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Encyclopedia > Pan Am Flight 103
Pan Am Flight 103
Summary
Date  21 December 1988
Type  Terrorist bombing
Site  Lockerbie, Scotland
Origin  London Heathrow International Airport
Destination  John F. Kennedy International Airport
Passengers  243
Crew  16
Fatalities  270 (259 in aircraft, and including 11 on ground)
Survivors  0
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Boeing 747-121
Operator  Pan American World Airways
Tail number  N739PA
Ship name  Clipper Maid of the Seas

Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways' third daily scheduled transatlantic flight from London's Heathrow International Airport to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. On December 21, 1988, the aircraft flying this route, a Boeing 747-121 registered N739PA and named Clipper Maid of the Seas, was destroyed by a bomb, and the remains landed in and around the town of Lockerbie, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland (55°5.7′N, 3°20.3′W). This article is about the idea of state highways State Highway, and is more formally known as Route 139 State highway, and state route are terms that usually apply to numbered highways that are primarily administered and financed by a state government in countries that are divided into states. ... Pennsylvania Route 103 (abbreviated PA Route 103 or PA 103, officially State Route 103 or SR 103) is a state highway in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, running on the east side of the Juniata River (opposite U.S. Route 522). ... Image File history File links PA103cockpit4. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is becoming very long. ... Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... Pan Ams seaplane terminal at Dinner Key in Miami, Florida, was a hub of inter-American travel during the 1930s and 1940s. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... This article is about the state. ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... Dumfries and Galloway (Dùn Phris agus an Gall-Ghaidhealaibh in Gaelic) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ...


An editorial in The Guardian of December 23, 1988 reported: Look up editorial, op-ed in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

"Two days before Christmas, two tides flow strongly. One—the greater tide—is the tide of peace. More nagging, bloody conflicts have been settled in 1988 than in any year since the end of the Second World War. There are forces for good abroad in the world as seldom before. There is also a tide of evil, a force of destruction. By just one of those ironies which afflict the human condition, peace came to Namibia yesterday. Meanwhile, on a Scottish hillside, the body of the Swedish UN Commissioner for Namibia was one amongst hundreds strewn across square miles of debris: a victim—supposition, but strongly based—of a random terrorist bomb which had blown a 747 to bits at 31,000 feet."[1]

In the subsequent investigation of the crash, forensic experts determined that about 1 lb (450 g) of plastic explosive had been detonated in the airplane's forward cargo hold, triggering a sequence of events that led to the rapid destruction of the aircraft. Winds of 100 knots (190 km/h) scattered victims and debris along an 81 mile (130 km) corridor over an area of 845 square miles (2189 km²). Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Map of South-West Africa (Namibia) United Nations Commissioner for South-West Africa was a post created by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1967 to assert the UNs direct responsibility for South-West Africa which was then under illegal occupation by apartheid South Africa. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... The investigation into the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 began at 19:03 on December 21, 1988 when Pan Am Flight 103 crashed at Lockerbie in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... A C-4 plastic explosive. ... A knot is a unit of speed abbreviated kt or kn. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ...


The death toll was 270 people from 21 countries, including 11 people in Lockerbie.[2]

Contents

Criminal inquiry

Known as the Lockerbie bombing and the Lockerbie air disaster in the UK, it became the subject of Britain's largest criminal inquiry, led by its smallest police force, Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary. The bombing was widely regarded as an assault on a symbol of the United States, and with 189 of the victims being Americans, it stood as the deadliest terrorist attack against the United States until the September 11, 2001 attacks. Map showing the council areas of Scotland with Dumfries and Galloway highlighted. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...

Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi

After a three-year joint investigation by the Dumfries and Galloway Constabulary and the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, during which 15,000 witness statements were taken, indictments for murder were issued on November 13, 1991, against Abdel Basset Ali al-Megrahi, a Libyan intelligence officer and the head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines (LAA), and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, the LAA station manager in Luqa Airport, Malta. United Nations sanctions against Libya and protracted negotiations with the Libyan leader Colonel Muammar al-Gaddafi secured the handover of the accused on April 5, 1999 to Scottish police at Camp Zeist, Netherlands, chosen as a neutral venue. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (Arabic: عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي) (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (Arabic: عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي) (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... This page may meet Wikipedia’s criteria for speedy deletion. ... Fhimah celebrates his acquittal with Colonel Gadaffi Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah (born April 4, 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines in Luqa airport, Malta. ... The old passenger terminal at Luqa Airport was converted into an air cargo terminal when the completely re-furbished Malta International Airport became fully operational in March 1992. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Zeist is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands, located east of the city of Utrecht. ...


On January 31, 2001, Megrahi was convicted of murder by a panel of three Scottish judges, and sentenced to 27 years in prison. Fhimah was acquitted. Megrahi's appeal against his conviction was refused on March 14, 2002, and his application to the European Court of Human Rights was declared inadmissible in July 2003. On September 23, 2003, Megrahi applied to the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) for his conviction to be reviewed, and for his case to be referred back to the High Court for a fresh appeal. On June 28, 2007, the SCCRC announced[3] its decision to refer the case to the Court of Criminal Appeal after it found he "may have suffered a miscarriage of justice". is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) is a non-departmental public body in Scotland and was established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (as amended by the Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997). ... Seal of the High Court of Justiciary © Crown Copyright The High Court of Justiciary is Scotlands supreme criminal court. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Court of Criminal Appeal was an English appellate court for criminal cases established by the Judicature Act 1873. ...


Megrahi is serving his sentence in Greenock Prison, where he continues to profess his innocence. HMP Greenock serves designated courts in western Scotland by holding male prisoners (both adult and under 21s) on remand, and short-term convicted prisoners. ...


Flight plan

Pan Am Flight 103 was a Boeing 747-100 named Clipper Maid of the Seas. The fifteenth jumbo jet ever built, it was delivered in February 1970,[4] one month after the very first 747 had entered service with Pan Am. The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... The Boeing 747, which is also known as the jumbo jet, is the second largest passenger airliner after the Airbus A380. ... Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) was the United States principal international airline from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991, and was credited with many innovations that shaped the international airline industry. ...


On December 21, 1988, Clipper Maid of the Seas touched down at London's Heathrow International Airport at noon from San Francisco. The aircraft was parked at stand K-14, Terminal 3, was guarded for two hours by Pan Am's security company, Alert Security, but otherwise was not watched. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... London Heathrow Airport (IATA airport code: LHR, ICAO airport code: EGLL, and often simply Heathrow) is the United Kingdoms busiest and best-connected airport. ... San Francisco redirects here. ...


The first leg of Pan Am Flight 103's journey began as the Boeing 727 feeder flight, PA103A, from Frankfurt International Airport, West Germany to London Heathrow. Forty-seven of the 89 passengers on PA103A transferred at Heathrow to the Boeing 747 flight PA103 which was scheduled to fly to JFK. A Boeing 727 would have been used for the final leg of the journey from JFK to Detroit. The Boeing 727 is a mid-size, narrow-body, three-engine commercial jet airliner. ... Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located near Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is a long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... For the regional airport in Wisconsin, see John F. Kennedy Memorial Airport. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor...


There were 243 passengers and 16 crew members on board, led by the pilot Captain James MacQuarrie, First Officer Raymond Wagner, and Flight Engineer Jerry Avritt. The flight was scheduled to depart at 18:00, and pushed back from the gate at 18:04, but because of a rush-hour delay, it took off from runway 27L at 18:25, flying northwest out of Heathrow, a so-called Daventry departure. Once clear of Heathrow, the crew steered due north toward Scotland. At 18:56, as the aircraft approached the border, it reached its cruising altitude of 31,000 ft (9400 m), and MacQuarrie throttled the engines back to cruising power. For other uses, see Aviator (disambiguation). ... Holy Cross Church Daventry is a market town in Northamptonshire, England with a population of 22,367 (2001 census). ... Aircraft engine controls provide a means for the pilot to control and monitor the operation of his aircrafts powerplant. ...


At 19:00, PA103 was picked up by the Scottish Area Control Centre at Prestwick, Scotland, where it needed clearance to begin its flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Alan Topp, an air traffic controller, made contact with the clipper as it entered Scottish airspace. Prestwick Prestwick is a town located in South Ayrshire on the central west coast of Scotland, approximately 30 miles to the south-west of Glasgow. ... Controllers survey the field at Misawa Air Base, Japan. ... Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. ...


Captain MacQuarrie replied: "Good evening Scottish, Clipper one zero three. We are at level three one zero." Then First Officer Wagner spoke: "Clipper 103 requesting oceanic clearance." Those were the last words heard from the aircraft.


Explosion

At 19:01, Topp watched Flight 103 approach the corner of the Solway Firth, and at 19:02, it crossed its northern coast. The aircraft appeared as a small green square with a cross at its centre showing its transponder code or "squawk"—0357 and flight level—310. The code gave Topp information about the time and height of the airliner: the last code he saw for the Clipper told him it was flying at 31,000 ft (9400 m) on a heading of 316 degrees magnetic, and at a speed of 313 knots (580 km/h) calibrated airspeed, at 19:02:46.9. Subsequent analysis of the radar returns by RSRE concluded that the aircraft was tracking 321° (grid) and travelling at a ground speed of 434 knots (804 km/h). Map of Solway Firth. ... Transponder codes are four digit numbers broadcast by the transponder in an aircraft in response to a secondary surveillance radar interrogation signal to assist air traffic controllers in traffic separation. ... In aviation, a flight level is the nominal altitude of an aircraft referenced to a standard pressure datum, as opposed to the real altitude above mean sea level. ... Calibrated airspeed (CAS) is indicated airspeed, corrected for instrument error and position error. ... The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment was a scientific research establishment within the Ministry of Defences Defence Procurement Agency of the United Kingdom, located primarily at Malvern in Worcestershire. ...


At that moment, the airliner's code and the cross in the middle of the square disappeared. Topp tried to make contact with Captain MacQuarrie, and asked a nearby KLM flight to do the same, but there was no reply. At first, Topp believed he was watching the flight enter a so-called zone of silence, dead space where objects are invisible to radar. Where there should have been one green square on his screen, there were four, and as the seconds passed, the squares began to fan out [5]. Comparison of the cockpit voice recorder with the radar returns showed that 8 seconds after the explosion, wreckage had a 1-nautical-mile (2 km) spread.[6] KLM can also refer to KLM (Human Computer Interaction) KLM Royal Dutch Airlines (Dutch: Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij, literally Royal Aviation Company; usual English: Royal Dutch Airlines) is an airline subsidiary of Air France-KLM based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


A minute later, the wing section containing 200,000 lb (91,000 kg) of fuel hit the ground at Sherwood Crescent, Lockerbie. The British Geological Survey at nearby Eskdalemuir, registered a seismic event measuring 1.6 on the Richter scale as all trace of two families, several houses, and the 196 ft (60 m) wing of the aircraft disappeared. A British Airways pilot, Captain Robin Chamberlain, flying the Glasgow–London shuttle near Carlisle called Scottish to report that he could see a huge fire on the ground. The destruction of PA103 continued on Topp's screen, by now full of bright squares moving eastwards with the wind.[7] Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ... The Eskdalemuir Observatory is located in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... Seismology (from the Greek seismos = earthquake and logos = word) is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ... For the 1930s airline of similar name, see British Airways Ltd. ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ...


Aircraft break up

The explosion punched a 20-inch-wide (0.5 m) hole, almost directly under the P in Pan Am, on the left side of the fuselage. The disintegration of the aircraft was rapid. Investigators from the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) of the British Department of Transport concluded that the nose of the aircraft separated from the main section within three seconds of the explosion. Image File history File links PA103_graphic_1. ... Image File history File links PA103_graphic_2. ... Image File history File links PA103_graphic_3. ... The fuselage can be short, and seemingly unaerodynamic, as in this Christen Eagle 2 The fuselage (from the French fuselé spindle-shaped) is an aircrafts main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. ... The Air Accidents Investigation Branch investigates air accidents in the United Kingdom. ... The Department of Transport is a ministry of the United Kingdom, currently headed by the Secretary of State for Transport (Alistair Darling). ... VC-10 (1960s) Airliner Cockpit. ...


The cockpit voice recorder, a recording device in the tail section of the aircraft, was found in a field by police searchers within 24 hours of the bombing. There was no evidence of a distress call: a 180-millisecond hissing noise could be heard as the explosion destroyed the aircraft's communications centre. Cockpit Voice Recorder (Exhibit in Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany). ... A distress signal is an internationally recognized means of obtaining help by using a radio, displaying a visual object or making noise from a distance. ... One millisecond is one-thousandth of a second. ...


After being lowered into the cockpit in Lockerbie before it was moved, and while the bodies of the flight crew were still inside it, investigators from the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) concluded that no emergency procedures had been started. The pressure control and fuel switches were both set for cruise, and the crew had not used their oxygen masks, which would have descended within five seconds of a rapid depressurisation of the aircraft [5]. “FAA” redirects here. ... Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of air into the cabin of an aircraft to increase the air pressure within the cabin. ... Boeing 747 in cruise at roughly 35000 feet, showing contrails from the four engines. ... Breathing 100% oxygen from a tight fitting pressure demand oxygen mask An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs. ...


The nerve centre of a 747, from which all the navigation and communication systems are controlled, is below the cockpit, separated from the forward cargo hold by a bulkhead wall. Investigators concluded that the force of the explosion broke through this wall and shook the flight-control cables, causing the front section of the fuselage to begin to roll, pitch, and yaw. Table of geography, hydrography, and navigation, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... For the Bobby Womack album, see Communication (1972 album). ... VC-10 (1960s) Airliner Cockpit. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... Section 41 on a Boeing 777. ... Flight dynamics is the science of air and space vehicle orientation and control in three dimensions. ...


These violent movements snapped the reinforcing belt that secured the front section to the row of windows on the left side and it began to break away. At the same time, shock waves from the blast ricocheted back from the fuselage skin in the direction of the bomb, meeting pulses still coming from the initial explosion. This produced Mach stem shock waves, calculated to be 25% faster than, and double the power of, the waves from the explosion itself [5]. These shock waves rebounded from one side of the aircraft to the other, running down the length of the fuselage through the air-conditioning ducts and splitting the fuselage open.[8] A section of the 747's roof several feet above the point of detonation peeled away. The Mach stem waves pulsing through the ductwork bounced off overhead luggage racks and other hard surfaces, jolting the passengers. Introduction The shock wave is one of several different ways in which a gas in a supersonic flow can be compressed. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Pulsed power is the term used to describe the science and technology of accumulating energy over a relatively long period of time and releasing it very quickly thus increasing the instantaneous power. ... A Mach wave (aka Mach front, Mach stem, Mach stem effect) is the constructive interference between a wave or pulsefront and its reflection, especially at a low incidence angle. ... In physics, power (symbol: P) is the rate at which work is performed or energy is transmitted, or the amount of energy required or expended for a given unit of time. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC systems use ventilation air ducts installed throughout a building that supply conditioned air to a room through rectangular or round outlet vents, called diffusers; and ducts that remove air from return-air grilles Fire-resistance rated mechanical shaft with HVAC... A weapons cache is detonated at the East River Range on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan Detonation is a process of supersonic combustion in which a shock wave is propagated forward due to energy release in a reaction zone behind it. ... The Luggage. ...


The power of the explosion was increased by the difference in air pressure between the inside of the aircraft, where it was kept at breathable levels, and outside, where it was about a quarter of that at sea level. The nose of the aircraft, containing the flight crew and the first class section, broke away, striking the No. 3 Pratt & Whitney engine as it snapped off. Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... First class is a particularly high quality travel class offered by passenger airlines, railways and shipping companies. ... Pratt & Whitney is an American aircraft engine manufacturer whose products are widely used in both civil and military aircraft. ...


Investigators believe that within three seconds of the explosion, the cockpit, fuselage, and No. 3 engine were falling separately. The fuselage continued moving forward and down until it reached 19,000 ft (6000 m), at which point its dive became almost vertical.[9] In astronomy, geography, geometry and related sciences and contexts, a direction passing by a given point is said to be vertical if it is locally aligned with the gradient of the gravity field, i. ...


As it descended, the fuselage broke into smaller pieces, with the section attached to the wings landing first in Sherwood Crescent, where the aviation fuel inside the wings ignited, causing a fireball that destroyed several houses, and which was so intense that nothing remained of the left wing of the aircraft. Investigators were able to determine that both wings had landed in the crater after counting the number of large steel flap drive jackscrews that were found there [5]. An aviation fuel truck. ... Ignition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain the reaction, whether it be a fire, an explosion, or nuclear fusion. ... Look up fireball in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tycho crater on Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A leadscrew is a threaded shaft that is used in machines to create linear motion. ...


Victims

Passengers and crew

Investigators examining the cockpit of Pan Am Flight 103

All 243 passengers and 16 crew members were killed. A Scottish Fatal Accident Inquiry, which opened on October 1, 1990, heard that, when the cockpit broke off, tornado-force winds tore through the fuselage, tearing clothes off passengers and turning insecurely fixed items like food and drink trolleys into lethal objects. Because of the sudden change in air pressure, the gases inside the passengers' bodies would have expanded to four times their normal volume, causing their lungs to swell and then collapse. People and objects not fixed down would have been blown out of the aircraft at an air temperature of −46 °C (−50 °F), their six-mile (9 km) fall lasting about two minutes [5]. Some passengers remained attached to the fuselage by their seat belts, landing in Lockerbie strapped to their seats. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... A Fatal Accident Inquiry (FAI) is a unique aspect of the Scottish legal system, which is requested by a Procurator Fiscal when a fatal accident has occurred. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ...


Although the passengers would have lost consciousness through lack of oxygen, forensic examiners believe some of them might have regained consciousness as they fell toward oxygen-rich lower altitudes. Forensic pathologist Dr. William G. Eckert, director of the Milton Helpern International Center of Forensic Sciences at Wichita State University, who examined the autopsy evidence, told Scottish police he believed the flight crew, some of the flight attendants, and 147 other passengers survived the bomb blast and depressurization of the aircraft, and may have been alive on impact. None of these passengers showed signs of injury from the explosion itself, or from the decompression and disintegration of the aircraft. The inquest heard that a mother was found holding her baby, two friends were holding hands, and a number of passengers were found clutching crucifixes. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colourless (gas) colourless (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ... Forensic pathology is a branch of medicine concerned with determining cause of death, usually for criminal law cases and civil law cases in some jurisdictions. ... Wichita State University (WSU) is an American state-supported university located in the middle-size city of Wichita, Kansas, in the south central part of the state. ... This article is about the medical procedure. ... Decompresion has several meanings: in physics, decompression is the release of pressure and is the opposition of compression in medicine, scuba diving and aviation, decompression can refer to a sickness in scuba diving, decompression can refer to a stop, a chamber, a buoy, a trapeze, tables or a computer in... The Crucifix, a cross with corpus, a symbol used in Catholicism in contrast with some other Christian communions, which use only a cross. ...


Dr Eckert told Scottish police that distinctive marks on Captain MacQuarrie's thumb suggested he had been hanging onto the yoke of the plane as it descended, and may have been alive when the plane crashed. The captain, first officer, flight engineer, a flight attendant, and a number of first-class passengers were found still strapped to their seats inside the nose section when it crashed in a field by a tiny church in the village of Tundergarth. The inquest heard that the flight attendant was alive when found by a farmer's wife, but died before her rescuer could summon help. A male passenger was also found alive, and medical authorities believe he might have survived had he been found earlier [5]. The control yoke of a Boeing 737 aircraft. ... Flight attendant in an Embraer ERJ 145 LR of PBair, Thailand In aviation, flight attendants - formerly known as sky girls, stews, air hostesses, stewardesses or stewards - are members of a flight crew employed by airlines to ensure the safety and comfort of the passengers aboard commercial flights. ... Lockerbie (Gd: Logarbaidh) is a town located in the Dumfries and Galloway region of south-western Scotland. ...

See also: Free-fall#Surviving falls

Free Fall opens with one of the most stunning first paragraphs I have ever, or am ever likely to, read. ...

Nationalities

[10]

Nationality Passengers Crew Total
Flag of Argentina Argentina 3 0 3
Flag of Belgium Belgium 1 0 1
Flag of Bolivia Bolivia 1 0 1
Flag of Canada Canada 3 0 3
Flag of France France 2 1 3
Flag of Germany Germany 3 1 4
Flag of Hungary Hungary 4 0 4
Flag of India India 3 0 3
Flag of Ireland Ireland 3 0 3
Flag of Israel Israel 1 0 1
Flag of Italy Italy 2 0 2
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica 1 0 1
Flag of Japan Japan 1 0 1
Flag of the Philippines Philippines 1 0 1
Flag of Spain Spain 0 1 1
Flag of South Africa South Africa 1 0 1
Flag of Sweden Sweden 2 1 3
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland 1 0 1
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago 1 0 1
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom 40 1 41
Flag of the United States United States 169 11 180
Total 243 16 259

Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bolivia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jamaica. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Students and families

Thirty-five students from Syracuse University and two from the State University of New York at Oswego were on board, flying home from overseas study in London. Ten of the victims were residents of Long Island—including father and son, John and Sean Mulroy—and were returning home for seasonal celebrations with families and friends, as reported by Newsday of December 27, 1988. Five members of the Dixit-Rattan family, including 3-year-old Suruchi Rattan, were flying to Detroit from New Delhi. They were supposed to be on PA67, which had left Frankfurt earlier in the day, but one of the children had fallen ill with breathing difficulties, and the pilot had taken the plane back to the gate to allow the family to disembark. The boy soon recovered, and the family was transferred to PA103 instead. Suruchi was wearing a bright red kurta and salwar—a knee-length tunic and matching trousers—for her journey. She became associated with a note left with flowers outside Lockerbie town hall: Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ... Not to be confused with University of the State of New York. ... Oswego is the name of some places in the United States of America. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in Afghanistan, northern India, and Pakistan. ... Salwar kameez, from Max Tilkes Oriental Costume, 1922 Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. ...

"To the little girl in the red dress who lies here who made my flight from Frankfurt such fun. You didn't deserve this. God Bless, Chas."

Paul Avron Jeffreys, former bass player with the UK group Cockney Rebel, was on the flight with his new wife Rachel, en route to their honeymoon celebration. Jonathan White, aged 33, the son of actor David White (Larry Tate on Bewitched) was also killed on Pan Am Flight 103. Steve Harley and Cockney Rebel were a UK rock band from the early 1970s. ...


American intelligence officers

There were at least four U.S. intelligence officers on the passenger list, with rumours, never confirmed, of a fifth. The presence of these men on the flight later gave rise to a number of conspiracy theories, in which one or more of them were said to have been the bombers' targets. Matthew Gannon, the CIA's deputy station chief in Beirut, Lebanon, was sitting in Clipper Class seat 14J. Major Chuck "Tiny" McKee,[11] a senior army officer on secondment to the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) in Beirut, sat behind Gannon in the center aisle in seat 15F. Two CIA officers, believed to be acting as bodyguards to Gannon and McKee, were sitting in economy: Ronald Lariviere, a security officer from the U.S. Embassy in Beirut, was in 20H, and Daniel O'Connor, a security officer from the U.S. Embassy in Nicosia, Cyprus, sat five rows behind Lariviere in 25H, both men seated over the right wing. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... CIA Officer killed in the bombing of Pam Am Flight 103 over Locerbie, Scotland. ... CIA redirects here. ... Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ... Location in the Republic of Lebanon Coordinates: , Governorate Government  - Mayor Abdel Mounim Ariss[1] Area  - City 100 km² (31 sq mi) Population (2005)  - City 1,574,397  - Metro 1,792,111 Time zone +2 (UTC)  - Summer (DST) +3 (UTC) Website: City of Beirut This article is about the Lebanese city. ... District Nicosia District Government  - Mayor Eleni Mavrou Population (2004)  - City 270,000 (Greek part) 85,000 (Turkish part) 355,000 (Total) Time zone EET (UTC+2) Website: www. ...


The four men had flown together out of Cyprus that morning. Major McKee is believed to have been in Beirut trying to locate the American hostages held at that time by Hezbollah. After the bombing, sources close to the investigation told journalists that a map had been found in Lockerbie showing the suspected locations of the hostages, as marked by McKee, though this discovery was not confirmed in court. For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Also on board, in seat 53K at the back of the plane, was 21-year-old Khalid Nazir Jaafar, who had moved from Lebanon to Detroit with his family, where his father ran a successful auto-repair business. Because of his Lebanese background, and because he was returning from having visited relatives there, Jaafar's name later figured prominently in the investigation into the bombing, as well as in a number of conspiracy theories that developed. For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


Lockerbie residents

On the ground, 11 Lockerbie residents were killed when the wing section hit 13 Sherwood Crescent at more than 500 mph and exploded, creating a crater 47 metres (155 ft) long and with a volume of 560 m³ (730 yd³),[12] vaporising several houses and their foundations, and damaging 21 others so badly they had to be demolished. Four members of one family, Jack and Rosalind Somerville and their children Paul and Lynsey, died when their house at 15 Sherwood Crescent exploded. A fireball rose above the houses and moved toward the nearby GlasgowCarlisle A74 main road, scorching cars in the southbound lanes, leading motorists and local residents to believe that there had been a meltdown at the nearby Chapelcross nuclear power station. The only house left standing intact in the area belonged to Father Patrick Keegans, Lockerbie's Roman Catholic priest.[13] For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carlisle (disambiguation). ... The A74 was a major trunk road in the United Kingdom, linking Glasgow in Scotland to Carlisle in the North West of England. ... A nuclear meltdown occurs when the core of a nuclear reactor melts. ... Chapelcross nuclear power station, prior to demolition of the cooling towers. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... This article is about religious workers. ...


For many days, Lockerbie residents lived with the sight of bodies in their gardens and in the streets, as forensic workers photographed and tagged the location of each body to help determine the exact position and force of the on-board explosion, by coordinating information about each passenger's assigned seat, type of injury, and where they had landed. Local resident, Bunty Galloway, told authors Geraldine Sheridan and Thomas Kenning (1993):

"A boy was lying at the bottom of the steps on to the road. A young laddie with brown socks and blue trousers on. Later that evening my son-in-law asked for a blanket to cover him. I didn't know he was dead. I gave him a lamb's wool travelling rug thinking I'd keep him warm. Two more girls were lying dead across the road, one of them bent over garden railings. It was just as though they were sleeping. The boy lay at the bottom of my stairs for days. Every time I came back to my house for clothes he was still there. 'My boy is still there,' I used to tell the waiting policeman. Eventually on Saturday I couldn't take it no more. 'You got to get my boy lifted,' I told the policeman. That night he was moved." For other uses, see Boy (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Lambing be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ...

Despite being advised by their governments not to travel to Lockerbie, many of the passengers' relatives, most of them from the U.S., arrived there within days to identify their loved ones. Volunteers from Lockerbie set up and manned canteens, which stayed open 24 hours a day, where relatives, soldiers, police officers and social workers could find free sandwiches, hot meals, coffee, and someone to talk to. The people of the town washed, dried, and ironed every piece of clothing that was found, once the police had determined they were of no forensic value, so that as many items as possible could be returned to the relatives. The BBC's Scottish correspondent, Andrew Cassel, reported on the tenth anniversary of the bombing that the townspeople had "opened their homes and hearts" to the relatives, bearing their own losses "stoically and with enormous dignity", and that the bonds forged then continue to this day.[14] The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The British police are a group of similar but independent police services which operate in the United Kingdom. ... A social worker is a person employed in the administration of charity, social service, welfare, and poverty agencies, advocacy, or religious outreach programs. ... This article is about the food item. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ... The word forensic (from Latin: forensis - forum) refers to something of, pertaining to, or used in a court of law. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... An anniversary (from the Latin anniversarius, from the words for year and to turn, meaning (re)turning yearly; known in English since c. ... Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed... This article is about virtue. ...

Helsinki warning

A declassified CIA document referring to the Helsinki warning
A declassified CIA document referring to the Helsinki warning

On December 5, 1988 the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a security bulletin saying that on that day a man with an Arabic accent had telephoned the U.S. Embassy in Helsinki, Finland, and had told them that a Pan Am flight from Frankfurt to the United States would be blown up within the next two weeks by someone associated with the Abu Nidal Organization. He said a Finnish woman would carry the bomb on board as an unwitting courier. Download high resolution version (496x804, 171 KB)CIA doc File links The following pages link to this file: Pan Am Flight 103 User:SlimVirgin/sandbox ... Download high resolution version (496x804, 171 KB)CIA doc File links The following pages link to this file: Pan Am Flight 103 User:SlimVirgin/sandbox ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... “FAA” redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... Fatah - Revolutionary Council (better known as the Abu Nidal Organization, after its founder Abu Nidal) was an international terrorist organization created by a split from Fatah in 1974. ...


The anonymous warning was taken seriously by the U.S. government. The State Department cabled the bulletin to dozens of embassies. The FAA sent it to all U.S. carriers, including Pan Am, which had charged each of the passengers a five-dollar security surcharge, promising a "program that will screen passengers, employees, airport facilities, baggage and aircraft with unrelenting thoroughness" (The Independent, March 29, 1990); the security team in Frankfurt found the warning hidden under a pile of papers on a desk the day after the bombing [5]. One of the Frankfurt security screeners, whose job it was to spot explosive devices under X-ray, told ABC News that she had first learned what Semtex was during ABC's interview with her 11 months after the bombing (Prime Time Live, November 1989). The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Semtex is a general-purpose plastic explosive. ...


On December 13, the warning was posted on bulletin boards in the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, and eventually distributed to the entire American community there, including journalists and businessmen. As a result, a number of people allegedly booked on carriers other than Pan Am, leaving empty seats on PA103 that were later sold cheaply in "bucket shops". PA103 investigators subsequently said the telephone warning had been a hoax and a chilling coincidence. is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A hoax is an attempt to trick an audience into believing that something false is real. ... Coincidence is the noteworthy alignment of two or more events or circumstances without obvious causal connection. ...

CIA doc enlarged File links The following pages link to this file: Pan Am Flight 103 User:SlimVirgin/sandbox ...

People who did not travel on Pan Am Flight 103

After the bombing, a number of stories emerged of people with reservations on PA103 who missed the flight:

  • American musical quartet The Four Tops were returning to the States for Christmas, but were late getting out of a recording session. Angry at being too late to catch the flight, they were arguing about it when they heard it had exploded (ABC News Prime Time Live, November 30, 1989);
  • Sex Pistols band member John Lydon and his wife, Nora, also had a narrow escape. "Nora and I should have been dead," he told the Scottish Sunday Mirror. "We only missed the flight because Nora hadn't packed in time. The minute we realized what happened, we just looked at each other and almost collapsed."[15]
  • Anne Applebaum was booked on the flight. However, a week before take-off, she postponed her journey by a day in order to visit Oxford[16]; and,
  • Jaswant Basuta, an American of Indian descent, got drunk in the passenger lounge after checking in, and sprinted to the gate to find the aircraft's doors had just been closed. He pleaded for the doors to be re-opened, but Pan Am duty manager Christopher Price refused. Just over an hour later, two police officers arrived in the passenger lounge to tell Basuta the flight was down and that he was a suspect, because his suitcase had been on the plane but he had not — a breach by the airline of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) rules, which insist that the checked baggage of any passenger who failed to board be removed from the aircraft's hold.[17] While he was being questioned, his wife, Surinder, who believed he was on the flight, made a promise to the image of a Sikh Guru on the clock in the kitchen at home that she would hire priests to perform a special 48-hour prayer session if her husband survived. On a Friday morning two months later, she and her husband Jaswant went to a Sikh temple in New York, and with the priests she had invited prayed from 10:00 a.m. on Friday until 10:00 a.m. on Sunday. "On one side of the door was death," Surinder told authors Matthew Cox and Tom Foster, "on the other, life. It's like someone pulled him back" [5].

Others known or rumoured to have cancelled reservations on PA103 include: The Four Tops are an American vocal quartet, whose repertoire has included doo-wop, jazz, soul music, R&B, disco, adult contemporary, and showtunes. ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... John Joseph Lydon (born January 31, 1956), also known as Johnny Rotten, is an English rock musician. ... Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ... Anne Applebaum (born 1964) is a journalist and author who has written extensively about issues related to communism and the development of civil society in Eastern Europe and the USSR / Russia. ... “FAA” redirects here. ... A bag is a container that is usually used for storing or holding something. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... ... This article is about religious workers. ... For other uses, see Prayer (disambiguation). ... The Harimandir Sahib. ... This article is about the state. ...

  • Pik Botha (former South African foreign minister), who was travelling to UN headquarters to sign the New York Accords which granted independence to Namibia; (Bernt Carlsson, the UN Commissioner for Namibia, who was travelling to the same ceremony, died on board the flight[18]);
  • John McCarthy, then U.S. Ambassador to Lebanon;
  • Chris Revell, the son of Oliver "Buck" Revell, then executive assistant director of the FBI; and,
  • Steven Greene, assistant administrator in the Office of Intelligence of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.

Pik Botha in 1984, with (right to left) State President P W Botha, and President Samora Machel of Mozambique and Mrs Graça Machel, at the signing of the Nkomati Accord. ... United Nations headquarters, view from East River United Nations headquarters in New York City The United Nations headquarters is a distinctive complex in New York City that has served as the United Nationss headquarters since its completion in 1952. ... The New York Accords granted independence to Namibia and ended the direct involvement of foreign troops in the Angolan Civil War. ... Bernt Carlsson Bernt Wilmar Carlsson was born in 1938 in Stockholm, Sweden, and died in the Lockerbie bombing on December 21, 1988. ... Map of South-West Africa (Namibia) United Nations Commissioner for South-West Africa was a post created by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1967 to assert the UNs direct responsibility for South-West Africa which was then under illegal occupation by apartheid South Africa. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The DEAs enforcement activities may take agents anywhere from distant countries to suburban U.S. homes. ...

Claims of responsibility

According to a CIA analysis dated December 22, 1988, several groups were quick to claim responsibility in telephone calls in the United States and Europe: The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • A male caller claimed that a group called the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution had destroyed the plane in retaliation for the U.S. shootdown of an Iranian passenger airliner the previous July.
  • A caller claiming to represent the Islamic Jihad organization told ABC News in New York that the group had planted the bomb to commemorate Christmas.
  • The Ulster Defense League allegedly issued a telephonic claim.
  • Another anonymous caller claimed the plane had been downed by Mossad, the Israeli Intelligence service.

After finishing this list, the author stated, "We consider the claims from the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution as the most credible one received so far". The analysis concluded, "We cannot assign responsibility for this tragedy to any terrorist group at this time. We anticipate that, as often happens, many groups will seek to claim credit".[19][20] Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser... Islamic Jihad (Arabic: ‎, Harakat al-Jihad al-Islami) is a terrorist Islamist group based in the Syrian capital, Damascus. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ...


Investigation

Further information: Investigation into the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103

The initial investigation into the crash site by Dumfries and Galloway police involved military and civilian helicopter surveys, satellite imaging, and a fingertip search of the area by police and soldiers. More than 10,000 pieces of debris were retrieved, tagged and entered into a computer tracking system. The investigation into the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 began at 19:03 on December 21, 1988 when Pan Am Flight 103 crashed at Lockerbie in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... Map showing the council areas of Scotland with Dumfries and Galloway highlighted. ...


The fuselage of the aircraft was reconstructed by air accident investigators, revealing a 20-inch hole consistent with an explosion in the forward cargo hold. Examination of the baggage containers revealed that the container nearest the hole had blackening, pitting, and severe damage indicating a "high-energy event" had taken place inside it. A series of test explosions were carried out to confirm the precise location and quantity of explosive used.

It was this photograph of Megrahi, taken in the 1980s, that Tony Gauci identified as the man who had bought the clothes.

Fragments of a Samsonite suitcase believed to have contained the bomb were recovered, together with parts and pieces of circuit board identified as part of a Toshiba Bombeat radio cassette player, similar to that used to conceal a Semtex bomb seized by West German police from the Palestinian militant group Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command two months earlier. Items of baby clothing, which were subsequently proven to have been made in Malta, were also thought to have come from the same suitcase. This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... This image is protected by British Crown copyright. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ...


The clothes were traced to a Maltese merchant, Tony Gauci, who became a key prosecution witness, testifying that he sold the clothes to a man of Libyan appearance, whom he later identified as Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi. Tony Gauci's testimony was discredited, however, in 2007, by an official report providing information not available during the original trial, that Gauci had seen a picture of al-Megrahi in a magazine which connected al-Megrahi to the bombing, a fact which could have distorted his judgement.[21] Tony Gauci is a former proprietor of a clothes-shop in Malta. ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (Arabic: عبد الباسط محمد علي المقرحي) (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ...


A circuit board fragment, found embedded in a piece of charred material, was identified as part of an electronic timer similar to that found on a Libyan intelligence agent who had been arrested 10 months previously, carrying materials for a Semtex bomb. The timer was traced through its Swiss manufacturer, Mebo, to the Libyan military and Mebo employee Ulrich Lumpert identified the fragment at al-Megrahi's trial. (On July 18, 2007 Lumpert admitted he had lied at the trial.[22] In a sworn affidavit before a Zurich notary, Lumpert stated that he had stolen a prototype MST-13 timer PC-board from Mebo and gave it without permission on June 22, 1989, to "an official person investigating the Lockerbie case".[23] Dr Hans Köchler, UN observer at the Lockerbie trial, who was sent a copy of Lumpert's affidavit, said: "The Scottish authorities are now obliged to investigate this situation. Not only has Mr Lumpert admitted to stealing a sample of the timer, but to the fact he gave it to an official and then lied in court".) Lockerbie bombing suspect Edwin Bollier Edwin Bollier and his partner, Erwin Meister, founded the Meister/Bollier (Mebo) electronics firm in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Electronics engineer, Ulrich Lumpert, is a former employee of the Swiss firm Mebo Telecommunications Ag which was proven at the Lockerbie trial to have supplied Libya with the timing device that allegedly triggered the Pan Am Flight 103 bomb on December 21, 1988. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... An affidavit is a formal sworn statement of fact, signed by the declarant (who is called the affiant), and witnessed (as to the veracity of the affiants signature) by a taker of oaths, such as a notary public. ... Location within Switzerland   Zürich[?] (German pronunciation IPA: ; usually spelled Zurich in English) is the largest city in Switzerland (population: 366,145 in 2004; population of urban area: 1,091,732) and capital of the canton of Zürich. ... Notary can refer to either of the following two professions: Notary public. ... Part of a 1983 Sinclair ZX Spectrum computer board. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...


Investigators also discovered that an unaccompanied bag had been routed onto PA 103, via the interline baggage system, from Luqa airport on Air Malta flight KM180 to Frankfurt, and then by feeder flight PA 103A to Heathrow. This unaccompanied bag was shown at the trial to have been the bomb suitcase. Frankfurt Airport Frankfurt Airport (IATA: FRA, ICAO: EDDF), known in German as Rhein-Main-Flughafen or Flughafen Frankfurt am Main, is located near Frankfurt am Main, Germany. ... Heathrow redirects here. ...


Trial and appeals

Further information: Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial

On May 3, 2000, the trial of the two Libyans, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi and Lamin Khalifah Fhimah, accused of the 1988 PA103 bombing, began. Megrahi was convicted of murder on January 31, 2001, and was sentenced to life imprisonment. His co-accused, Fhimah, was acquitted. Megrahi's appeal against conviction was rejected on March 14, 2002. The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... Fhimah celebrates his acquittal with Colonel Gadaffi Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah (born April 4, 1956) is a former station manager for Libyan Arab Airlines in Luqa airport, Malta. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


On September 23, 2003 Megrahi's lawyers applied to the Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) to have his case referred back to the Court of Criminal Appeal for a fresh appeal against conviction. The application to the SCCRC followed the publication of two reports in February 2001 and March 2002 by Hans Köchler, who had been an international observer at Camp Zeist, Netherlands appointed by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Köchler described the decisions of the trial and appeal courts as a "spectacular miscarriage of justice."[24] Köchler also issued a series of statements in 2003, 2005, and 2007 calling for an independent international inquiry into the case and accusing the West of "double standards in criminal justice" in relation to the Lockerbie trial on the one hand and the HIV trial in Libya on the other.[25][26][27] is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Scottish Criminal Cases Review Commission (SCCRC) is a non-departmental public body in Scotland and was established by the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995 (as amended by the Crime and Punishment (Scotland) Act 1997). ... The Court of Criminal Appeal was an English appellate court for criminal cases established by the Judicature Act 1873. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Zeist is a municipality and a town in the central Netherlands, located east of the city of Utrecht. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials, appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect over 400 children with HIV in 1998, causing an epidemic at El-Fath Childrens Hospital in Benghazi. ...


On June 28, 2007 the SCCRC announced its decision to refer Megrahi's case to the High Court for a second appeal against conviction.[28] The SCCRC's decision was based on facts set out in an 800-page report that determined that "a miscarriage of justice may have occurred."[29] Dr Köchler criticised the SCCRC for exonerating police, prosecutors and forensic staff from blame in respect of Megrahi's alleged wrongful conviction. He told the Glasgow Herald of June 29, 2007: is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A miscarriage of justice is primarily the conviction and punishment of a person for a crime that he or she did not commit. ... The Lighthouse, Charles Mackintoshs Glasgow Herald building The Herald is a broadsheet newspaper published Monday to Saturday in Glasgow, Scotland. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

"No officials to be blamed, simply a Maltese shopkeeper."[30]

The second appeal will be heard by five judges in 2008 at the Court of Criminal Appeal. A procedural hearing at the Appeal Court in Edinburgh took place on October 11, 2007 when prosecution and defence lawyers discussed a number of legal issues with a panel of three judges.[31] One of the issues concerned a number of CIA documents that were shown before the trial to the prosecution, but were not disclosed to the defence. The documents are understood to relate to the Mebo MST-13 timer that allegedly detonated the PA103 bomb.[32] Megrahi's lawyers are also asking for documents relating to an alleged payment of $2 million made to Maltese merchant, Tony Gauci, for his testimony at the trial, which led to the conviction of Megrahi.[33] The Court of Criminal Appeal was an English appellate court for criminal cases established by the Judicature Act 1873. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Lockerbie bombing suspect Edwin Bollier Edwin Bollier and his partner, Erwin Meister, founded the Meister/Bollier (Mebo) electronics firm in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Tony Gauci is a former proprietor of a clothes-shop in Malta. ...


United Nations inquiry

In October 2007, former British diplomat Patrick Haseldine submitted this e-petition to prime minister Gordon Brown: Patrick Haseldine at N°10 Downing Street in July 1994 Patrick Haseldine (born July 11, 1942) is a former British diplomat who was dismissed by the then foreign secretary, John Major, in August 1989. ... For others with the same or similar names, see Gordon Brown (disambiguation). ...

"We the undersigned petition the Prime Minister to support calls for a United Nations Inquiry into the death of UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing.
"Dr Hans Köchler, UN observer at the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial, has described Mr al-Megrahi's conviction as a 'spectacular miscarriage of justice'. If, as now seems inevitable, the Libyan's conviction is overturned on appeal, Libya will be exonerated and a new investigation is going to be required.
"Apartheid South Africa is the prime alternative suspect for the Lockerbie bombing - see South Africa luggage swap theory.
"We understand that, when Libya takes its seat at the UN Security Council in January 2008, there will be calls for an immediate United Nations Inquiry into the death of UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, in the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. The other 14 UNSC members — including Britain — should support such an Inquiry and nominate Dr Köchler to conduct it."

Professor Robert Black and Iain McKie (father of Shirley McKie) were the first to sign the petition. It is open for signature until December 29, 2007.[34] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Map of South-West Africa (Namibia) United Nations Commissioner for South-West Africa was a post created by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1967 to assert the UNs direct responsibility for South-West Africa which was then under illegal occupation by apartheid South Africa. ... Bernt Carlsson Bernt Wilmar Carlsson was born in 1938 in Stockholm, Sweden, and died in the Lockerbie bombing on December 21, 1988. ... The cockpit landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan Ams daily Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit evening flight. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Pass valid for admission to the Scottish court at Camp Zeist, Netherlands (May 2000—March 2002) Hans Köchlers Lockerbie trial observer mission stemmed from the dispute between the United Kingdom, the United States and Libya concerning arrangements for the trial of two Libyans accused of causing the explosion... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi (born April 1, 1952) is a former Libyan intelligence officer, head of security for Libyan Arab Airlines, and director of the Center for Strategic Studies in Tripoli. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... The verdict of the Scottish judges who convicted one Libyan agent, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi, on 270 counts of murder at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers – including relatives of the 270 victims – that justice had been done. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Map of South-West Africa (Namibia) United Nations Commissioner for South-West Africa was a post created by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1967 to assert the UNs direct responsibility for South-West Africa which was then under illegal occupation by apartheid South Africa. ... Bernt Carlsson Bernt Wilmar Carlsson was born in 1938 in Stockholm, Sweden, and died in the Lockerbie bombing on December 21, 1988. ... The cockpit landed in a farmers field near a tiny church in Tundergarth, Scotland Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan Ams daily Frankfurt-London-New York-Detroit evening flight. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Professor Robert Black QC, FRSA, FRSE, FFCS, ILTM is Professor Emeritus of Scots Law at the University of Edinburgh. ... Shirley McKie Shirley McKie is a former Scottish police officer. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Alleged motive

Gulf of Sidra—Libya's "territorial waters"
Gulf of Sidra—Libya's "territorial waters"

Libya has never formally admitted carrying out the 1988 Lockerbie bombing. In a letter to the United Nations it merely "accepted responsibility for the actions of its officials".[35] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


The motive that is generally attributed to Libya can be traced back to a series of military confrontations with the US Navy that took place in the 1980s in the Gulf of Sidra, the whole of which Libya claimed as its territorial waters. First, there was the Gulf of Sidra incident (1981) when two Libyan fighter aircraft were shot down. Then, two Libyan radio ships were sunk in the Gulf of Sidra. Later, on March 23, 1986 a Libyan Navy patrol boat was sunk in the Gulf of Sidra,[36] followed by the sinking of another Libyan vessel on March 25, 1986.[37] The Libyan leader, Muammar al-Gaddafi, was accused of retaliating to these sinkings by ordering the bombing of West Berlin nightclub, La Belle, that was frequented by U.S. soldiers and which killed three and injured 230.[38] The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... Gulf of Sidra is a body of water in the Mediterranean Sea on the northern coast of Libya; it is also known as Gulf of Sirte. ... Combatants Libya United States Strength 2 Sukhoi Su-22 aircraft 2 F-14A Tomcats Casualties 2 aircraft destroyed; pilots recovered alive none The first Gulf of Sidra incident, August 19, 1981, was an incident in which two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter fighter jets engaged and were shot down by... Radio Nordsee International (RNI) also known as Radio North Sea International was a European offshore pirate radio station. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi1 (Arabic:   ) (born c. ... The Berlin discotheque bombing of April 5, 1986 was a terrorist attack on the West Berlin La Belle discotheque that was frequented by U.S. soldiers. ...


The CIA's alleged interception of an incriminatory message from Libya to its embassy in East Berlin provided U.S. president Ronald Reagan with the justification for USAF warplanes to launch Operation El Dorado Canyon on April 15, 1986 from British bases[39][40]—the first U.S. military strikes from Britain since World War II—against Tripoli and Benghazi, Libya. Among dozens of Libyan military and civilian casualties, the air strikes killed Hanna Gaddafi, a baby girl Gaddafi claimed to have adopted. To avenge his daughter's death, Gaddafi is said to have sponsored the September 1986 hijacking of Pan Am Flight 73 in Karachi, Pakistan.[41] The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... Reagan redirects here. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... Operation El Dorado Canyon was the name of the joint United States Air Force and Navy air-strikes against Libya on April 15, 1986. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked on September 5, 1986, by four armed men of the Abu Nidal organization. ...   (Sindhi: , Urdu: ) is the largest city in Pakistan and is the provincial capital of Sindh province. ...


Compensation from Libya

On May 29, 2002, Libya offered up to US$2.7 billion to settle claims by the families of the 270 killed in the Lockerbie bombing, representing US$10 million per family. The Libyan offer was that: is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

  • 40% of the money would be released when United Nations sanctions, suspended in 1999, were cancelled;
  • another 40% when U.S. trade sanctions were lifted; and
  • the final 20% when the U.S. State Department removed Libya from its list of states sponsoring terrorism.

Jim Kreindler of New York law firm, Kreindler & Kreindler, which orchestrated the settlement, said:

"These are uncharted waters. It is the first time that any of the states designated as sponsors of terrorism have offered compensation to families of terror victims."

The U.S. State Department maintained that it was not directly involved. "Some families want cash, others say it is blood money," said a State Department official.


Compensation for the families of the PA103 victims was among the steps set by the UN for lifting its sanctions against Libya. Other requirements included a formal denunciation of terrorism—which Libya said it had already made—and "accepting responsibility for the actions of its officials".[42][43]


Over 18 months later, on December 5, 2003, Jim Kreindler revealed that his Park Avenue law firm would receive an initial contingency fee of around US$1 million from each of the 128 American families Kreindler represents. The firm's fees could exceed US$300 million eventually. But Kreindler argued: is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Park Avenue in the Upper East Side (2004) Park Avenue, looking north toward the Metlife building from the Union Square Area Park Avenue (formerly Fourth Avenue) is a wide boulevard that carries traffic north and south in Manhattan in New York City. ...

"Over the past seven years we have had a dedicated team working tirelessly on this and we deserve the contingency fee we have worked so hard for, and I think we have provided the relatives with value for money."

Another top legal firm in the U.S., Speiser Krause, which represented 60 relatives, of whom half were UK families, was understood to have concluded contingency deals securing them fees of between 28 and 35% of individual settlements. Frank Granito of Speiser Krause commented:

"Sure the rewards in the U.S. are more substantial than anywhere else in the world but nobody has questioned the fee whilst the work has been going on, it is only now as we approach a resolution when the criticism comes your way."

On August 15, 2003, Libya's UN ambassador, Ahmed Own, submitted a letter to the UN Security Council formally accepting "responsibility for the actions of its officials" in relation to the Lockerbie bombing.[44] The Libyan government then proceeded to pay compensation to each family of US$8 million (from which legal fees of about US$2.5 million were deducted) and, as a result, the UN cancelled the sanctions that had been suspended four years earlier, and U.S. trade sanctions were lifted. A further US$2 million would have gone to each family had the U.S. State Department removed Libya from its list of states regarded as supporting international terrorism, but as this did not happen by the deadline set by Libya, the Libyan Central Bank withdrew the remaining US$540 million in April 2005 from the escrow account in Switzerland through which the earlier US$2.16 billion compensation for the victims' families had been paid.[45] The United States announced resumption of full diplomatic relations with Libya after deciding to remove it from its list of countries that support terrorism on May 15, 2006.[46] is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... This article is about the legal arrangement. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Libya's acceptance of responsibility may have amounted to a business deal aimed at having the sanctions overturned, rather than an admission of guilt. On February 24, 2004, Libyan Prime Minister Shukri Ghanem stated in a BBC Radio 4 interview that his country had paid the compensation as the "price for peace" and to secure the lifting of sanctions. Asked if Libya did not accept guilt, he said, "I agree with that." He also said there was no evidence to link Libya with the April 1984 shooting of police officer Yvonne Fletcher outside the Libyan Embassy in London. Gaddafi later retracted Ghanem's comments, under pressure from Washington and London.[47] is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shukri Ghanem Dr Shukri Mohammed Ghanem (Arabic: شكرى محمد غانم ) (born 1942) is the former General Secretary of the Peoples Committee in Libya (prime minister). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... WPC Yvonne Fletcher Woman Police Constable (WPC) Yvonne Joyce Fletcher (1959–17 April 1984) was a British police officer who was shot and killed in Londons St Jamess Square during a protest outside the Libyan embassy. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


A civil action against Libya continues on behalf of Pan Am, which went bankrupt partly as a result of the attack. The airline is seeking $4.5 billion for the loss of the aircraft and the effect on the airline's business.[48] Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration—see text) in the United Kingdom. ...


In the wake of the SCCRC's June 2007 decision, there have been suggestions that, if Megrahi's second appeal is successful and his conviction is overturned, Libya could seek to recover the $2.16 billion compensation paid to the relatives.[49]


Alternative theories

Two controversial PA103 topics appear in the alternative theories article: The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ...

Seven alternative theories', which dispute the guilt of Megrahi and/or the responsibility of Libya for the PA103 bombing, are examined in some detail: The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ...

The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ... The murder conviction of the Libyan agent Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi on January 31, 2001 at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers, including victims relatives, that the case had in fact been solved or that justice had been done. ...

Epilogue from the president's commission

On September 29, 1989, President Bush appointed Ann McLaughlin Korologos, former Secretary of Labor, as chair of the President's Commission on Aviation Security and Terrorism (PCAST) to review and report on aviation security policy in the light of the sabotage of flight PA103. Mrs Korologos and the PCAST team (Senator Alfonse D'Amato, Senator Frank Lautenberg, Representative John Paul Hammerschmidt, Representative James Oberstar, General Thomas Richards, deputy commander of U.S. forces in West Germany, and Edward Hidalgo, former Secretary of the U.S. Navy) submitted their report, with its 64 recommendations, on May 15, 1990. The PCAST chairman also handed a sealed envelope to the President which was widely believed to apportion blame for the PA103 bombing. Extensively covered in The Guardian the next day, the PCAST report concluded: is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Alfonse Martello DAmato (born August 1, 1937) is a former New York politician. ... Frank Raleigh Lautenberg (born January 23, 1924) is a businessman and Democratic Party politician. ... John Paul Hammerschmidt (born May 4, 1922) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Oberstar speaks at a rally for farms James Louis Oberstar (born September 10, 1934), is a United States politician. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

"National will and the moral courage to exercise it are the ultimate means of defeating terrorism. The Commission recommends a more vigorous policy that not only pursues and punishes terrorists, but also makes state sponsors of terrorism pay a price for their actions."

Before submitting their report, the PCAST members met a group of British PA103 relatives at the U.S. embassy in London on February 12, 1990. Twelve years later, on July 11, 2002, Scottish M.P. Tam Dalyell reminded the House of Commons of a controversial statement made at that 1990 embassy meeting by a PCAST member to one of the British relatives, Martin Cadman: is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Sir Thomas Dalyell of the Binns, 11th Baronet (born 9 August 1932), more commonly known as Tam Dalyell (pronounced ), is a Scottish politician and was a Labour member of the House of Commons from 1962 to 2005. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...

"Your government and ours know exactly what happened. But they're never going to tell."

The statement first came to public attention in the 1994 documentary film The Maltese Double Cross – Lockerbie and was published in both The Guardian of July 29, 1995, and a special report from Private Eye magazine entitled Lockerbie, the flight from justice May/June 2001. Dalyell asserted in Parliament that the statement had never been refuted. Film financed by Tiny Rowland The Maltese Double Cross – Lockerbie is a documentary film on the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Private eye may mean: Look up Private eye on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Private Eye a fortnightly British satirical magazine-newspaper, edited by Ian Hislop (as of 2005) A private investigator, a private detective for hire (see also crime fiction and detective fiction) Private Eye, a song by Alkaline Trio...


Memorials

There are a number of private and public memorials to the PA103 victims. Dark Elegy is the work of sculptor Susan Lowenstein of Long Island, whose son Alexander, then 21, was a passenger on the flight. The work consists of 43 nude statues of the wives and mothers who lost a husband or a child. Inside each sculpture there is a personal memento of the victim.[50] Download high resolution version (855x641, 141 KB)Syracuse Universitys Pan Am Flight 103 memorial. ... Download high resolution version (855x641, 141 KB)Syracuse Universitys Pan Am Flight 103 memorial. ... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ...


U.S. President Bill Clinton dedicated a Memorial Cairn to the victims at Arlington National Cemetery on November 3, 1995[51], and there are similar memorials at Syracuse University; Dryfesdale Cemetery, near Lockerbie; and in Sherwood Crescent, Lockerbie. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Crouse College, a 19th-century Romanesque building which houses the universitys visual arts and music programs Syracuse University (SU) is a private research university located in Syracuse, New York, United States the geographic center of the state, about 250 miles northwest of New York City. ...


Syracuse University holds a memorial week every year called "Remembrance Week" to commemorate its 35 lost students. Every December 21, a service is held in the university's chapel at 2:03 p.m. (19:03 UTC), marking the moment the aircraft exploded. The university also awards university tuition fees to two students from Lockerbie Academy each year, in the form of its Lockerbie scholarship. In addition, the university annually awards 35 scholarships to seniors to honor each of the 35 students killed. The Remembrance Scholarships are among the highest honors a Syracuse undergraduate can receive. is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The main UK memorial is at Dryfesdale Cemetery about a mile west of Lockerbie. There is a semicircular stone wall in the garden of remembrance with the names and nationalities of all the victims along with individual funeral stones and memorials. Inside the chapel at Dryfesdale there is a book of remembrance. There are memorials in Lockerbie and Moffat Roman Catholic churches, where plaques list the names of all 270 victims. In Lockerbie Town Hall Council Chambers, there is a stained-glass window depicting flags of the 21 different countries whose citizens lost their lives in the disaster. There is also a book of remembrance at Lockerbie public library and another at Tundergarth Church. Lockerbie Town Hall, 2006. ... Moffat is a burgh and former spa town in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, lying on the River Annan. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Depictions in media

A 1990 HBO made-for-TV movie, The Tragedy of Flight 103: The Inside Story, depicts the events leading to the bombing.[52] For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ...


Aftermath depicted in the stage play The Women of Lockerbie by Deborah Brevoort was awarded the silver medal in the Onassis International Playwriting Competition in 2001. A stage play is a dramatic work intended for performance before a live audience, or a performance of such a work. ...


The plane wreckage appears in the montage-painting "View from the Hill" by Mark Wilkinson featured in the gatefold sleeve of Fish's first solo album Vigil in a Wilderness of Mirrors. Mark Wilkinsons cover for Misplaced Childhood Mark Wilkinson (born in Windsor, England on October 3, 1952) is best known for his detailed surrealistic cover art that he created for a number of British bands, most prominently the Progressive Rock band, Marillion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Vigil in a Wilderness of Mirrors is Fishs (born Derek W. Dick) first solo album since departing Marillion in 1988. ...


It was announced in March 2007 that a movie based on the novel The Boy Who Fell Out of the Sky by Ken Dornstein based on the events of the bombing will be produced.[53] THE BOY WHO FELL OUT OF THE SKY - a book title by Ken Dornstein - his younger brother David Dornstein was killed in PanAm 103 bombing. ...


References

  1. ^ One view from a desolate hillside.
  2. ^ Pan Am Flight 103 victims: names of 243 passengers, 16 crew and 11 fatalities in Lockerbie
  3. ^ Referral of Megrahi case for 2nd appeal.
  4. ^ The Washington Post.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Cox, Matthew, and Foster, Tom. (1992) Their Darkest Day: The Tragedy of Pan Am 103, ISBN 0-8021-1382-6
  6. ^ AAIB report on the accident to Boeing 747-121, N739PA at Lockerbie, Dumfriesshire, Scotland on 21 December 1988.
  7. ^ The Guardian.
  8. ^ AAIB website (PDF).
  9. ^ Aviation Safety website.
  10. ^ Court document against al-Megrahi
  11. ^ VPAF103 (American families') website.
  12. ^ AAIB website (PDF).
  13. ^ Lockerbie: BBC news report.
  14. ^ BBC news.
  15. ^ The Guardian.
  16. ^ www.anneapplebaum.com/other/1998/12_20_tel_lockerbie.html.
  17. ^ The night death rained down from the skies
  18. ^ VPAF103 article on Bernt Carlsson.
  19. ^ CIA document.
  20. ^ CIA document.
  21. ^ Official report discredits Tony Gauci's testimony
  22. ^ Vital Lockerbie evidence 'was tampered with'
  23. ^ Probe into Lockerbie timer claims
  24. ^ BBC news.
  25. ^ Dr Hans Köchler's statement, August 2003.
  26. ^ Dr Hans Köchler's statement, October 2005.
  27. ^ Double standards in criminal justice: Pan Am Flight 103 v. HIV trial in Libya (PDF).
  28. ^ SCCRC refers Megrahi's case for second appeal.
  29. ^ SCCRC decides "a miscarriage of justice may have occurred".
  30. ^ Statement by Dr Hans Köchler on SCCRC decision, 29 June 2007.
  31. ^ Lockerbie bomber in fresh appeal
  32. ^ 'Secret' Lockerbie report claim.
  33. ^ Fresh doubts on Lockerbie conviction The Guardian October 3, 2007
  34. ^ Call for United Nations Inquiry into death of UN Commissioner for Namibia, Bernt Carlsson, in 1988 Lockerbie bombing
  35. ^ Security Council lifts sanctions imposed on Libya after terrorist bombings of Pan Am 103 and UTA 772.
  36. ^ Press statement by Larry Speakes, 24 March 1986.
  37. ^ Libyan craft fired upon, 25 March 1986.
  38. ^ BBC report of La Belle bombing.
  39. ^ USAF bombing of Libya, 1986.
  40. ^ BBC news.
  41. ^ Revealed: Gaddafi's air massacre plot
  42. ^ Security Council lifts sanctions imposed on Libya after terrorist bombings of Pan Am Flight 103 and UTA Flight 772.
  43. ^ CNN archives.
  44. ^ Libyan government website.
  45. ^ The Scotsman.
  46. ^ BBC news.
  47. ^ BBC Radio 4, February 24, 2004.
  48. ^ Case Studies of Domestic Terrorism.
  49. ^ Libyans want their £1.4bn payout back.
  50. ^ VPAF103 website.
  51. ^ Arlington national cemetery.
  52. ^ made-for-TV movie.
  53. ^ proposed Warner Bros movie.

For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

See also

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Air-India Flight 182 was a Boeing 747 that exploded on June 23, 1985 while at an altitude of 31,000 feet (9500 m) above the Atlantic Ocean, south of Ireland; all 329 on board were killed, of whom 136 were children and 280 were Canadian citizens. ... The verdict of the Scottish judges who convicted one Libyan agent, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi, on 270 counts of murder at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers – including relatives of the 270 victims – that justice had been done. ... The investigation into the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 began at 19:03 on December 21, 1988 when Pan Am Flight 103 crashed at Lockerbie in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. ... Citing the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board, an aviation accident is defined as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... The trial began on May 3, 2000 The Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial began on May 3, 2000, which was 11 years, four months and 13 days after the sabotage of Pan Am Flight 103 on December 21, 1988. ... Ground pass valid on the extraterritorial premises of the Scottish Court in the Netherlands at Kamp van Zeist, NL (May 2000-March 2002) // The dispute between the United Kingdom, the United States and Libya over the responsibility for the explosion of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie was resolved on... Pan Am Flight 73 was hijacked on September 5, 1986, by four armed men of the Abu Nidal organization. ... Route taken by UTA Flight 772 UTA Flight 772 of the French airline, Union des Transports Aériens, was a scheduled flight operating from Brazzaville in the Republic of Congo, via NDjamena in Chad, to Paris CDG airport in France. ...

Sources

is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Progress Organization (IPO) is a Vienna-based think tank that enjoys consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and is associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... The International Progress Organization (IPO) is a Vienna-based think tank that enjoys consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations and is associated with the United Nations Department of Public Information. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Cohen, Dan and Susan. (2000) Pan Am 103: the Bombing, the Betrayals, and a Bereaved Family's Search for Justice, ISBN 0-451-20270-8
  • Dornstein, Ken. (2006) The Boy Who Fell Out of the Sky, ISBN 0-375-50359-5
  • Leppard, David. (1992) On the Trail of Terror
  • Marquise, Richard A. (2006) Scotbom: Evidence and the Lockerbie Investigation, ISBN 978-0-87586-449-5
  • Köchler, Hans, and Jason Subler (eds.). (2002) The Lockerbie Trial. Documents related to the I.P.O. Observer Mission. Studies in International Relations, XXVII, ISBN 390070421X
  • Report of the President's Commission on Aviation Security and Terrorism, May 15, 1990, U.S. Government Printing Office, 0-266-884

is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

  • Archive.org cache of The Pan Am 103 Crash Website Collected information on Pan Am 103 1995–2002
  • Syracuse University Pan Am Flight 103 archive
  • Syracuse College of Law Lockerbie trial website
  • A PA103 timeline, The Washington Post
  • A PA103 timeline, Syracuse University
  • Article about victim Gretchen Dater and 9/11 victim Jeremy Glick, who both attended the same New Jersey school
  • A private investigator's view that terrorism did not destroy PA103
  • "Report on and evaluation of the Lockerbie trial conducted by the special Scottish Court in the Netherlands at Kamp van Zeist" by Dr. Hans Köchler, February 3, 2001
  • "Report on the appeal proceedings at the Scottish Court in the Netherlands (Lockerbie Court)" by Dr. Hans Köchler, International Progress Organization, March 26, 2002
  • Police chief—Lockerbie evidence was faked, The Scotsman August 28, 2005
  • Defense Intelligence Agency Redacted Pan Am Report (response to a FOIA, 11 MB PDF)
  • From Lockerbie to Camp Zeist: The Pan Am 103 Trial
  • Pan Am Flight 103, CBS News
  • "The New York Times on the Libya-Pan Am 103 Case: A Study in Propaganda Service" Center for Research on Globalization, Québec, Canada
  • Inconvenient Truths, Hugh Miles, London Review of Books
  • The Lockerbie disaster
  • Pre-disaster photos of N739PA, Airliners.net
  • Seat map of Pan Am 103
  • Lockerbie bombing suspects arraigned in Netherlands, CNN
  • "BYTE OUT OF HISTORY: Solving a complex case of international terrorism," Federal Bureau of Investigation

  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Pan Am Flight 103 (1041 words)
Pan Am has particularly stringent security procedures at Heathrow, involving a three-stage check of passengers' baggage beginning before check-in and concluding with a search of hand luggage at the Pan Am departure lounge, according to travelers.
The flight was scheduled to depart at 18:00, and pushed back from the gate at 18:04, but because of a 25-minute delay, not unusual during rush hour at Heathrow Airport, it took off from runway 27L at 18:25 instead, flying northwest out of Heathrow, a so-called Daventry departure.
Captain MacQuarrie, the first officer, the flight engineer, a flight attendant, and a number of first-class passengers were found still strapped to their seats inside the nose section, where it landed in a field by a tiny church in the village of Tundergarth.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Pan Am Flight 103 (1046 words)
Pan Am Flight 103 was Pan American World Airways' third daily scheduled transatlantic flight from London's Heathrow International Airport to New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport.
Four days before Christmas 1988, a Pan Am 747 was ripped from the sky by a powerful wad of plastic explosives.
Pan Am flight 103, had it followed the bombers' schedule, would have exploded over the Atlantic Ocean, but the bomb went off too soon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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