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Encyclopedia > Pan Africanist Congress
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Political parties The President of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under South Africas Constitution. ... The Deputy President of South Africa is appointed by the President of South Africa. ... Ministers, in the South African government, are Members of Parliament who hold a ministerial warrants to perform certain functions of government. ... The Speaker of the National Assembly presides over the South African National Assembly. ... The National Assembly is the lower house of the Parliament of South Africa, located in Cape Town, Western Cape Province. ... Categories: South African politics | South Africa stubs ... The South African Constitutional Court was established in 1994 by South Africas first democratic constitution: the Interim Constitution of 1993. ... The South African Supreme Court of Appeal is the South African court which has the final say on all matters, except those that involve the constitution. ... The High Court of South Africa is a court of law in South Africa. ... Elections in South Africa gives information on election and election results in South Africa. ... Political parties in South Africa lists political parties in South Africa. ...

PAC symbol
PAC symbol

The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. It was founded in 1959 after a number of members broke away from the African National Congress (ANC) because they objected to the ANC's non-racial policies and wished to take a bolder approach based more on mass action. Robert Sobukwe was elected as the first president, at the founding conference held in April 1959 in Johannesburg. Image File history File links Paclogo. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The African National Congress (ANC) is a centre-left political party, and has been South Africas governing party (in a coalition) since the establishment of majority rule in May 1994. ... Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (1924 – 27 February 1978) was a South African political dissident, who founded the Pan African Congress in opposition to the Apartheid regime. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... City motto: Unity in Development Province Gauteng Mayor Amos Masondo Area  - % water 1,644 km² 0. ...


The ANC decided to launch a campaign against the pass laws to begin on March 31, 1960. The PAC decided to pre-empt the ANC by launching their own campaign ten days earlier, on March 21, 1960. Sobukwe urged people to leave their passes at home and to non-violently hand themselves over for arrest at the nearest police station. The protest erupted in tragedy when police opened fire on a group of protestors in Sharpeville, killing 69 people and injuring 186, many being shot from behind. The Pass Laws Act of 1952 made it compulsory for all black South Africans over the age of 16 to carry a pass book, at all times. ... March 31 is the 90th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (91st in Leap years), with 275 days remaining. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... South African police officers standing over people killed in the Sharpeville massacre. ...


Shortly after the Sharpeville Massacre, the National Party government imposed a state of emergency, and banned both the PAC and ANC. Sobukwe was arrested and jailed, only to be released in 1969. Many members fled into exile, and when Sobukwe died in 1978, he was succeeded by Potlako Leballo. The PAC then split into two following a partially successful coup by David Sibeko to head the Presidential Leadership Council in 1979. The assassination of Sibeko in Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania on 12 June 1979 and the death of Leballo in January 1986 inaugurated the demise of the PAC. South African police officers standing over people killed in the Sharpeville massacre. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from 1948 until 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... David Sibeko David Maphgumzana Sibeko (b. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Although founded by ANC members who were in profound opposition to the policies of the South African Communist Party, in the 1960s a prominent section of the PAC's leadership adopted a Maoist positon. The ANC consistently regarded the PAC as reactionary and backward due to the PAC's Africanist stance which proclaimed that South Africa was above all an African country. The military wing of the PAC was launched in 1962 as Poqo and later renamed as the Azanian People's Liberation Army (APLA). APLA became famous for its wildly popular slogan "One Settler, One Bullet", but was never able to launch a particularly effective guerilla campaign. Despite its organisational weaknesses, the PAC's Africanism did much to inform the student uprisings of the late 1970s and inspired the formation of the Black Consciousness Movement under the leadership of Steve Biko. SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought (Chinese: 毛澤東思想, pinyin: Máo Zédōng Sīxiǎng), also called Marxism-Leninism–Mao Zedong Thought or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (MLM), is a variant of communism derived from the teachings of Mao Zedong (1893–1976). ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is not encyclopedic If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Poqo, which means standing alone, was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress. ... The Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA) was the military wing of the Pan Africanist Congress. ... The Black Consciousness Movement was a movement which called for non-violent black resistance to the Apartheid government in South Africa. ... Stephen Biko Stephen Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946 – September 12, 1977) was a noted nonviolent anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s. ...


The PAC was unbanned in 1990, along with the ANC, but was plagued by infighting. The Maoist Leballo-ists refused to join the peace process and a splinter section of the PAC only gained a small percentage of votes in the 1994 election, which shrank even further in the 1999 election. In 2003, after yet another failed congress, one of the party's more prominent and popular members, Patricia de Lille left to form her own party, the Independent Democrats. This did not affect the PAC's continued poor performance in the 2004 election, though ID did better. This article is about the year. ... 1994 General Election results, National Assembly African National Congress (ANC) 12,237,655 62. ... South Africas second non-racial general election, held on 1999-06-02, was won by the African National Congress (ANC), who increased their number of seats by 14. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patricia de Lille is the leader of the Independent Democrats, a South African political party which she formed in 2003 when she broke away from the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). ... The Independent Democrats are a South African political party, formed by former Pan Africanist Congress member Patricia de Lille in 2003. ... Legislative elections were held in South Africa on Wednesday, 14 April 2004. ...


See also

Azanian National Youth Unity (abbreviated AZANYU) is the youth wing of the Pan Africanist Congress in South Africa. ... The history of South Africa encompasses over three million years. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ...

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