter fleet from 426 in early 2004 to 265 by 2015. Assuming the full German order for 180 Eurofighter Typhoons is fulfilled, this will see the Tornado force reduced to 85. [9]   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Minister of Defence (in German, Bundesminister der Verteidigung) is the member of the German Federal Cabinet in charge of the Federal Ministry of Defence. ... Peter Struck Peter Struck (born January 24, 1943 in Göttingen) is a lawyer, member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and has been German Minister of Defence under chancellor Gerhard Schröder since October 22, 2002. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


Marineflieger IDS

The German Navy's air wing (Marineflieger) received 112 Tornado IDSs. In late 2004 the last Tornado unit was disbanded. The maritime combat role has been assumed by the Luftwaffe which has upgraded a unit of its Tornados to carry the Kormoran II and AGM-88 HARM missiles. German frigate Karlsruhe rescuing shipwrecked people off the coast of Somalia while participating in the international anti-terror operation ENDURING FREEDOM, April 2005 The Laboe Naval Memorial for sailors who lost their lives at sea during the World Wars and while on duty at sea and U 995 Modern air... Kormoran 2 The AS.34 Kormoran is a German-produced ASM. The Kormoran utilizes an inertial guidance system for the midcourse phase, switching to active radar homing during the terminal attack phase. ... The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions associated with surface-to-air missile radar systems. ...


Aeronautica Militare IDS

A Tornado IDS of the Italian Air Force.

The Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana) received 100 Tornado IDS. 57 were operational as of July 2004. In July 2002 Italy signed a contract with NATO Eurofighter and Tornado Management Agency (NETMA) and the Panavia partner companies for the initial upgrade of 18 IDSs. Alenia Aeronautica is responsible for the upgrade, the first of which was completed in November 2003. [10] The first phase of the upgrade will see a modernised avionics suite, new digital radios, a SATCOM capability and new weapons capabilities for the carriage of Joint Direct Attack Munitions, Raytheon Enhanced Paveway III laser guided bombs and the MBDA Storm Shadow. A further upgrade is being developed by Alenia which will improve mission capabilities, a new Defence Aids Sub-System (DASS) and a MIDS communications capability. The decision of whether or not to upgrade the whole fleet will follow, as the purchase of 109 F-35 Lightning II fighters has been decided by the Italian government to replace the Tornado. [11] The Aeronautica Militare is the air force of Italy. ... Alenia Aeronautica (formerly Aeritalia) is an aerospace engineering corporation in Italy, a subisidary of Finmeccanica. ... The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a low-cost guidance kit that converts existing unguided gravity bombs, or dumb bombs, into accurate, all-weather smart munitions. ... Raytheon Company (NYSE: RTN) is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in defense systems and defense and commercial electronics. ... Raytheon GBU-24 Family GBU-24 Paveway III The GBU-24 is a family of laser-guided bombs, a sub-group of the larger Raytheon Paveway III family of weapons. ... MBDA is a European arms company which manufactures missiles and is the result of the 2001 merger of Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles (of EADS), Alenia Marconi Systems missile divisions and Matra BAe Dynamics. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... Multifunctional Information Distribution System MIDS is the NATO name for the communication component of Link-16. ... This article is about a fighter aircraft. ...


Tornado ECR

Luftwaffe Tornado ECR.
Luftwaffe Tornado ECR.

Operated by Germany and Italy, the ECR is an IDS variant devoted to SEAD missions. It was first delivered on May 21, 1990. The ECR is equipped with an emitter-locator system (ELS) which is designed to locate enemy radar sites. The ECR is equipped with the AGM-88 HARM. The Luftwaffe's 35 ECRs were delivered new, while Italy received 16 converted IDSs. German ECRs were equipped with a Honeywell infra-red imaging systems for reconnaissance, however operational experience lead to the removal of this system; It was considered impractical for one aircraft to be tasked with both SEAD and reconnaissance. [12] AGM-88 HARM missile on a U.S. Navy aircraft SEAD (pronounced: see-add or seed), or Suppression of Enemy Air Defences, also known as Wild Weasels and Iron Hand, operations are military actions to suppress enemy surface-based air defences (Surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and anti-aircraft artillery... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions associated with surface-to-air missile radar systems. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ...


Italian ECRs (IT-ECR) differ from the Luftwaffe aircraft in that they were never equipped with a reconnaissance capability and as IDS conversion they are equipped with RB199 Mk.103 engines. Luftwaffe ECRs are equipped with RB199 Mk.105 which have a slightly higher thrust rating. The first IT-ECR was delivered on 27 February 1998 and formally accepted on 7 April. [13]


The RAF and RSAF IDS carry ALARM missiles in this role. For other uses, see Alarm (disambiguation). ...


Tornado ADV

Main article: Panavia Tornado ADV

The Tornado ADV is a fighter variant of the Tornado, developed for the RAF (known in service as the Tornado F.2 or F.3) and also operated by Saudi Arabia and Italy. The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ...


Operators

Unit Base Version Status Notes
AMI
102° Gruppo, 6° Stormo Ghedi IDS Active
154° Gruppo, 6° Stormo Ghedi IDS Active
156° Gruppo C.B., 36° Stormo Gioia del Colle IDS Active
12° Gruppo, 36° Stormo Gioia del Colle F.3 Inactive 1995-2004
155° Gruppo E.T.S., 50° Stormo San Damiano ECR Active
53° Stormo Cameri ECR Inactive
Deutsche Marine
Marinefliegergeschwader 1 Jagel Disbanded 1982-1993
Marinefliegergeschwader 2 Eggebek Disbanded 1986-2005
Luftwaffe
Jagdbombergeschwader 31 "Boelcke" Nörvenich IDS Active 34 aircraft, Slated for transition to Eurofighter in 2009
Jagdbombergeschwader 32 Lagerlechfeld ECR Active 34 aircraft, Receives ASSTA 2 Upgrade, remains in service
Jagdbombergeschwader 33 Büchel IDS Active 36 aircraft, Slated for transition to Eurofighter in 2012
Jagdbombergeschwader 34 "Allgäu" Memmingen Disbanded Disbanded 2003
Jagdbombergeschwader 38 "Friesland" Jever Disbanded Disbanded 2005
Aufklärungsgeschwader 51 "Immelmann" Jagel/Schleswig IDS Active 46 aircraft, Receives ASSTA 2 Upgrade, remains in service
RAF
No. 2 Squadron Marham GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 5 Squadron Coningsby F3 Disbanded 1987-2003
No. 9 Squadron Marham GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 11 Squadron Leeming F3 Disbanded 1988-2005
No. 12 Squadron Lossiemouth GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 13 Squadron Marham GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 14 Squadron Lossiemouth GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. XV (Reserve) Squadron Lossiemouth GR4 Reserve 26 aircraft. GR4 Operational Conversion Unit
No. 16 Squadron Laarbruch GR1 Disbanded 1983-1991
No. 17 Squadron Brüggen GR1 Disbanded 1985-1999
No. 20 Squadron Laarbruch GR1 Disbanded 1984-1992
No. 23 Squadron Leeming F3 Disbanded 1988-1994
No. 25 Squadron Leeming F3 Active 16 aircraft
No. 27 Squadron Marham GR1 Disbanded 1983-1993
No. 29 Squadron Coningsby F3 Disbanded 1987-1998
No. 31 Squadron Marham GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 43 Squadron Leuchars F3 Active 16 aircraft
No. 56 (Reserve) Squadron Leuchars F3 Reserve 16 aircraft. F3 Operational Conversion Unit
No. 111 Squadron Leuchars F3 Active 16 aircraft
No. 617 Squadron Lossiemouth GR4/4A Active 12 aircraft
No. 229 OCU
(No 65 (Reserve) Squadron)
Coningsby F2/3 Renumbered 56(R) Sqn 1984-1992 F.2/3 Operational Conversion Unit
No. 1435 Flight Mount Pleasant F3 Active 4 aircraft, based in the Falklands
Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment Cottesmore IDS, GR1 Disbanded
Tornado Weapons Conversion Unit
(No. 45 Squadron)
Honington GR1 Renumbered XV(R) Sqn 1981-1992
Royal Saudi Air Force
KAAB IDS Active 96 IDS
No. 7 Squadron RSAF IDS
No. 29 Squadron RSAF ADV
No. 34 Squadron RSAF ADV
No. 66 Squadron RSAF IDS
No. 75 Squadron RSAF IDS
No. 83 Squadron RSAF IDS

The Aeronautica Militare is the air force of Italy. ... Ghedi is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. ... Ghedi is a town and comune in the province of Brescia, in Lombardy. ... Gioia del Colle is a town in the province of Bari, Apulia, Italy. ... Gioia del Colle is a town in the province of Bari, Apulia, Italy. ... San Damiano is a church with a monastery near Assisi, Italy. ... The Deutsche Marine is the present day German Navy, replacing both the East German Volksmarine and the West German Bundesmarine after the reunification of Germany in 1990. ... Jagel is a municipality in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ... Eggebek (danish: Egebæk) is a municipality in the district of Schleswig-Flensburg, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Nörvenich is a village and a municipality in the district of Düren in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Büchel is a municipality in the district Cochem-Zell, in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. ... Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region Swabia in Germany. ... Jever, earlier than 1930 Jever [ˈjeːfɐ] is the capital of the district Friesland in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... RAF redirects here. ... No. ... RAF Marham is a Royal Air Force station in Norfolk, England. ... No. ... RAF Coningsby, is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England. ... No. ... No. ... RAF air defence bases RAF Leeming is a Royal Air Force station in North Yorkshire, England. ... No. ... RAF Lossiemouth (IATA: LMO, ICAO: EGQS) is a Royal Air Force station to the west of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, Scotland. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... RAF Laarbruch (motto: Ein Feste Burg - A Fortress Sure), located on the Germany/Netherlands border, was home to various first-line squadrons, including II (AC) Squadron flying F-4 Phantom II in the 1970s, followed by Jaguars in the 1980s, .These were replaced by the Tornado with 4 sqns (2... No. ... No. ... RAF Laarbruch (motto: Ein Feste Burg - A Fortress Sure), located on the Germany/Netherlands border, was home to various first-line squadrons, including II (AC) Squadron flying F-4 Phantom II in the 1970s, followed by Jaguars in the 1980s, .These were replaced by the Tornado with 4 sqns (2... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... RAF Coningsby, is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England. ... No. ... No. ... RAF Leuchars is the most northerly air defence station in the United Kingdom. ... Number 56 (R) Squadron is one of the oldest and most successful squadrons in the Royal Air Force, with battle honours from many of the significant air campaigns of both world wars. ... An Operational Conversion Unit (OCU) is a unit within an air force whose role is to support preparation for the operational missions of a specific aircraft type by providing trained personnel. ... No. ... For the video game see The Dam Busters (video game) No. ... While the UK officially does not foresee any threat to the Falkland Islands, it maintains significant military forces as a deterrent against any aggressor. ... RAF Mount Pleasant (IATA: MPN, ICAO: EGYP) (also known as Mount Pleasant Airport or Mount Pleasant Complex)[1] is a military base for the Royal Air Force in the British Overseas Territory of the Falkland Islands. ... The Tri-National Tornado Training Establishment was a unit based at RAF Cottesmore in Leicestershire, England. ... RAF Cottesmore is a Royal Air Force station in Rutland, England, situated between Cottesmore and Market Overton. ... 45 Squadron - Royal Air Force. ... RAF Honington (IATA: BEQ, ICAO: EGXH) is a Royal Air Force station 6 miles south of Thetford near Ixworth in Suffolk, England. ... The Royal Saudi Air Force (Arabic: ‎, ), is the air force branch of Saudi Arabian armed forces. ...

Aircraft on display

Although still an operational aircraft, a number of older aircraft are on public display:

An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum Hendon The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... Shoreham Airport (IATA: ESH, ICAO: EGKA), also known as Shoreham (Brighton City) Airport, or Brighton, Hove and Worthing Municipal Airport is an airport located 1 nautical mile (1. ... The Yorkshire Air Museum, (RAF Elvington airfield during the World War II), is an air museum in the United Kingdom. ... The Yorkshire Air Museum, (RAF Elvington airfield during the World War II), is an air museum in the United Kingdom. ... The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official national museum of the United States Air Force and is located on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, in Riverside, Ohio, just east of Dayton. ... An Avro Lancaster in the main hangar of the RAF Museum London The Royal Air Force Museum (RAF Museum) is a museum dedicated to the history of aviation, and the British Royal Air Force in particular. ... The Imperial War Museum is a museum in London featuring military vehicles, weapons, war memorabilia, a library, a photographic archive, and an art collection of 20th century and later conflicts, especially those involving Britain, and the British Empire. ... The Museum of Flight is an aerospace musuem in East Lothian, Scotland, and part of the National Museums of Scotland. ... The Pima Air & Space Museum is the worlds largest non-government funded aerospace museum. ... Messerschmitt Me 163 at the Luftwaffenmuseum in Berlin-Gatow Canadair Sabre at the Luftwaffenmuseum in Berlin-Gatow The Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr (German for Airforce Museum of the Bundeswehr), together with the Militärhistorische Museum der Bundeswehr, is one of the major military history museums in Germany. ...

Specifications (Tornado GR.4 (IDS))

Data from[citation needed] Image File history File links Tornado_IDS_graphic. ...


General characteristics

  • Crew: 2
  • Length: 16.72 m (54 ft 10 in)
  • Wingspan: 13.91 m at 25° wing sweep, 8.60 m at 67° wing sweep (45.6 ft / 28.2 ft)
  • Height: 5.95 m (19.5 ft)
  • Wing area: 26.6 m² (286 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 13,890 kg (31,620 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 28,000 kg (61,700 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2× Turbo-Union RB199-34R Mk 103 afterburning turbofans
    • Dry thrust: 43.8 kN (9,850 lbf) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 76.8 kN (17,270 lbf) each

Performance The distance AB is the wing span of this Aer Lingus Airbus A320. ... In aviation, the Maximum Take-Off Weight (or MTOW) is the maximum weight with which an aircraft can achieve flight. ... RB199s of Tornado F3 The Turbo Union RB199 is an aircraft jet engine designed and built jointly by Rolls-Royce, MTU and FiatAvio (now Avio). ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ... Schematic diagram of high-bypass turbofan engine CFM56-3 turbofan, lower half, side view. ... For other uses of afterburner, see Afterburner (disambiguation). ...

  • Maximum speed: Mach 2.34 (2,417.6 km/h, 1,511 mph)
  • Range: 1,390 km (870 mi / 2,420 mi) typical combat
  • Ferry range: 3,890 km () with four external drop tanks
  • Service ceiling 15,240 m (50,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 76.7 m/s (15,100 ft/min)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.55

Armament V speeds are speeds that define certain performance and limiting characteristics of an aircraft. ... The maximal total range is the distance an aircraft can fly between takeoff and landing, as limited by fuel capacity in powered aircraft, or cross-country speed and environmental conditions in unpowered aircraft. ... In aeronautics, a ceiling is the maximum density altitude an aircraft can reach under a set of conditons The service ceiling attempts to capture the maximum usable altitude of an aircraft. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Thrust-to-weight ratio (where weight means weight at the Earths surface) is a dimensionless parameter characteristic of rocket and jet engines, and of vehicles propelled by such engines (typically space launch vehicles and jet aircraft). ...

  • Guns: Single 27 mm Mauser BK-27 cannon with 180 rounds
  • Hardpoints: Four fuselage pylons and four swivelling underwing pylons with a capacity of a maximum of 9000 kg (19,800 lb) of weapons, fuel, and ECM pods, inner wing pylons have shoulder rails for two AIM-9 Sidewinder, IRIS-T or AIM-132 ASRAAM air-to-air self-defence missiles. A wide variety of air-to-ground weapons can be carried including Wasp ASM, AS.34 Kormoran anti-ship missiles, BAe Sea Eagle anti-ship missiles, AGM-65 Maverick ASM, AGM-88 HARM, ALARM anti-radiation missile, LAU-51A and LR-25 rocket pods, napalm bombs, retarded bombs, BL755 cluster bombs, Paveway series laser-guided bombs, and HOPE/HOSBO series guided glide bombs, MW-1 munitions dispenser, JP233 munitions dispenser, Storm Shadow, Brimstone, Taurus missile, can be equipped to carry B61 and WE.177 nuclear bombs.
  • RAPTOR Reconnaissance pod, TIALD laser designator[14],

The BK 27 (also BK27 or BK-27) (German acronym for Bordkanone, translation: Board Cannon) is a 27 mm autocannon manufactured by Mauser (currently part of Rheinmetall). ... The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking, short-range, air-to-air missile carried by fighter aircraft and recently, certain gunship helicopters. ... IRIS-T (Infra Red Imaging System Tail/Thrust Vector-Controlled) is a German-led program to develop a short-range air-to-air missile to replace the AIM-9 Sidewinder. ... The AIM-132 Advanced Short Range Air-to-Air Missile is a British air-to-air missile with infra-red guidance. ... Kormoran 2 The AS.34 Kormoran is a German-produced ASM. The Kormoran utilizes an inertial guidance system for the midcourse phase, switching to active radar homing during the terminal attack phase. ... The BAe Sea Eagle is a medium weight, fire-and-forget, sea-skimming anti-ship missile designed and built by BAe Dynamics (now MBDA) in service with the Indian Navy. ... The AGM-65 Maverick is an air-to-ground tactical missile (AGM) designed for close air support. ... The AGM-88 High-speed Anti-Radiation Missile (HARM) is an air-to-surface tactical missile designed to home in on electronic transmissions associated with surface-to-air missile radar systems. ... BL755 is a cluster bomb. ... A Paveway III seeker head, at the RAF Museum in Hendon, London. ... HOPE (HOchleistungs-PEnetrator = High Power Penetrator) and HOSBO (HOchleistungs-Spreng-BOmbe = High Power Explosive Bomb) are a new family of smart bombs, currently under development by Diehl BGT Defence for the German Luftwaffe. ... The JP233 was a British submunition delivery system consisting of a pair of large pods carrying several hundred submunitions designed to attack runways. ... Storm Shadow is an Anglo-French air-launched cruise missile, manufactured by MBDA and used by Britain, France, and Italy. ... Brimstone test firing from Panavia Tornado The Brimstone missile is an advanced Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) developed by MBDA. The missile is a development of Boeings AGM-114 Hellfire is designed to meet the RAFs requirement for a long range anti-armour weapon, allowing strike aircraft to... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The B61 nuclear bomb is the the primary thermonuclear weapon in the U.S. Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War. ... An inert bomb originally used for training, shown here on its trolley in a museum WE.177 was the last British air-launched nuclear bomb. ...

See also

Related development BAE SYSTEMS FOAS Concept The Future Offensive Air System is the system which will replace the RAFs strike capability currently provided by the Tornado GR4. ...

  • Panavia Tornado ADV

Comparable aircraft The Tornado Air Defence Variant (ADV) is a fighter/interceptor version of the Panavia Tornado in service with the Royal Air Force. ...

  • F-15E Strike Eagle
  • F-111 Aardvark
  • Mikoyan MiG-27
  • Sukhoi Su-24
  • Xian JH-7

Related lists The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... The General Dynamics F-111 is a medium-range strategic bomber, reconnaissance, and tactical strike aircraft designed in the 1960s. ... The Mikoyan MiG-27 (Russian: ) (NATO reporting name Flogger D) is a ground attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan design bureau in the Soviet Union and later licence-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur (Valiant). It is based on the MiG-23 fighter aircraft, but optimized... The Sukhoi Su-24 (NATO reporting name Fencer) was the Soviet Unions most advanced all-weather interdiction and attack aircraft in the 1970s and 1980s. ... The Xian JH-7 (Jian Hong-7; NATO reporting name Flounder[1]), also known as the FBC-1 (Fighter/Bomber China-1)Flying Leopard, is a two-seater (tandem), twin-engine fighter-bomber in service with the Peoples Liberation Army Naval Air Force (PLANAF), and possibly the Peoples...

This is a list of currently-active military aircraft in use by the United Kingdom. ... This list of military aircraft of Germany includes prototype, pre-production, and operational types. ...

References

  1. ^ German ‘Tornado’ aircraft deploy to Mazar-e Sharif, NATO ISAF Press Release #2007-270
  2. ^ Luftwaffe Resource Center: Panavia Tornado
  3. ^ RAF Tornados to replace Harriers in Afghanistan
  4. ^ RAF Tornado Aircraft Deployments in Operation Granby.. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  5. ^ Statement on the Loss of RAF Tornado Aircraft in Combat During the Conduct of Air Operations against Iraq.. Ministry of Defence. Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  6. ^ BAE Systems Investor Brief - June 2003. BAE Systems plc (2003-06-30). Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
  7. ^ BAE Systems Virtual News Room - 9th February 2004. BAE Systems plc (2003-06-30). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  8. ^ Wind River Blog Network - 25th October 2006 (2006-10-25). Retrieved on 2006-10-27.
  9. ^ "Germany Announces Major Armed Forces Cuts", Air Forces Monthly, Key Publising, March 2004, pp. 8. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  10. ^ "First Italian MLU Tornado", Air Forces Monthly, Key Publising, February 2004, pp. 7. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  11. ^ "First Upgraded Italian Tornado on show", Air Forces Monthly, Key Publishing, September 2004, pp. 18. Retrieved on 2006-10-19. 
  12. ^ Davies, Steve. "German SEAD: The Tornado ECRs of JaBoG 32", Air Forces Monthly, Key Publishing, March 2003, pp. 32. Retrieved on 2006-10-02. 
  13. ^ "First Tornado IT-ECR for 50° Stormo", Air Forces Monthly, Key Publishing, June 1998. Retrieved on 2006-10-03. 
  14. ^ Rafael Lightening III targeting pod has replaced TIALD 500 during the UK RAF's operations in Iraq.

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Air Forces Monthly is a military aviation magazine published by Key Publishing, based in Stamford, United Kingdom. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Panavia Tornado
Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... This is a timeline of aviation history. ... This list of aircraft is sorted alphabetically, beginning with the name of the manufacturer (or, in certain cases, designer). ... This is a list of aircraft manufacturers (in alphabetic order). ... List of aircraft engines: // Two- and four-stroke rotary, radial, inline. ... This is a list of aircraft engine manufacturers both past and present. ... This is a list of airlines in operation (by continents and country). ... This is a list of air forces, sorted alphabetically by country, followed by a list of former countries air forces. ... This is an incomplete list of aircraft weapons, past and present. ... Below is a list of (links to pages on) missiles, sorted alphabetically by name. ... A Boeing 720 being flown under remote control as part of NASAs Controlled Impact Demonstration The following is a list of Unmanned aerial vehicles developed and operated by various countries around the world. ... This is a list of experimental aircraft. ... The SR-71 Blackbird is the current record holder. ... Flight distance records without refueling. ... These are the records set for going the highest in the atmosphere from the age of ballooning onward. ... The flight endurance record is the amount of time spent in the air. ... Aircraft with a production run greater than 5,000 aircraft. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Panavia Tornado (1500 words)
Panavia was formed to design and build the new aircraft.
The Tornado's poor high altitude performance with a full bombload means it is not well suited to these new methods.
However many would argue that the Tornado's ability to go in fast and low would be invaluable in any future conflict where, unlike Iraq in the Gulf war, the enemy retained even partial command of the air with his own fighter force.
Panavia Tornado (647 words)
Panavia is a consortium of British Aerospace, MBB - now DASA - (42,5% each) and FIAT (15%) and dates back to the late 1960s.
The 10 surplus Tornados now form a third squadron within MFG 2, who's task is the training an europeanization of Navy aircrews.
Though it's maiden flight lies 25 years in the past, Tornado still forms the backbone of the Bundeswehrs attack and recce airwings and a successor is not yet in sight.
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