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Encyclopedia > Panama Canal

The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. One of the largest and most difficult engineering projects ever undertaken, it had an enormous impact on shipping between the two oceans, replacing the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passage and Cape Horn at the southernmost tip of South America. A ship sailing from New York to San Francisco via the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 mi) route around Cape Horn.[1] Although the concept of a canal near Panama dates back to the early 16th century, the first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership. After this attempt failed and saw 22,000 workers die, the project of building a canal was attempted and completed by the United States in Panama in the early 1900s, with the canal opening in 1914. The building of the 77 km (48 mi) canal was plagued by problems, including disease (particularly malaria and yellow fever) and landslides. By the time the canal was completed, a total of 27,500 workers are estimated to have died in the French and American efforts. Pacific redirects here. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... Cape Horn from the South. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ...


Since opening, the canal has been enormously successful, and continues to be a key conduit for international shipping. Each year more than 14,000 ships pass through the canal, carrying more than 205 million tons of cargo. By 2002 about 800,000 ships had used the canal altogether.[2] Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The canal can accommodate vessels from small private yachts up to large commercial vessels. The maximum size of vessel that can use the canal is known as Panamax; an increasing number of modern ships exceed this limit, and are known as post-Panamax vessels. A typical passage through the canal by a cargo ship takes around nine hours. 14,011 vessels passed through in 2005, with a total capacity of 278.8 million tons, making an average of almost 40 vessels per day.[3] This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ...

A schematic of the Panama Canal, illustrating the sequence of locks and passages
A schematic of the Panama Canal, illustrating the sequence of locks and passages

Contents

Image File history File links Panama-Canal-rough-diagram-quick. ... Image File history File links Panama-Canal-rough-diagram-quick. ...

History

The earliest mention of a canal across the isthmus of Central America dates back to 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and king of Spain, suggested that a canal in Panama would ease the voyage for ships travelling to and from Spain and Peru.[4] For other uses, see Isthmus (disambiguation). ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ...


During his exploring expedition of 1789-1794 Alessandro Malaspina demonstrated the feasibility of a canal and outlined plans for its construction.[5] Alessandro Malaspina (also found as Alexandro and Alejandro) (1754 - 1810) was a Spanish naval officer and explorer. ...


Given the strategic situation of Central America as a narrow land dividing two great oceans, other forms of trade links were attempted over the years. The ill-fated Darien scheme was an attempt launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up an overland trade route, but was defeated by the generally inhospitable conditions, and abandoned two years later in 1700.[6] Finally, the Panama Railway was built across the isthmus opening in 1855. This overland link greatly facilitated trade, and this vital piece of infrastructure was a key factor in the selection of the later canal route. The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... Motto Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Capital Edinburgh¹ Language(s) Gaelic, Scots Government Monarchy King/Queen  - 843-860 Kenneth I  - 1587–1625 James VI  - 1702-1714 Anne Legislature Parliament of Scotland History  - United 843  - Union of the... The Panama Railway or Panama Railroad was the worlds first transcontinental railroad. ...

Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907
Construction work on the Gaillard Cut is shown in this photograph from 1907

An all-water route between the oceans was still seen as the ideal solution, and the idea of a canal was enhanced by the success of the Suez Canal. The French, under Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction on a sea-level canal (i.e., without locks) through the province of Panama (as it was then) on January 1, 1880. The French began work in a rush with insufficient prior study of the geology and hydrology of the region.[7] Disease, particularly malaria and yellow fever, sickened and killed vast numbers of employees, ranging from laborers to top directors of the French Company. Public health measures were ineffective because the role of the mosquito was then unknown. These conditions made it impossible to maintain an experienced work force as fearful technical employees quickly returned to France. Even the hospitals contributed to the problem, providing breeding places for mosquitoes inside the unscreened wards. Actual conditions were hushed-up in France to avoid recruitment problems.[7] In 1893, after a great deal of work, the French scheme was abandoned due to disease and the sheer difficulty of building a sea-level canal, as well as lack of French field experience, such as downpours causing steel equipment to rust.[8] The high toll from disease was one of the major factors in the failure; as many as 22,000 workers are estimated to have died during the main period of French construction (1881–1889).[7] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1627x1643, 427 KB) The famous Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1627x1643, 427 KB) The famous Culebra Cut of the Panama Canal, 1907. ... The Gaillard Cut, or Culebra Cut, is a man-made valley cutting through the continental divide in Panama. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand de Lesseps. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


According to Stephen Kinzer's 2006 book Overthrow, in 1898 the chief of the French Canal Syndicate (a group that owned large swathes of land across Panama), Philippe Bunau Varilla, hired William Nelson Cromwell (of the US law firm Sullivan & Cromwell) to lobby the US Congress to build a canal across Panama, and not across Nicaragua. William Nelson Cromwell (1854-1948) was an American attorney active in promotion of the Panama Canal and other major ventures. ... Sullivan & Cromwell LLP is an international law firm headquartered in New York. ...


In 1902, after having run into a 10-cent Nicaraguan postal stamp produced in the US by the American Bank Note Company erroneously depicting a fuming Momotambo volcano (which was nearly dormant and stands more than 160 km (100 miles) from the proposed Nicaraguan canal path) and taking advantage of a particularly volcanic year in the Caribbean, Cromwell planted a story in the New York Sun reporting that the Momotambo volcano had erupted and caused a series of seismic shocks. He thereafter sent leaflets with the above stamps pasted on them to all U.S. Senators as witness to the volcanic activity in Nicaragua. Momotombo is a volcano in Nicaragua, not far from the city of León. ... The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ...


On June 19, 1902, three days after senators received the stamps, they voted for the Panama route for the canal. For his lobbying efforts, Cromwell received the sum of $800,000.[9] is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


The United States, under Theodore Roosevelt (with John Frank Stevens as Chief Engineer from 1905-1907), bought out the French equipment and excavations, and began work on May 4, 1904, after helping Panama achieve independence from Colombia. In exchange for U.S. help in separating Panama from Colombia and setting it up as an independent nation, Panama would give the United States control of the Panama Canal Zone.[attribution needed] Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Portrait of John Frank Stevens John F. Stevens (25 April 1853–2 June 1943) built the Great Northern Railroad in the United States and was chief engineer on the Panama Canal. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ...


Chief Engineer's (1905-1907), John Frank Stevens, primary achievement in Panama was in building the infrastructure necessary to complete the canal. He rebuilt the Panama Railway and devised a system for disposing of soil from the excavations by rail. He also built proper housing for canal workers and oversaw extensive sanitation and mosquito-control programs that eliminated Yellow Fever and other diseases from the Isthmus. Stevens argued the case against a sea level canal like the French had tried to build. He successfully convinced Theodore Roosevelt of the necessity of a canal built with dams and locks. Portrait of John Frank Stevens John F. Stevens (25 April 1853–2 June 1943) built the Great Northern Railroad in the United States and was chief engineer on the Panama Canal. ...


A significant investment was made in eliminating disease from the area, particularly yellow fever and malaria, the causes of which had recently been discovered by Dr. Walter Reed in Cuba with U.S. Army motivation during the Spanish-American War (see Health measures during the construction of the Panama Canal). With the diseases under control, and after significant work on preparing the infrastructure, construction of an elevated canal with locks began in earnest. The Americans also gradually replaced the old French equipment with machinery designed for a larger scale of work (such as the giant hydraulic crushers supplied by the Joshua Hendy Iron Works), quickening the pace of construction,[7] President Roosevelt had the former French machinery minted into pins for all workers who spent at least two years on the construction to commemorate their contribution to the building of the canal. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... Major Walter Reed, M.D., (September 13, 1851 - November 23, 1902) was a U.S. Army physician who in 1900 led the team which confirmed the theory (first set forth in 1881 by Cuban doctor/scientist Carlos Finlay) that yellow fever is transmitted by mosquitoes, rather than by direct contact. ... One of the greatest challenges facing the builders of the Panama Canal was dealing with the tropical diseases rife in the area. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... A variety of award pins, the largest of which is only 1 inch (2. ...


In 1907 US President Theodore Roosevelt appointed George Washington Goethals as chief engineer of the Panama Canal. The building of the Canal was completed in 1914, two years ahead of the target date of June 1, 1916. The canal was formally opened on August 15, 1914 with the transit of the cargo ship Ancon.[10] Coincidentally, this was also the same month that fighting in World War I began in Europe. Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... George Washington Goethals George Washington Goethals [Go-tuhles] (29 June 1858 - 21 January 1928) was a United States Army officer and civil engineer, best known for his supervision of construction and the opening of the Panama Canal. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The advances in hygiene resulted in a relatively low death toll during the American construction; still, 5,609 workers died during this period (1904–1914).[11] This brought the total death toll for the construction of the canal to around 27,500. Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ...


By the 1930s it was seen that water supply would be an issue for the canal; this prompted the building of the Madden Dam across the Chagres River above Gatun Lake. The dam, completed in 1935, created Alajuela Lake, which acts as additional water storage for the canal.[12][13] In 1939, construction began on a further major improvement: a new set of locks for the canal, large enough to carry the larger warships which the U.S. had under construction, or planned for future construction. The work proceeded for several years, and significant excavation was carried out on the new approach channels, but the project was canceled after World War II.[14][15] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

USS Missouri passes through the canal
USS Missouri passes through the canal

After the war, United States' control of the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it became contentious as relations between Panama and the U.S. became increasingly tense. Many Panamanians felt that the canal zone rightfully belonged to Panama; student protests were met by the fencing in of the zone and an increased military presence.[16] Negotiations toward a new settlement began in 1974, and resulted in the Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Signed by President of the United States Jimmy Carter and Omar Torrijos of Panama on September 7, 1977, this set in motion the process of handing the canal over to Panamanian control for free as long as Panama signed a treaty guaranteeing the permanent neutrality of the Canal (Neutrality Treaty) and allowed the U.S. to come back anytime. Though controversial within the U.S., the treaty led to full Panamanian control effective at noon on December 31, 1999, and control of the canal was handed over to the Panama Canal Authority (ACP). Download high resolution version (595x741, 108 KB)Missouri transits the panama canal in October 1945. ... Download high resolution version (595x741, 108 KB)Missouri transits the panama canal in October 1945. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Map of Panama, with Panama canal The Torrijos-Carter Treaties (sometimes referred to in the singular as the Torrijos-Carter Treaty), are a pair of treaties signed by the United States and Panama in Washington, D. C. on September 7, 1977, abrogating the Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty signed in 1903. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Omar Torrijos (right) with farmers in the Panamanian countryside. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Panama Canal Authority (Spanish: Autoridad del Canal de Panamá, or ACP) is the agency of the government of Panama responsible for the operation and management of the Panama Canal. ...


Before this handover, the government of Panama held an international bid to negotiate a 25-year contract for operation of the Canal's container shipping ports (chiefly two facilities at the Atlantic and Pacific outlets), which was won by the firm Hutchison Whampoa, a Hong Kong-based shipping concern whose owner Li Ka Shing is the wealthiest man in China. Hutchison Whampoa Limited or HWL (Traditional Chinese: , SEHK: 0013) of Hong Kong is a Fortune 500 company and one of the largest companies listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. ... This is a Chinese name; the family name is 李 (Lǐ) Sir Li Ka Shing, GBM, KBE (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: , Jyutping: Lei5 Gaa1-sing4, Li2 Gia1-sêng5 gdr, born July 29, 1928), is one of the most famous businessmen in the world for his wealth and his business...


Layout

The canal consists of seventeen artificial lakes, several improved and artificial channels, and three sets of locks. An additional artificial lake, Alajuela Lake (known during the American era as Madden Lake), acts as a reservoir for the canal. The layout of the canal as seen by a ship transiting from the Pacific end to the Atlantic is as follows:[17] Due to the local geography, the main direction of sailing is north-westward, whereas the global direction from Atlantic to Pacific is eastward. For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... Canal locks in England. ... The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ...

  • From the buoyed entrance channel in the Gulf of Panama (Pacific side), ships travel 13.2 km (8.2 mi) up the channel to the Miraflores locks, passing under the Bridge of the Americas
  • The two-stage Miraflores lock system, including the approach wall, is 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) long, with a total lift of 16.5 meters (54 ft) at mid-tide
  • The artificial Miraflores Lake is the next stage, 1.7 kilometers (1.0 mi) long, and 16.5 metres (54 ft) above sea level
  • The single-stage Pedro Miguel lock, which is 1.4 kilometres (0.8 mi) long, is the last part of the ascent with a lift of 9.5 meters (31 ft) up to the main level of the canal
  • The Gaillard (Culebra) Cut slices 12.6 kilometres (7.8 mi) through the continental divide at an altitude of 26 metres (85 ft), and passes under the Centennial Bridge
  • The Chagres River (Río Chagres), a natural waterway enhanced by the damming of Lake Gatún, runs west about 8.5 kilometres (5.3 mi), merging into Lake Gatun
  • Gatun Lake, an artificial lake formed by the building of the Gatun Dam, carries vessels 24.2 kilometers (15.0 mi) across the isthmus
  • The Gatún locks, a three-stage flight of locks 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long, drop ships back down to sea level
  • A 3.2 kilometer (2.0 mi) channel forms the approach to the locks from the Atlantic side
  • Limón Bay (Bahía Limón), a huge natural harbour, provides an anchorage for some ships awaiting transit, and runs 8.7 kilometres (5.4 mi) to the outer breakwater

Thus, total length of the canal is 77.1 km (47.9mi). Buoys redirects here. ... Gulf of Panama with minor gulfs. ... Pacific redirects here. ... The Bridge of the Americas (Spanish: Puente de las Américas; originally known as the Thatcher Ferry Bridge) is a road bridge in Panama, which spans the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. ... The Gaillard Cut, or Culebra Cut, is a man-made valley cutting through the continental divide in Panama. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... Panamas Centennial Bridge (Spanish: Puente Centenario) is a major bridge crossing the Panama Canal, and hence connecting North and South America. ... The Chagres River (Spanish: Río Chagres) is a river in central Panama. ... Ships follow marked channels amongst the hilltop islands. ... Image:Gatundam. ...


Canal lock size

Mitre lock gate at Gatun
Mitre lock gate at Gatun
The bare 3" of clearance available to a Panamax Ship


Initially the locks at Gatun had been designed as 28.5 metres wide. In 1908 the United States Navy requested that the locks should be increased to have a width of at least 36 metres. This would allow for the passage of US naval ships. Eventually a compromise was made and the locks were to be constructed to a width of 33 metres. Each lock is 300 metres long with the walls ranging in thickness from 15 metres at the base to 3 metres at the top. The central wall between the parallel locks at Gatun has a thickness of 18 metres and stands in excess of 24 metres in height. The lock gates are made from steel and measures an average of 2 metres thick, 19.5 metres in length and stand 20 metres in height.[18]

Construction of locks on the Panama Canal, 1913.
Construction of locks on the Panama Canal, 1913.

Features

Point Coordinates
(links to map & photo sources)
Notes
Northern end 9°18′38″N 79°55′11″W / 9.3105, -79.9197 (Northern end)
Southern end 8°55′57″N 79°33′32″W / 8.9326, -79.5589 (Southern end)

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Tolls

RORO carriers, such as this one at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to use the canal
RORO carriers, such as this one at Miraflores locks, are among the largest ships to use the canal

Tolls for the canal are decided by the Panama Canal Authority and are based on vessel type, size, and the type of cargo carried.[19] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 585 KB) Picture of a ship at the Miraflores Locks of the Panama Canal (May 27, 2005). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 585 KB) Picture of a ship at the Miraflores Locks of the Panama Canal (May 27, 2005). ... Skaugran Oslo Loading a Ro Ro passenger car ferry The Cetus Leader A Canadian RORO Ferry A PCC ships starboard side showing side ramp. ... Miraflores is the name of one of the three locks that form part of the Panama Canal and the name of the small lake that separates these locks from the Pedro Miguel locks upstream. ... The Panama Canal Authority (Spanish: Autoridad del Canal de Panamá, or ACP) is the agency of the government of Panama responsible for the operation and management of the Panama Canal. ...


For container ships, the toll is assessed per "TEU" (Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit), which is the size of a container measuring 20 feet (6 m) by 8 feet (2 m) by 8.5 feet (6 m by 2.4 m by 2.6 m). Effective May 1, 2007, this toll is US$54 per TEU. A Panamax container ship may carry up to 4,400 TEU. A reduced toll is charged for container ships "in ballast"; ie. traveling empty, with no cargo or passengers. Container ship in Istanbul Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size containers, in a technique called containerization. ... Containers on the Port of Singapore. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ...


Most other types of vessel pay a toll per PC/UMS net ton, in which one "ton" is actually a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.8 ). (The calculation of tonnage for commercial vessels is quite complex.) As of 2007, this toll is US$3.26 per ton for the first 10,000 tons, US$3.19 per ton for the next 10,000 tons, and US$3.14 per ton thereafter. As with container ships, a reduced toll is charged for freight ships "in ballast". Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... It has been suggested that Thousand Cubic Feet be merged into this article or section. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ...


Small vessels are assessed tolls based on their length. As of 2007, these are:

Length of vessel Toll
Up to 15.240 metres (50 ft) US$500
More than 15.240 metres (50 ft) up to 24.384 metres (80 ft) US$750
More than 24.384 metres (80 ft) up to 30.480 metres (100 ft) US$1,000
More than 30.480 metres (100 ft) US$1,500

The most expensive regular toll for canal passage to date was charged on October 7, 2007 to the Norwegian Pearl cruise liner, which paid US$313,000 for passage.[20] The least expensive toll was 36 cents to American adventurer Richard Halliburton who swam the canal in 1928.[21] The average toll is around US$54,000. The higher fee for priority passage charged through the Transit Slot Auction System was US$220,300, paid on August 24, 2006 by the Panamax tanker Erikoussa,[22], over passing a 90-ship queue waiting for the end of maintenance works on the Gatun locks, thus avoiding a 7 day delay. The normal fee would have been just US$13,430.[23] is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... Richard Halliburton Richard Halliburton (9 January 1900– presumed dead 23 March 1939) was an American explorer, athlete, and author. ... Road pricing is a generic term for charging for the use of roads using direct methods, charging the users of a specific section of the road network for its use. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ...


Current issues

Ninety years since its opening, the canal continues to enjoy great success. Even though world shipping — and the size and ships themselves — has changed markedly since the canal was designed, it continues to be a vital link in world trade, carrying more cargo than ever before, with less overhead. Nevertheless, the canal certainly faces a number of potential problems.


Efficiency and maintenance

The administration Building of the Panama Canal is in Balboa, Panama

There were fears that efficiency and maintenance would suffer following the U.S. withdrawal; however, this does not appear to be the case, and the canal's efficiency appears to be improving under Panamanian control.[24] Canal Waters Time (CWT), the average time it takes a vessel to navigate the canal, including waiting time, is a key measure of efficiency; according to the ACP, CWT is decreasing. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x688, 278 KB) Summary copyright: Panama Canal Authority, www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x688, 278 KB) Summary copyright: Panama Canal Authority, www. ... Balboa is a district of Panama City, located at the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. ...


The Panama Canal Authority claims that the waterway's rate of accidents is at a record low.[25]


Increasing volumes of imports from Asia which previously landed in the U.S. west coast ports are now traveling through the canal to the east coast.[26] The total number of vessel transits in fiscal year 1999 was 14,336; this fell to a low of 13,154 in 2003, due at least in part to global economic factors, but has risen to 14,194 in 2006 (the canal’s fiscal year runs from October to September). However, this has been coupled with a steady rise in average ship size and in the numbers of Panamax vessels transiting, so that the total tonnage carried has risen steadily from 227.9 million PC/UMS tons in fiscal year 1999 to 296.0 million tons in 2006.[27][3] Given the negative impact of vessel size on the rate of transits (for example, the inability of large vessels to cross in the Gaillard Cut), this represents significant overall growth in canal capacity, despite the reduction in total transits. The canal set a traffic record on March 13, 2006, when 1,070,023 PC/UMS tons transited the waterway,[28] beating the previous record of 1,005,551 PC/UMS tons set on March 16, 2004.[29] For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. ... The Gaillard Cut, or Culebra Cut, is a man-made valley cutting through the continental divide in Panama. ... is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A bucket dredge works to deepen and widen the canal.
A bucket dredge works to deepen and widen the canal.

The canal administration has invested nearly US$1 billion in widening and modernizing the canal, with the aim of increasing capacity by 20%.[30] The canal authority cites a number of major improvements, including the widening and straightening of the Gaillard Cut to reduce restrictions on crossing vessels, the deepening of the navigational channel in Gatun Lake to reduce draft restrictions and improve water supply, and the deepening of the Atlantic and Pacific Entrances of the Canal. This is supported by new vessels, such as a new drill barge and suction dredger, and an increase of the tugboat fleet by 20%. In addition, improvements have been made to the operating machinery of the canal, including an increased and improved tug locomotive fleet, the replacement of more than 16 kilometres of locomotive track, and new lock machinery controls. Improvements have been made to the traffic management system to allow more efficient control over ships in the canal.[31] ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x640, 92 KB) Summary A bucket dredge operating in the Panama Canal. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x640, 92 KB) Summary A bucket dredge operating in the Panama Canal. ... ...


The withdrawal of the U.S. has allowed Panama to sell excess electricity produced by the canal's dams, which was previously prohibited by the U.S. government. Only 25% of the hydroelectric power produced in the canal system is required to run the canal. Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


Capacity

The canal is presently handling more vessel traffic than had ever been envisioned by its builders. In 1934 it was estimated that the maximum capacity of the canal would be around 80 million tons per year;[32] as noted above, canal traffic in 2005 consisted of 278.8 million tons of shipping.


Despite the gains which have been made in efficiency, the canal is soon expected to approach its maximum capacity. An additional complication is that the proportion of large (close to Panamax-sized) ships transiting is increasing steadily; this may result in a further reduction in the number of transits, even if cargo tonnage rises. In any case, if the canal is to continue to serve the needs of world shipping, action will be required to increase its capacity.

Gatun Lake, pictured here in 2000, is having difficulty supplying water for the canal's operation
Gatun Lake, pictured here in 2000, is having difficulty supplying water for the canal's operation

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 108 KB) Photo of Gatun Lake in Panama, taken 2 January 2000 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Panama Canal Gatun Lake User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Places ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1500x1000, 108 KB) Photo of Gatun Lake in Panama, taken 2 January 2000 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Panama Canal Gatun Lake User:Stan Shebs/Gallery/Places ...

Competition

Despite having enjoyed a privileged position for many years, the canal is increasingly facing competition from other quarters. Although remote, speculation continues over a possible new canal through Colombia, Nicaragua or the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Mexico, that will be capable of accommodating post-Panamax vessels, and two private proposals for a railway linking ports on the two coasts.[citation needed] The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is an isthmus in Mexico. ...


Critics have also voiced their concerns over the planned increase in canal tolls, suggesting that the Suez Canal may become a viable alternative for cargo en route from Asia to the U.S. East Coast. Nevertheless, demand for the Panama Canal continues to rise. For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ...


The increasing rate of melting of ice in the Arctic Ocean has led to speculation that the Northwest Passage may become viable for commercial shipping at some point in the future. This route would save 9,300 kilometres (5,800 mi) on the route from Asia to Europe compared with the Panama Canal, possibly leading to a diversion of some traffic to that route. However, such a route would still hold significant problems due to ice, as well as unresolved territorial issues.[33][34] For other uses, see Northwest Passage (disambiguation). ...


Water issues

A significant problem is the decreasing average amount of water in Gatún Lake, caused largely by deforestation. 202,000 m³ (52 million U.S. gallons) of fresh water from the lake are drained into the sea by the locks every time a ship transits the canal;[35] and although there is sufficient annual rainfall to replenish the water used by the canal in a year, the seasonal nature of this rainfall means that the water must be stored from one rainy season to the next. Although Gatún lake can store some of this water, the rainforest has traditionally played a major role by absorbing this rain, and then releasing it at a steady rate into the lake. With the reduction in vegetation, rain flows quickly down the deforested slopes into the lake, from where the excess is spilled out into the ocean. This results in a shortfall of water during the dry season, when there is comparatively little water flowing to the lake to replenish it. Deforestation also causes silt to be more easily eroded from the area around Gatún Lake and collect at its bottom, reducing its capacity. Gatun Lake (Sp. ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... The Daintree Rainforest in Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Silt (disambiguation). ...


The Future

With demand rising, the canal is positioned to be a significant feature of world shipping for the foreseeable future. However, changes in shipping patterns — particularly the increasing numbers of post-Panamax ships — will necessitate changes to the canal if it is to retain a significant market share. It is anticipated that by 2011, 37% of the world's container ships will be too large for the present canal, and hence a failure to expand would result in a significant loss of market share. The maximum sustainable capacity of the present canal, given some relatively minor improvement work is estimated at between 330 and 340 million PC/UMS tons per year; it is anticipated that this capacity will be reached between 2009 and 2012. Close to 50% of transiting vessels are already using the full width of the locks.[36]


An enlargement scheme similar to the 1939 Third Lock Scheme, to allow for a greater number of transits and the ability to handle larger ships, has been under consideration for some time.[37] This enlargement scheme had been approved by the government of Panama.[38] This proposal to expand the Canal was approved on a national referendum by approximately 80% on October 22, 2006.[39] The History of the Panama Canal goes back almost to the earliest explorers of the Americas. ... The Panama Canal expansion referendum was held on October 22, 2006, when the citizens of Panama approved the Panama Canal expansion project by a wide margin. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Third set of locks project

The new locks will be in triple flights, with sliding lock gates on each chamber

The current plan is for two new flights of locks: one to the east of the existing Gatún locks, and one southwest of Miraflores locks, each supported by approach channels. Each flight will ascend from ocean level direct to the Gatún Lake level; the existing two-stage ascent at Miraflores / Pedro Miguel will not be replicated. The new lock chambers will feature sliding gates, doubled for safety, and will be 427 metres (1,400 ft) long, 55 metres (180 ft) wide, and 18.3 metres (60 ft) deep; this will allow for the transit of vessels with a beam of up to 49 metres (160 ft), an overall length of up to 366 metres (1,200 ft) and a draft of up to 15 metres (50 ft), equivalent to a container ship carrying around 12,000 20-foot (6.1 m) long containers (TEU). Components of the project The Third Set of Locks Project is a megaproject that will expand the Panama Canal more so than any previous expansion since the Canals construction. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Newlocks1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Newlocks1. ...


The new locks will be supported by new approach channels, including a 6.2 kilometre (3.8 mi) channel at Miraflores from the locks to the Gaillard Cut, skirting around Miraflores Lake. Each of these channels will be 218 metres (715 ft) wide, which will require post-Panamax vessels to navigate the channels in one direction at a time. The Gaillard Cut and the channel through Gatún Lake will be widened to no less than 280 metres (918 ft) on the straight portions and no less than 366 metres (1,200 ft) on the bends. The maximum level of Gatún Lake will be raised from reference height 26.7 metres (87.5 ft) to 27.1 metres (89 ft).

The water storage basins adjacent to each lock chamber are staged in height to allow each of them in turn to be filled by gravity as the lock chamber drains.

Each flight of locks will be accompanied by nine water reutilisation basins (three per lock chamber), each basin being approximately 70 metres (230 ft) wide, 430 metres (1410 ft) long and 5.50 metres (18 ft) deep. These gravity-fed basins will allow 60% of the water used in each transit to be reused; the new locks will consequently use 7% less water per transit than each of the existing lock lanes. The deepening of Gatún Lake, and the raising of its maximum water level, will also provide significant extra water storage capacity. These measures are intended to allow the expanded canal to operate without the construction of new reservoirs. Image File history File linksMetadata Newlockscrosssection. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Newlockscrosssection. ...


The estimated cost of the project is US$5.25 billion. The project is designed to allow for an anticipated growth in traffic from 280 million PC/UMS tons in 2005 to nearly 510 million PC/UMS tons in 2025; the expanded canal will have a maximum sustainable capacity of approximately 600 million PC/UMS tons per year. Tolls will continue to be calculated based on vessel tonnage, and will not depend on the locks used.


The new locks are expected to open for traffic in 2015. The present locks, which will be 100 years old by that time, will then have greater access for maintenance, and are projected to continue operating indefinitely.[36] An article in the February 2007 issue of Popular Mechanics magazine describes the plans for the canal, focusing on the engineering aspects of the expansion project.[40]


On September 3, 2007, work commenced on the expansion of the canal, with thousands of Panamanians at Paraiso, Panama City, witnessing a huge explosion bite into a hill. However the event was marred by the death of a worker, killed when his truck hit an electric pylon. The first phase of the project will be dry excavations of the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trench connecting the Culebra Cut with the Pacific coast, removing 47 million cubic meters of earth and rock. The tendering process for the $3 billion project to build a new set of locks will begin later this year.[41] is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Panama (Spanish: Panamá) is the southernmost country of Central America. ... There are parishes that have the name Paraíso(Portuguese wor for paradise): In Brazil Paraíso, Santa Catarina Paraíso, São Paulo In Portugal Paraíso, a parish in the district of Castelo de Paiva This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same... This article is about the capital city of Panama. ... Hills redirects here. ... For pylons of overhead lines, see Electricity pylon Pylon Noun from Greek πυλώνας gateway tower like structure, usually one of a series, used to support high voltage electricity cables. ... Rescue excavation in Southwark, London by the Museum of London Excavation is the best-known and most commonly used technique within the science of archaeology. ... For other uses of the word, see Trench (disambiguation). ... The Culebra Cut is a man-made valley that cuts through the Panama Canal region. ... The Pacific Coast is any coast fronting the Pacific Ocean. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ...


See also

Panama Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... The Panama Canal Zone Police was a force that existed between 1904 and 1982. ...

References

  1. ^ Scott, William R. (1913). The Americans in Panama. New York, NY: Statler Publishing Company. 
  2. ^ The Panama Canal. Global Perspectives. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  3. ^ a b Panama Canal Traffic — Fiscal Years 2002 – 2004 (PDF). Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  4. ^ Read our history: Early Plans. Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  5. ^ Caso, Adolph; Marion E. Welsh (1978). They Too Made America Great. Branden Books, p. 72. ISBN 0828317143. ; online at Google Books
  6. ^ Darien Expedition. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  7. ^ a b c d Avery, Ralph E. (1913). "The French Failure", America's Triumph in Panama. Chicago, IL: L.W. Walter Company. 
  8. ^ Read our history: The French Canal Construction. Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  9. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2006). Overthrow. Henry Holt and Company, 58-59. ISBN 0-8050-8240-9. 
  10. ^ Read our history: American Canal Construction. Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  11. ^ A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts. Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  12. ^ Article on flooding of Alhajuela Lake in 2001, with pictures of Madden Dam.
  13. ^ Article on Mr. Richard Bilonick, who was the engineer in charge during the construction of the Madden Dam.
  14. ^ Enlarging the Panama Canal, Alden P. Armagnac, CZ Brats
  15. ^ Enlarging the Panama Canal for Bigger Battleships, notes from CZ Brats
  16. ^ The Martyrs of 1964, by Eric Jackson
  17. ^ Historical Map & Chart Project. NOAA. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  18. ^ The Panama Canal. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  19. ^ Maritime Operations — Tolls. Panama Canal Authority.
  20. ^ Crucero rompe récord en pago de peajes. La Prensa. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edition 2007-10-16 in Spanish
  21. ^ Panama Canal Authority FAQ.
  22. ^ Récord en pago de peajes y reserva. La Prensa. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edition 2007-04-24
  23. ^ Cupo de subasta del Canal alcanza récord. La Prensa. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edición 25/08/2006 in Spanish.
  24. ^ A Man, A Plan, A Canal: Panama Rises. Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution (March 2004).
  25. ^ Tonnage Increases; Canal Waters Time and Accidents Drop. Panama Canal Authority (2003-12-09).
  26. ^ Lipton, Eric. "New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade", New York Times, 2004-11-22. 
  27. ^ Annual Reports. Panama Canal Authority.
  28. ^ Panama Canal Breaks Two Records in Two Days. Panama Canal Authority (2006-03-21). Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  29. ^ Panama Canal Sets Historic Record in PC/UMS Tonnage. Panama Canal Authority (2004-04-02). Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  30. ^ Nettleton, Steve (1999). Transfer heavy on symbolism, light on change. CNN Interactive.
  31. ^ Modernization & Improvements. Panama Canal Authority.
  32. ^ Mack, Gerstle (1944). The Land Divided - A History of the Panama Canal and Other Isthmian Canal Projects. 
  33. ^ Sevunts, Levon (2005-06-12). Northwest Passage redux. The Washington Times. Retrieved on 2006-02-23.
  34. ^ Comte publisher=DefenceNews.com (Agence France-Presse), Michel (2005-12-22). Conservative Leader Harper Asserts Canada’s Arctic Claims. Retrieved on 2006-02-23..
  35. ^ Panama Canal Authority FAQ. Panama Canal Authority.
  36. ^ a b Relevant Information on the Third Set of Locks Project (PDF). Panama Canal Authority (2006-04-24). Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  37. ^ The Panama Canal. Business in Panama. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.
  38. ^ Monahan, Jane (2006-04-04). Panama Canal set for $7.5bn revamp. BBC News.
  39. ^ Panama approves $5.25 billion canal expansion. MSNBC.com (2006-10-22).
  40. ^ Reagan, Brad (February 2007). The Panama Canal's Ultimate Upgrade. Popular Mechanics.
  41. ^ Reuters: Work starts on biggest-ever Panama Canal overhaul

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a scientific agency of the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the oceans and the atmosphere. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... MSNBC logo MSNBC (Microsoft & National Broadcasting Company) is a 24-hour news channel in the United States. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 9°04′48″N, 79°40′48″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... The History of the Panama Canal goes back almost to the earliest explorers of the Americas. ... One of the greatest challenges facing the builders of the Panama Canal was dealing with the tropical diseases rife in the area. ... The Panama Railway or Panama Railroad was the worlds first transcontinental railroad. ... The Gaillard Cut, or Culebra Cut, is a man-made valley cutting through the continental divide in Panama. ... Image:Gatundam. ... The Chagres River (Spanish: Río Chagres) is a river in central Panama. ... Ships follow marked channels amongst the hilltop islands. ... The Gatun Locks of the Panama Canal, looking north towards the Atlantic Ocean. ... The two ships seen here seem almost to be touching the walls of the Miraflores Locks. ... The Bridge of the Americas (Spanish: Puente de las Américas; originally known as the Thatcher Ferry Bridge) is a road bridge in Panama, which spans the Pacific entrance to the Panama Canal. ... Panamas Centennial Bridge (Spanish: Puente Centenario) is a major bridge crossing the Panama Canal, and hence connecting North and South America. ... The Panama Canal Authority (Spanish: Autoridad del Canal de Panamá, or ACP) is the agency of the government of Panama responsible for the operation and management of the Panama Canal. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Components of the project The Third Set of Locks Project is a megaproject that will expand the Panama Canal more so than any previous expansion since the Canals construction. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Panama Canal Zone - definition of Panama Canal Zone in Encyclopedia (369 words)
The Panama Canal Zone was a 553 mile²; (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area extending 5 mi (8.1 km) on each side.
A 1979 treaty established the neutrality of the canal.
The Panama Canal Zone was the birthplace of John McCain and Richard Prince.
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