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Encyclopedia > Pamplona

For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation).

Pamplona / Iruña
Flag of Pamplona / Iruña
Flag
Official seal of Pamplona / Iruña
Seal
Coordinates: 42°49′1.2″N 1°38′34.08″W / 42.817, -1.6428
Country Spain
Autonomous Community Navarre
Founded 74 BC
Government
 - Mayoress Yolanda Barcina (UPN)
Area
 - City 23.55 km² (9.1 sq mi)
Elevation 446 m (1,457 ft)
Population (2006)[1]
 - City 195,769
 - Density 8,516.73/km² (22,058.2/sq mi)
 - Metro 319,208
  population-ranking: 30st (municipality); 23st (metro area)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 - Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Website: http://www.pamplona.net

Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña[2]) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain and of the former kingdom of Navarre. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Pamplona ... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71... Alcalde is the Spanish title of the chief administrator of a town. ... Yolanda Barcina Angulo (April 4, 1960), has been the mayor of Pamplona, Spain since 1999. ... Unión del Pueblo Navarro or UPN (Union of the Navarrese People) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ...


For Basque nationalists, Pamplona is the historical capital of the Basque Country. The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... Location of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces Capital Pamplona Official languages Basque, French, Spanish Demonym Basque Currency Euro The Basque-speaking areas This article is about the overall Basque domain. ...


The city is worldwide famous for the San Fermín festival, from July 6 to 14, in which the running of the bulls or encierro is one of the main attractions. This fiesta, known as Sanfermines to the local population, was first brought to wide spread attention by Ernest Hemingway in his first novel, The Sun Also Rises. Bulls running on July 7, 2005, Consistorial Square, Pamplona The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona (Navarre, Basque Country, Spain), is a deeply-rooted celebration held annually from noon 6 July, when the opening of the fiesta is marked by setting off the pyrotechnic chupinazo accompanied... is the 187th day of the year (188th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The festival of San Fermin is a deeply rooted celebration held annually from 6 July to 14 July in the city of Pamplona in north-eastern Spain. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... This article is about the novel. ...


As of 2007 Pamplona Municipality comprises 27 councillors: 13 of UPN, 8 of NaBai, 4 of PSOE and 2 of ANV. Unión del Pueblo Navarro or UPN (Union of the Navarrese People) is a conservative political party active in the Navarre region of Spain. ... Navarre Yes or Nafarroa Bai (Basque) is a basque coalition of Navarre for the 2004 Spanish elections made of the Partido Nacionalista Vasco (Basque Nationalist Party), Eusko Alkartasuna (Basque Solidarity) and Aralar political parties, specifically candidating in Navarre aiming to win a seat in the spanish parliament, in which the... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Eusko Abertzale Ekintza - Acción Nacionalista Vasca (EAE-ANV) was the first left-leaning Basque Nationalist Party to exist. ...

Contents

Geography

Pamplona is located in the middle of Navarre, in a rounded valley known as the Cuenca de Pamplona, that links the mountainous North with the Ebro valley. The climate and landscape of the Cuenca is a transition between those two main Navarrese geographical regions. Its central position at crossroads has served as a commercial link between those very different natural parts of Navarre. For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ...


The historical center of Pamplona is on the right bank of the Arga, a tributary of the Ebro. Today the city grows on both sides of the river. Its climate is Oceanic with influences of Continental Mediterranean. Bridge (early 11th century) over the Arga river at Puente La Reina The Arga is a river of Navarre, in Spain. ... World map showing the oceanic climate zones. ...


History

Foundation and Roman times

In the winter of 74-75 BC, the area served as a camp for the Roman general Pompey in the war against Sertorius. He is considered to be the founder of Pompaelo[3], which became Pamplona, in modern Spanish language. It is thought that it was the chief town of the Vascones, and they called it Iruña, 'the city'. Roman Pompaelo was located in the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, on the road from Burdigala (modern Bordeaux) to Asturica (modern Astorga); [4] it was a civitas stipendiaria in the jurisdiction of the conventus of Caesaraugusta (modern Zaragoza)[5]. Although it can not be considered one of the outstanding cities of Roman Hispania, recent archaeological excavations have revealed a quite high degree of development. Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Quintus Sertorius (died 72 BC), Roman statesman and general. ... This article is about the international language known as Spanish. ... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... Roman Imperial province of Hispania Tarraconensis, 120 AD Hispania Tarraconensis was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... Episcopal Palace of Astorga Astorga (Latin Asturica Augusta) is a small city located in the province of León of Spain. ... For other uses, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ...


Early Middle Ages

After the fall of the Roman Empire and during the Visigothic period (fourth to eighth centuries), the Vascones lived independently, although it is likely that Visigoths controlled, maybe only intermittently, the fortified city of Pamplona. It is known also that several Pamplonese bishops attended the Councils of Toledo. During the eighth century, Moors and Franks intermittently controlled the city. The best-known episode of that obscure period was the destruction of the city walls by Charlemagne after his failed expedition to Zaragoza in 778. He was subsequently defeated in the famous battle of Roncevaux. During the late eighth century, Pamplona and its area of influence oscillated between two powerful states but proved unable to secure permanently its rule over the Basque region. This alternation could reflect also the internal struggles of the Basque warrior nobility. Finally, in 824 Íñigo Arista was crowned as king of Pamplona. This kingdom strengthened its independence from the weakened Frankish empire and Cordoban emirate. Nevertheless, during this period Pamplona was not properly a city but just a kind of fortress. The Roman Empire is not the Holy Roman Empire (843-1806). ... The history of Spain spans the period from pre-historic times, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spains modern-day renaissance in the post-Franco era. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... For other uses, see moor. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... The Roncevaux Pass (Roncesvaux in English, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in which Hroudland (later changed to Roland), prefect of Brittany March was defeated by the Basques. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... King Eneko Aritza (Iñigo Iñiguez Arista, in Basque, Eneko Aritza) (c. ... This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ... ...


Three burgos and one city

From the 11th century reviving economic development allowed Pamplona to recover its urban life. The bishops of Pamplona recovered their ecclesiastical leading role; during the previous centuries isolated monasteries, especially Leyre, had actually hold the religious power. The pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela contributed a lot to revive the commercial and cultural exchanges with Christian Europe beyond the Pyrenees. In the 12th century, the city enlarged with two new separate burgos (independent municipalities): San Cernin and San Nicolás, in which the population of local Navarrese was swelled by French merchants and artisans. Old Pamplona and the new burgos were almost always engaged in quarrels among themselves. The most dramatic episode was the destruction of the Navarrería by the other two boroughs and the massacre of its population in 1276. Its site was abandoned for nearly fifty years. King Charles III decreed the unification of the boroughs in a single city in 1423. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Porta Speciosa Crypt. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... January 21 - Pope Innocent V succeeds Pope Gregory X as the 185th pope. ... Charles III of Navarre (1361, Mantes – September 8, 1425, Olite), surnamed the Noble, was King of Navarre 1387–1425, Count of Évreux 1387–1404, and Duke of Nemours 1404–1425. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ...


A fortress-city

After the annexation of Navarre to Spain (1512), Pamplona remained as capital of the autonomous kingdom of Navarre, which preserved its own institutions and laws. Pamplona acquired a key role in the military defence of the Pyrenees. The southern side of the city was the weaker and the Navarrese king Louis I built a castle in the early 14th century in the site that is known today as Plaza del Castillo (Castle Square). After the Castilian conquest, king Ferdinand V ordered in 1513 the demolition of the mediaeval castle and the building of a new one in a very close place. But the progress of artillery demanded a complete renewal of the fortified system. King Philip II ordered the building of a star fort in the southern side of the city and the modernization of all the walls. The walls that exist today date from the late sixteenth to eighteenth centuries. The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. ... Louis X of France Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Ferdinand II of Aragon (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... Bourtange fortification, restored to 1750 situation, Groningen, Netherlands A Star Fort is a fortification in the style that evolved during the Age of Blackpowder when cannon came to dominate the battlefield. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


During the eighteenth century, Pamplona was considerably beautified and its urban services improved. A continuous water supply was established and the streets were paved, among many other enhancements. Rich aristocrats and businessmen also built their mansions. In the nineteenth century this fortress-city played a key role in several wars in which Spain was involved. During the Napoleonic Wars French troops occupied the city in 1808 and remained in it until 1813. During the Carlist Wars (1833-1839 and 1872-1876) Pamplona was each time controlled by the liberals, not just because the few liberals that lived in Navarre were mainly Pamplonese, but because of the governmental control over the fortified city. Although Carlist rebels easily ruled the countryside, the government army had no problem in dominating the walled capital of Navarre. Nevertheless, during the last Carlist war, modern artillery operated by Carlists from surrounding mountains showed that the old walls would not be enough in the face of a stronger enemy. Thus, the Government decided to build a fort on the top of mount San Cristóbal, just three kilometers north of Pamplona. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ...


Due to its military role, the city could not grow outside its walled belt. Furthermore, building in the closest area to the walls was banned to avoid any advantage for a besieger; thus the city could only grow by increasing its housing density. Higher and narrower houses were built and courtyards gradually disappeared. During the nineteenth century road transportation improved, and the railway came in 1860. Nevertheless, industry in Pamplona as well as in Navarre as a whole was weak during century of the Industrial Revolution. Anyway, no industrial development was feasible in such a constrained fortress-city. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ...


After a slight modification of the star fort allowed an expansion of just six blocks in 1888, the First World War demonstrated that the fortified system of Pamplona was already obsolete. In 1915, the Army allowed the destruction of the walls and abolished the building ban in the city's surroundings. The southern side of the walls was destroyed and the other three remained as they did not hinder urban growth. The star fort continued to serve as a military facility until 1964, but just as a garrison. Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Industrialisation and modernisation

Demographic evolution (1900-2005)
Demographic evolution (1900-2005)

Freed from its military function, Pamplona could lead the process of industrialisation and modernisation in which Navarre was involved during the twentieth century, especially during its second half. The urban growth (see Urbanism) has been accompanied by the development of industry and services. Population growth has been the effect of an intense immigration process during the 60s and 70s: from the Navarrese countryside and from other less developed regions of Spain, mainly Castile and León and Andalusia. Since the 90s the immigration is coming mainly from abroad. A factory in Ilmenau (Germany) around 1860 Industrialisation (also spelt Industrialization) or an Industrial Revolution is a process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed from a pre-industrial society (an economy where the amount of capital accumulated per capita is low) to an industrial one... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ... For other meanings, see Pamplona (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Note: Sometimes the 60s is used as shorthand for the 1960s, the 1860s, or other such decades in various centuries... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Note: Sometimes the 70s is used as shorthand for the 1970s, the 1870s, or other such decades in other centuries... Capital Valladolid Official language(s) Spanish/Castilian Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  94,223 km²  18. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Note: Sometimes the 90s is used as shorthand for the 1990s, the 1890s, or other such decades in various centuries. ... The population of Spain doubled during the twentieth century, due to the spectacular demographic boom by the 60s and early 70s. ...


Pamplona is listed as a city with one of the best standards of living and quality of life in Spain[6]. Its industry rate is higher than the national average[citation needed], although it is menaced by delocalization. Crime rates are lower than the national average but cost of living, especially housing, is considerably higher[7]. Thanks to its little size and an acceptable service of public transportation, there are not big problems of transit. Political life is seriously affected by the Basque Nationalist conflict. The Standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people. ... This article is about the economic and philosophical concept. ... In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule that do not belong to a single atom or a covalent bond. ... This graph shows the rate of non-fatal firearm-related crime in the United States from 1993 to 2003. ... For other uses, see The Cost of Living. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ...


Urbanism

Like many other European cities, it is very easy to distinguish what is so called the "old city" (Casco Viejo) and the new neighborhoods. The oldest part of the old city is Navarrería, which corresponds with the Roman city. During the 12th century, the boroughs of Saint Sernin (San Saturnino or San Cernin) and Saint Nicholas (San Nicolás) were established. Charles III decreed the unification of the three places under a single municipality in 1423. Charles III of Navarre (1361, Mantes – September 8, 1425, Olite), surnamed the Noble, was King of Navarre 1387–1425, Count of Évreux 1387–1404, and Duke of Nemours 1404–1425. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ...


The city did not grow more in extension until the late 19th century. In 1888, a little modification of the star fort was allowed, but it just permitted the building of six blocks. It was called the I Ensanche (literally, "first widening"). The southern walls were destroyed in 1915 and the II Ensanche ("second widening") was planned. Its plan followed the grid pattern model designed by Ildefons Cerdà for Barcelona. Its blocks were built between the 20s and the 50s. The prevailing housing model are apartment buildings of five to eight floors. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A simple grid plan road map (Windermere, Florida). ... Ildefons Cerdà i Sunyer (in Catalan) or Ildefonso Cerdá y Suñer (in Spanish) (December 23, 1815 - August 21, 1876) was the progressive Catalan urban planner who designed the 19th-century extension of Barcelona called the Eixample (in Catalan) or Ensanche (in Spanish). ... Districts of Barcelona Original Eixample concept from 1859 Part of Eixample and Sagrada Família, viewed from Montjuic, June 2006 Eixample street & block layout The Eixample (Catalan for extension) is a district of Barcelona between the old city (Ciutat Vella) and what were once surrounding small towns (Sants, Gràcia... The 1920s they were sexy referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... An apartment block (St George Wharf) beside the River Thames at Vauxhall Bridge, London, England An apartment building, block of flats or tenement is a multi-unit dwelling made up of several (generally four or more) apartments (US) or flats (UK). ...


After the Civil War, three new zones of Pamplona began to grow: Rochapea, Milagrosa, and Chantrea. Only the last one was a planned neighborhood, the other two being disorderly growths. In 1957, the municipality designed the first general ordination plan for the city, which established the guidelines for further urban development. According to this, during the 60s and 70s saw the creation of new neighborhoods like San Juan, Iturrama, San Jorge, Echavacoiz, and Orvina. Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 Note: Sometimes the 60s is used as shorthand for the 1960s, the 1860s, or other such decades in various centuries... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s - 110s - 120s 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Note: Sometimes the 70s is used as shorthand for the 1970s, the 1870s, or other such decades in other centuries...


The urban growth of Pamplona surpassed the administrative limits of the city and involved municipalities like Barañáin, Burlada, Villava, Ansoain, Berriozar, Noain or Huarte in a larger metropolitan area. During the 1980s and 1990s, new neighborhoods were born: Azpilagaña, Mendebaldea, and Mendillorri. Rochapea was profoundly renewed. The urbanism of those new neighborhoods is very similar to other Spanish provincial capitals that experienced a similar intense economic development during the sixties and seventies. Although the grid plan is not applied, the urbanisation is previously designed and the apartment buildings are taller: never less than six floors and many taller than ten or even twenty. Industry, which previously coexisted with housing, was moved to industrial parks (the oldest and the only one within municipal limits of Pamplona is Landaben). Barañain is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Burlada (Basque: Burlata) is a municipality in Navarre province, Spain on the outskirts of the city of Pamplona. ... Villava/Atarrabia is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Berriozar is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Noáin (Valle de Elorz) - Noain (Elortzibar) is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Huarte - Uharte is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


In recent years, single-family house neighborhoods have grown in the metropolitan area: Zizur Mayor, Cizur Menor, Mutilva Alta, Mutilva Baja, Olaz, Esquíroz, Artica and Alzuza. New neighborhoods are being building in Buztintxuri, Lezkairu, and Sarriguren. The apartment buildings in those zones tend to be quite shorter, usually not more than six floors and with more room for green areas. Zizur Mayor (Basque: Zizur Nagusia) is a municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Navarra, Northern Spain. ... Cizur is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Aranguren is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Aranguren is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Egüés is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Galar is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Berrioplano is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... Egüés is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Egüés is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ...


Economy

Pamplona has shifted in few decades from a little administrative and even rural town to a medium-size city of industry and services. The industry sector is diversified although the most important activity is related to automobile industry. Volkswagen manufactures Polo model in its factory of Landaben and there are many auxiliary industries that work for Volkswagen and other companies. Other remarkable industries are building materials, metalworking and food processing. Renewable energy technologies are also an increasing economic sector (wind turbines manufacturing and generation) and neighboring Sarriguren is the seat of the National Center for Renewable Energies (CENER)[8] and of Acciona Energía. Automakers are companies that produce automobiles. ... VW redirects here. ... Volkswagen Derby The Volkswagen Polo is a supermini manufactured by Volkswagen of Germany. ... Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. ... Turned chess pieces Metalworking is the craft and practice of working with metals to create structures or machine parts. ... Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for consumption by humans or animals. ... A tall tower holds a wind turbine aloft where winds are consistently stronger. ... An example of a wind turbine. ... Egüés is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Acciona Energy is a leader in the renewable energy sector. ...


Pamplona is the main commercial and services center of Navarre. Its area of influence is not beyond the province, except for the University of Navarre and its teaching hospital, which provide private educational and health services nationwide and even internationally. The University of Navarra is a private university based at the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain. ...


Education and culture

The city is home to two universities: the above mentioned University of Navarre, a corporate work of Opus Dei founded in 1952, which is ranked as the best private university in Spain[9], and the Public University of Navarre, established by the Government of Navarre in 1987. There is also a local branch of the UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia). The University of Navarra is a private pontifical university based at the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain. ... For other uses, see Opus Dei (disambiguation). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Universidad Pública de Navarra (Basque: Nafarroako Unibertsitate Publikoa) was created in 1987 by the government of the Spanish autonomous region of Navarre (Spanish: Navarra, Basque: Nafarroa). ... This article is about the year 1987. ... The Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), is the public Spanish Open University. ...


The two most important museums in Pamplona are the Museo de Navarra, devoted to the archaeological and artistic heritage of Navarre, and the Museo Diocesano of religious art, located in the cathedral. Pamplona is the first Spanish city in the French way of the Way of Saint James. Since 2004, Pamplona venues Punto de Vista International Documentary Film Festival, the most important Spanish documentary film festival. The French Way (Spanish: Camino Francés) is the most popular of the routes of the Way of St. ... External links Official city site Live Cam of Obradoiro Façade Confraternity of St. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...


Transportation

Pamplona is linked by motorways with neighboring Saragossa (1978), San Sebastián, Vitoria (1995) and Logroño (2006). Buses use since 2007 a new bus station in the downtown that replaces the old one (1934). The airport (1972), operated by Aena and located in Noain, schedules several flights daily to Madrid and Barcelona[10]. There are railway (1861) links with Madrid, Saragossa and northern Spain, operated by Renfe. High speed train link with Saragossa, Madrid and Barcelona is not expected before 2014. A new railway station will be built in the southern part of the city. There are 20 daytime lines and 9 night lines of public buses, operated by La Montañesa, the chartered company of the Mancomunidad de la Comarca de Pamplona. A tram project is being discussed. A motorway (United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, and some Commonwealth nations) is both a type of road and a classification. ... The Autovía A-15 is a highway in Spain from Tudela to San Sebastián. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... The Autovía A-15 is a highway in Spain from Tudela to San Sebastián. ... The Autovia A-10 is a highway in Navarre, north western Spain. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Autovía A-12 is a highway in Spain known as the Autovía del Camino de Santiago between Pamplona and León. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the form of transport. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other meanings, see Bus stop (disambiguation). ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aena is the name of the Spanish state owned company that owns and manage all Spanish airports. ... Noáin (Valle de Elorz) - Noain (Elortzibar) is a town located in the province of Navarra, in the autonomous community of Navarra, in the North of Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For alternative meanings, see Zaragoza (disambiguation). ... Map of the Spanish rail network as it was in 2005, with colour-coded track types A new Cercanías Civia unit near Puerto Real (Cádiz) AVE Class 100 train at Cordoba station Renfe Operadora is the state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains on the 1668... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ...


Architecture and places of interest

Several notable churches, most of its sixteenth to eighteenth century fortified system and other civil architecture buildings belong to the historic-artistic heritage of Pamplona. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Religious architecture

The most important religious building is the fourteenth century Gothic Cathedral, with an outstanding cloister and a Neoclassical façade. There are another two main Gothic churches in the old city: Saint Sernin and Saint Nicholas, both built during the thirteenth century. Two other Gothic churches were built during the sixteenth century: Saint Dominic and Saint Augustine. During the seventeenth and eighteenth century were built the Baroque chapels of Saint Fermin, in the church of Saint Lawrence, and of the Virgin of the Road (Virgen del Camino), in the church of Saint Sernin, the convents of the Augustinian Recolect nuns and the Carmelite friars, and the Saint Ignatius of Loyola basilica in the place where he was injured in the battle during whose subsequent convalescence he decided to be priest. The most remarkable twentieth century religious buildings are probably the new diocesan seminary (1931) and the classical-revival style memorial church (1942) to the Navarrese dead in the Nationalist side of the Civil War and that is used today as temporary exhibitions room. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... For the Princeton University eating club, see Cloister Inn. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... Detail of St. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... For the Ecuadorian artist, see Manuel Rendón Seminario. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ...


Military and civil architecture

From the prominent military past of Pamplona remain three of the fourth sides of the city walls and, with little modifications, the citadel or star fort. All the mediaeval structures were replaced in order to resist artillery sieges. Complete obsolete for the modern war, they are used today as parks. A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ...


The oldest civil building today existing is a fourteenth century house that was used as Cámara de Comptos (the court of auditors of the early modern autonomous kingdom of Navarre) from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century. There are also several medieval bridges on the Arga: Santa Engracia, Miluce, Magdalena, and San Pedro. The medieval palace of Saint Peter, which was alternatively used by Navarrese kings and Pamplonese bishops, was used during the early modern age as the Viceroy's palace and later was the seat of the military governor of Navarre; since the Civil War it was ruinous and it was recently rebuilt to be used as the General Archive of Navarre. A financial audit, or more accurately, an audit of financial statements, is the examination by an independent third party of the financial statements of a company or any other legal entity (including governments), resulting in the publication of an independent opinion on whether or not those financial statements are relevant... A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ...

Pamplona townhall façade
Pamplona townhall façade

The most outstanding Baroque civil architecture is from the eighteenth century: town hall, episcopal palace, Saint John the Baptist seminary, and the Rozalejo's, Ezpeleta's (today music school), Navarro-Tafalla's (local office of PNV), and Guenduláin's (projected hotel) mansions. The provincial government built its own Neoclassical palace, the so-called Palace of Navarre, during the nineteenth century. The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ...


Late nineteenth and early twentieth century Pamplonese architecture shows the tendencies that are fully developed in other more important Spanish cities: La Agrícola building (1912), several apartment buildings with some timid modernist ornamentation, etc. The most notable architect in twentieth century Pamplona was Víctor Eusa (1894-1979), whose designs were influenced by the European expressionism and other avant-garde movements. 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Parks

Pamplona has many parks and green areas. The oldest is the Taconera park, whose early designs are from the seventeenth century. Taconera is today a romantic park, with wide pedestrian paths, parterres, and sculptures. A parterre is a formal garden construction on a level surface consisting of planting beds, edged in stone or tightly clipped hedging and gravel paths arranged to form a pleasing pattern. ...


The Media Luna park was built as part of the II Ensanche and is intended to allow relaxing strolling and sightseeing over the northern part of the town. After its demilitarization, the citadel (Ciudadela) and its surrounding area (Vuelta del Castillo) shifted into a park area with large lawns and modern sculptures.


The most remarkable parks of the new neighborhoods include the Yamaguchi park, between Iturrama and Ermitagaña, which includes a little Japanese garden; the campus of the University of Navarre; the Parque del Mundo in Chantrea; and the Arga park. This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden Stone lantern amid plants. ... The University of Navarra is a private university based at the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain. ...


Sports

CA Osasuna is the local soccer team. Their home stadium is called Estadio Reyno de Navarra, known as El Sadar until January, 2006. Club Atlético Osasuna, usually known as Osasuna, is a Spanish Primera División football club based in Pamplona in Navarra, founded in 1920. ... Estadio Reyno de Navarra (formerly El Sadar) is a multi-use stadium in Pamplona, Spain. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pamplona's bull ring was rebuilt in 1923. It seats 19,529, and is the third largest in the world, after the bull ring of Mexico and Madrid.


Other sports with some of the top clubs in Pamplona include handball (Portland San Antonio, Europe's championship winner 2001), futsal (MRA Xota) and water polo (Larraina). Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... Is a team spanish of handball based in Pamplona, Navarra. ... Futsal in Germany Futsal is an indoor version of football (soccer). ... Water polo is a team water sport. ...


Pamplona's favourite son may well be Miguel Indurain, five time Tour de France winner. Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish road bicycle racer. ... For other uses, see Tour de France (disambiguation). ...


Pamplona is also home to the headquarters of the Pelote Vasca International Federation (FIPV). Pelote Basque is principally practiced in France, Spain, and South America. Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor, against a wall (frontón in Spanish, frontoi...


Sister cities

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Category:Pamplona

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... , Yamaguchi (山口市 Yamaguchishi) is the capital city of Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ Spanish Statistic Institute.
  2. ^ Iruñea is the Basque name proposed by the Royal Academy of the Basque Language, but the Basque name recognized by the Government of Navarre is Iruña, "the city"
  3. ^ Ptolemy ii. 6. § 67; Strabo iii. § 161
  4. ^ Antonine Itinerary p. 455
  5. ^ Pliny the Elder iii. 3. s. 4.
  6. ^ "Pamplona, Bilbao and Gijón, the spanish cities with the best quality of life", El Mundo, 2007-06-21. Retrieved on 2008-04-14. (Spanish) 
  7. ^ (Spanish) habitathumano.com
  8. ^ (Spanish) CENER web page
  9. ^ See University of Navarre, Notable rankings
  10. ^ (Spanish) History of the Airport of Pamplona, by Aena

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, published in 1854, was the last a series of classical dictionaries edited by the english scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ... Euskaltzaindias central office is at Plaza Berria in Bilbao. ... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... The Antonine Itinerary is a Latin document that can be described as the Road Map of Roman Britain. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Navarra is a private pontifical university based at the southeast border of Pamplona, Spain. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Pamplona - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (969 words)
Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain.
From 409, however, Pamplona was controlled by the Visigoths; it was conquered by the Franks under Childebert in 542 and served as an episcopal see from the end of the seventh century.
Pamplona has maintained the medieval layout of the town and its star fort, but the rural center of about 28,886 in 1900 has expanded to include suburbs.
Meet the Public University of Navarre (594 words)
The capital of Navarre, historically the capital of the kingdom, is situated in the centre of the community, half way between the Mountain and the Riverside zone, on the route to France, Aragón and Castile.
Pamplona and its most immediate districts concentrate half of Navarre´s population as well as great part of the industrial and commercial resources.
Pamplona is not only an industrial and commercial city but also a city of services.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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