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Encyclopedia > Pallava
பல்லவர்
Pallavas
Image:pallava_territories.png
Pallava kingdom c.645 CE during Narasimhavarman I
Official languages Tamil
and Sanskrit
Capital Kanchipuram
Government Monarchy
Preceding state Satavahana, Kalabhras
Succeeding states Cholas, Eastern Chalukyas

The Pallava kingdom (Tamil: பல்லவர்) was an ancient South Indian kingdom. The Pallavas, feudatories of Andhra Satavahanas, became independent after their decline at Amaravati. They established their capital at Kanchipuram around the 4th century CE. They rose in power during the reign of Mahendravarman I (571630 CE) and Narasimhavarman I (630 – 668 CE) and dominated the Telugu and northern parts of Tamil region for about six hundred years until the end of the 9th century. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Pallava_territories. ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... This article is about a city that serves as a center of government and politics. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... For the comic series, see Monarchy (comics). ... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Cholas were a South Indian Tamil dynasty, antedating the early Sangam literature (c. ... Eastern Chalukyas were a South Indian dynasty whose kingdom was located in the present day Andhra Pradesh. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ... Approximate extent of the Satavahana Empire, circa 150 CE. The Sātavāhanas, also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled in Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates... Amaravati may refer to: Amaravati (capital), in Hinduism, (అమరావతి) is the capital of Svarga, a temporary paradise where the dead live. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. ... Events The Monophysites again reject the Council of Chalcedon, causing another schism. ... Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ... Events Childeric II succeeds Clotaire III as Frankish king Constantine IV becomes Byzantine Emperor, succeeding Constans II Theodore of Tarsus made archbishop of Canterbury. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The ancient Tamil country refers to the areas of South India and the northeastern Sri Lanka in which Tamil was the major language during ancient times. ...


Throughout their reign they were in constant conflict with both Chalukyas of Badami in the north and the Tamil kingdoms of Chola and Pandyas in the south and were finally defeated by the Chola kings in the 8th century CE. The Chalukya Dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled parts of southern India between 550 and 750, and again between 973 and 1190. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ...


Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of Dravidian architecture, still seen today in Mahabalipuram. Pallavas, who left behind magnificent sculptures and temples, established the foundations of classical Dravidian architecture. Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram during Pallava rule and extolled their benign rule. Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Dravidian architecture, as unique and spectacular as any Greek, Roman or Egyptian architecture, spans many thousands of years. ... ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Some sources[1] describe Bodhidharma, the founder of the Chan (Zen) school of Buddhism in China, as a prince of the Pallava dynasty, a contemporary of Skandavarman IV and Nandivarman I,[2] and the son of Simhavarman II.[3] Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... Zen is a school of Mahāyāna Buddhism notable for its emphasis on practice and experiential wisdom—particularly as realized in the form of meditation known as zazen—in the attainment of awakening. ... A silhouette of Buddha at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

Contents

Origins

Main article: Origin of Pallava

There have been a number of theories regarding the origin of the Pallavas. There are some claims based on historical, anthropological, and linguistic evidence indicating that the Pallavas were related to the Pahlavas of Iran. It is possible that a wave of Pahlava/Kambhoja tribes of Indo-Iranian descent migrated Southward and first settled in Krishna river valley of present day coastal Andhra Pradesh. This region is called Palnadu or Pallavanadu even today. Pallavas later extended their sway up to Northern Tamil region and established a flourishing empire. The Pallava were a Southern Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in early the 4th century CE. The Pallava dominated the northern parts of Tamil region until the end of the 9th century for about six hundred years. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Kamboja is ancient name of a country and the tribe settled therein. ... Indo-Iranian can refer to: The Indo-Iranian languages The prehistoric Indo-Iranian people, see Aryan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... , Andhra Pradesh (Telugu: , Urdu: ), the Rice Bowl of India, is a state in southern India. ... Palnadu is the northern region of Guntur District in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. ...


According to Dr Jouveau Dubreuil, the Pahlavas migrated from Persia to India and founded the Pallava dynasty of Kanchi. They first occupied Anarta and Konkan and later entered southern India via Kuntala or Vanavasa. Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... It has been suggested that History of the Konkan be merged into this article or section. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Kuntala is a village and a Mandal in Adilabad district in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. ...

"The Pallavas were immigrants from north, or properly speaking from Konkan, Tenugu and Anarta into Deccan. They came into south India through Kuntala or Vanvasa..." (Jouveau Dubreuil).

Venkayya notes:

"The Pallavas of Kāñcīpuram must have come originally from Persia, though the interval of time which must have elapsed since they left Persia must be several centuries. As the Persians are generally known to (p.220) Indian poets under the name Pārasīka, the term Pahlava or Pallava must denote the Arsacidan Parthians, as stated by Professor Weber." (Venkayya 1907, p.219-220)

Dr V. A. Smith says: For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...

"It is possible that the Pallavas were not one distinct tribe or class but a mixed population composed partly of foreigners and partly of the Indian population but different in race from Tamils and taking their name from the title of an intruding foreign dynasty (Pahlava) which obtained control over them and welded them into an aggressive political power" (Early History of India, 1924, Dr V. A. Smith).

Dr. Cadambi Minakshi writes:


(i) The Pahladpur inscription (located in Pahladpur village in Uttar Pradesh State) which is datable to first few centuries of our era , is believed to be a record of the Pallavas in the north and they speak Tenugu. This depends upon correct reading of the term “Parthivanikapalah” figuring in the said inscription. This expression has been translated as “the protector of the Parthavas army”. It has been pointed out that term Parthava here is equivalent to Sanskrit Pahlava. Though the term Pahlava indicates the name of a tribe and Pallava that of a ruling family, it has been pointed out that a tribal name Pahlava could easily turn itself into Dynasty name Pallava.[4] , Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: , translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), [often referred to as U.P.], is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... http://www. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ...


(ii) Yet another link between the Pahlavas of the North and the Pallava rulers of Kanchi may be found in a legend which, according to Victor Goloubew,[5] takes its origin from the Scythians and plays a paramount part in the lands penetrated by the Pallavas and their culture. The Nagi legend of the Scythians which is connected with legends in Tamil literature and Pallava copper-plates as well as the annals of Cambodia carries a special significance here.[6] Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is the name of a temple town and the headquarters of Kanchipuram district in Tamil Nadu, India. ... For other uses, see Legendary (disambiguation). ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Example of a Chola inscription in Tamil from the 12th century C.E. Siyakas Harsola Paramara copper plate of 1005 Indian copper plate inscriptions play an extremely important role in the reconstruction of the history of India. ...


On similar reasoning, the same Scythian Nagi legend connects the Kambuja rulers of Indo China with the Kambojas of the north-west. It is worth remarking here that the close connections of the Sakas (Scythians), the Kambojas and the Pahlavas have been highlighted in numerous ancient Sanskrit texts like Mahabharata, Valmiki Ramayana, and the Puranas. In the Puranic literature, the Sakas, Kambojas Yavanas, Pahlavas and Paradas have been noted as allied tribes and have been referred to as pañca.gana (five hordes).[7] These tribes were all located in the Scythian belt in Central Asia and were therefore followers of common culture and social customs. Look up Kambuja in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Indochina, or French Indochina, was a federation of French colonies and protectorates in south-east Asia, part of the French colonial empire. ... Kambojas are a very ancient Kshatriya tribe of the north-western parts of the Indian subcontinent and what is now Afghanistan, frequently mentioned in ancient texts, although not in the Rig Veda. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... Valmiki composes the Ramayana Maharishi Valmiki (Sanskrit: वाल्मिकी, vālmikÄ«) is the author of the Hindu epic Ramayana. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The Puranas are part of Hindu Smriti; these religious scriptures discuss devotion and mythology. ... Yona, Yonaka or Yavana is a Pali word used in ancient India to designate Greeks. ... There are parishes that have the name in Portugal: Parada, a parish in the district of Alfândega da Fé Parada, a parish in the district of Almeida Parada, a parish in the district of Arcos de Valdevez Parada, a parish in the district of Bragança Parada, a parish... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


(iii) It has been argued that apart from a phonetic stretch, the connection between Pallavas of Kanchipuram and Pahlavas of Persia is far-fetched. After all, Pallava Inscriptions themselves trace their origin to Ashwataman, Dronacharya's son. There is also literary evidence as in Paranjyothi's (who was the Commander in Chief of the Pallava Army to become Siru Thondar later) recomposed Thiruvillayadal that there was a branch of Cholas in Thondaimandalam. This Chola King, "Aiyaram Pari Konda Cholan" (the Chola King who had 1000 horses) attacked the Pandya country from Kanchi. , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ...


The Pallavas performed Vedic rituals which the Pahlavas had opposed originally. This change is not unusual or unexpected. The alien Pahlavas/Kambojas had remained under the Satavahana Hindu rulers for quite some time and are believed to have been influenced by the mannerism, customs and royal usages of the latter who they appear to have borrowed many things from. With passage of time, they got more and more Indianised and came under Brahmanical influence. It was also a political sagacity to adapt to the new culture, religion, customs and milieu since they were now far located from the center of culture they had originally come from. The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...


There are other opinions supporting their indigenous origins state that they were hereditary feudatory rulers under the Vakatakas.[8] The Vakataka was an Indian dynasty. ...


Religion

The early Pallavas styled themselves as Brahma Kshatriyas (Brahmins in Pursuit of arms). Later by the 5th century CE, the Pallavas were regarded as Kshatriyas belonging to Kuruba or Kurumbar of Tamil Nadu. They were followers of Sanatana Dharma. In line with the prevalent customs, some of the rulers performed the Aswamedha and other Vedic sacrifices. They had made gifts of lands to gods and Brahmins. A Kshatriya is a member of the military or reigning order, according to the law-code of Manu the second ranking caste of the Indian varna system of four castes, the first being the Brahmin or priestly caste, the third the Vaishya or mercantile caste and the lowest the Shudra. ... Kurubas or Kurumas are Hindus concentrated mainly in the southern states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. ... Kurumbar or Kurumans or Kurubar caste are shepherds of South India. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... The Ashvamedha ( horse sacrifice) is one of the most important royal rituals of Vedic religion (1st millennium BC, the last recorded performance dates to the 4th century AD), described in detail in the Yajurveda (TS 7. ... The religion of the Vedic civilization is the predecessor of classical Hinduism, usually included in the term. ...


Later Mahendravarman I and probably his father were adherents of the Jain faith. Mahendravarman later switched to Hinduism under the influence of the Saiva saint Appar.[9] JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... Thirunavukkarasar, also spelt as Tirunvukarasar, and popularly known as Appar, meaning father-figure, or a high one in Tamil is a Shaivite saint who lived in Tamil Nadu. ...


Pallava Chronology

Early Pallava

The history of the early Pallavas has not yet been satisfactorily settled. The Prakrit and the Sanskrit charters on which we base our knowledge of these early Pallavas merely mention the royal names, their non-political grants and nothing about their reign or their political achievements. The earliest documentation we have on the Pallavas is the three copper-plate grants.[10] All three belong to Skandavarman I and written in the Prakrit language. Prakrit (also spelt Pracrit) (Sanskrit: , original, natural, artless, normal, ordinary, usual, i. ...


Skandavarman seems to have been the first great ruler of the early Pallavas. He extended his dominions from the Krishna in the north to the Pennar in the south and to the Bellary district in the West. He performed the Aswametha and other Vedic sacrifices. At the beginning of their rule, Manchikallu, Mayidavoiu, Darsi and Ongolu were the centres of their activity. Kanchipuram gained prominence as the centre of their political and cultural activity by the second quarter of the fourth century CE. Krishna in Vijayawada in 2007 The River Krishna (meaning dark (feminine) in Sanskrit, also called the Krishnaveni, is one of the longest rivers of India (about 1300 km in length). ... The Penner (also Pennar or Penneru) is a river of southern India. ... , Bellary (Kannada: pronunciation: in Kannada and in English) is a city in Bellary District in Karnataka state, India. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Vishnugopa (350-355 CE), was defeated by Samudragupta around 350 CE. With Samudragupta's expedition, the Paliava eclipse set in. Coin of Samudragupta, with Garuda pillar. ...


In the reign of Simhavarman IV, who ascended the throne in 436 CE the fallen prestige of the Pallavas was restored. He recovered the territories lost to the Vishnukundins in the north up to the mouth of the Krishna. The early Pallava history from this period onwards is furnished by a dozen or so copper-plate grants. These are in the Sanskrit language. They are all dated in the regnal years of the kings.[11] The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


With the accession of Nandivarman (480-500 CE), the decline of the early Pallava family was seen. The Kadambas had their aggressions and even the headquarters of the Pallavas was occupied by them. In coastal Andhra the Vishnukundins established their ascendency. The Pallava authority was confined to Tondaimandalam. Kadambas was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka, who ruled from their capital of Banavasi from (345-525AD) later branched into Goa, Hanagal and Chandavar. ... Andhra Pradesh (ఆంధర దేశం), a state in South India, lies between 12°41 and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40E longitude . ...


With the accession of Simha Vishnu father of Mahendravarma I, probably in 575 CE, the glorious imperial Pallava phase begins in the south.


The following chronology is gathered from these three charters:[12]

The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. construction of these started in the reign of[Narasimhavarman I
The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. construction of these started in the reign of[Narasimhavarman I
  • Simhavarman I 275 - 300 CE
  • Skandavarman
  • Visnugopa 350 - 355 CE
  • Kumaravishnu I 350 - 370 CE
  • Skandavarman II 370 - 385 CE
  • Viravarman 385 - 400 CE
  • Skandavarman III 400 - 436 CE
  • Simhavarman II 436 - 460 CE
  • Skandavarman IV 460 - 480 CE
  • Nandivarman I 480 - 510 CE
  • Kumaravishnu II 510 - 530 CE
  • Buddhavarman 530 - 540 CE
  • Kumaravisnu III 540 - 550 CE
  • Simhavarman III 550 - 560 CE

Image File history File links Mamallapuram. ... Image File history File links Mamallapuram. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (after the demon king Mahabali) or Mamallapuram (after the Pallava king Mamalla) is a 7th century port city of the South Indian dynasty of the Pallavas around 60 km south from the city of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. ... Events Eutychian elected pope (probable date) September 25 - Marcus Claudius Tacitus appointed emperor by the senate Births Eusebius of Caesarea (approximate date) Saint George, soldier of the Roman Empire and later Christian martyr (or 280, approximate date). ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Events Basil of Caesarea becomes bishop of Caesarea. ... Events February 11 - Oldest Pope elected: Siricius, bishop of Tarragona. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Events Attila the Hun attacks Britain Births Deaths Categories: 436 ... Events March 27 night - Swabians invade the Gallic city of Lugo. ... Events Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius is appointed a consul by Theoderic Births Gildas, Celtic monk Deaths Hashim, great-grandfather of Muhammad and ancestor of the Hashemites Categories: 510 ... Battle of Daras: Belisarius and Hermogenes defeat the Persians in a major battle which blunts a Persian offensive into Roman Mesopotamia. ... Events Byzantine general Belisarius conquers Milan and the Ostrogoth capital Ravenna. ... Events By Place Byzantine Empire Silk reaches Constantinople (approximate date). ... Events Ceawlin of Wessex becomes King of Wessex (traditional date). ...

Later Pallavas

The incursion of the Kalabhras and the confusion in the Tamil country was broken by the Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu. The Pallava kingdom began to gain both in territory and influence over the South Indian peninsula. Pallavas exercised control over their southern neighbours of Cholas and Pandyas. But their history is marked by the continuous conflict with the Badami Chalukyas. Narasimhavarman I and Paramesvaravarman I were the kings who stand out with glorious achievements in both military and architectural spheres. Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Simhavishnu portait along with his queens found in Adivaraha mandapam in Mahabalipuram. ... Badami Cave Temple No 3. ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ...

Simhavishnu portait along with his queens found in Adivaraha mandapam in Mahabalipuram. ... For other uses, see number 555. ... Events September 3 - St. ... The rock-cut temples at Mamallapuram. ... Narasimhavarman I was one of the most famous Pallava kings who ruled from A.D. 630 - 668. ... Events April 11 - Adeodatus succeeds Vitalian as Pope. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Events Births Deaths The Danish king Angantyr on Samsoe Categories: 728 ... Alternate meaning: Area code 705 Events End of the short-lived Zhou Dynasty in China Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik succeeded by al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... Nandivarman II (Pallavamalla) (732 - 796 CE) was a Pallava ruler who ruled in South India. ... Events October 10 - Battle of Tours: Near Poitiers, France, leader of the Franks Charles Martel and his men, defeat a large army of Moors, stopping the Muslims from spreading into Western Europe. ... Events December - Coenwulf becomes king of Mercia. ... Thandi Varman (775 – 825) was a Pallava ruler who ruled in South India. ... Estimation: Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Changan, capital of China. ... Events Egbert of Wessex defeats Beornwulf of Mercia at Ellandun. ... Events Western Emperor Louis II allies with eastern Emperor Basil I against the Saracens. ... Events Carloman, King of the West Franks becomes sole king upon the death of his brother. ... Events Mesoamerican ballgame court dedicated at Uxmal Kingdom of Taebong established in Korean peninsula Fuzhou city was expanded with construction of a new city wall (Luo City). Births Deaths February 18 - Thabit ibn Qurra, Arab astronomer and mathematician Categories: 901 ...

Kadava kingdom

During the thirteenth and the fourteenth centuries CE, a small principality of the Kadava dynasty came into brief prominence. These rulers claimed descent from the Pallavas. The notable rulers of this dynasty are Kopperunchinga I (reigned c.1216 - 1242 CE), and his son and successor Kopperunchinga II (c.1243 - 1279 CE). Together they extended the influence of their kingdom and played a major part in the ultimate demise of the Chola dynasty. Kadava was the name of a South Indian ruling dynasty who ruled parts of the Tamil country during the thirteenth and the fourteenth century CE. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. ... Kopperunchinga I (reigned c. ... Kopperunchinga II (reigned c. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ...


Kopperunchinga I was related to the Cholas through marriage, and was an officer in the court of Kulothunga Chola III. When the Pandya army invaded the Chola country in 1216 CE, Kopperunchinga I strengthened his position by garrisoning the town of Sendamangalam. From this opportunity, the Kadavas gradually increased their power until Kopperunchinga I could defeat and imprison the Chola king Rajaraja Chola III with some help the Lanka king Parakrama Bahu II. Under Kopperunchinga II, the Kadava power further expanded. Hoysalas, who were the allies of the Cholas were absent from the Tamil country, removing one of the major influences in the region. The last Chola king Rajendra Chola III (1246-1279 CE) came to power with Kopperunchinga II's help. Their relationship was one of alternating friendship and hostility. When the great Pandya king Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan invaded the Chola country, the Kadavas went into obscurity along with the Cholas. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... , Sendamangalam is a Town Panchayat in Namakkal district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Rajendra Chola III was the son of Rajaraja Chola III who came to the Chola throne in 1246 CE. Although his father Rajaraja III was still alive, Rajendra began to take effective control over the administration. ... The tone of this article is inappropriate for an encyclopedia article. ...


Pallava architecture

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Pallavas were pioneers of south Indian architecture. The earliest examples of temples in the Dravidian style belong to the Pallava period. The earliest examples of Pallava constructions are rock-cut temples dating from 610 - 690 CE and structural temples between 690 - 900 CE. The greatest accomplishments of the Pallava architecture are the rock-cut temples at Mahabalipuram. There are excavated pillared halls and monolithic shrines known as rathas in Mahabalipuram. Early temples were mostly dedicated to Shiva. The Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram built by Nandivarman is a fine example of the Pallava style temple. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... Shiva (also spelled Siva; Sanskrit ) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. ... , Kanchipuram, Kanchi, or Kancheepuram (also sometimes Conjeevaram) is a city and a municipality in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...




Middle kingdoms of India
Timeline: Northern Empires Southern Dynasties Northwestern Kingdoms

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 5th century BCE
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 1st century CE


 2nd century
 3rd century
 4th century
 5th century
 6th century
 7th century
 8th century
 9th century
10th century
11th century Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...





Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... Shishunaga dynasty of north India ruled the Magadhan Empire from 684 BCE to 424 BCE. Its dynastic succession was: Shishunaga (ruled from around 684 BCE) Kakavarna Kshemadharman Kshatraujas Bimbisara 544 BCE - 491 BCE Ajatashatru 491 BCE - 461 BCE Darshaka Udayin Nandivardhana Mahanandin Mahavira and Gautama Buddha lived during the period... The Nanda Empire at its greatest extent under Dhana Nanda circa 323 BC. The Nanda dynasty ruled Magadha during the 5th and 4th centuries BC. It is said to have been established by an illegitimate son of the king Mahanandin of the previous Shishunaga dynasty. ... Kalinga in 265 B.C. Kalinga was an ancient Indo-Aryan kingdom of central-eastern India, in the province of Orissa. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... Silver coin of the Kuninda Kingdom, c. ...







The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Harsha or Harshavardhana (606-648) was an Indian emperor who ruled northern India as paramount monarch for over forty years. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... For the English cricketer, See Vikram Solanki The Solanki or Chalukya is a Hindu Gurjar,Rajput dynasty of India, who ruled the kingdom of Gujarat from the 10th to the 13th centuries. ... The Sena dynasty ruled Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted...

(Persian rule)
(Greek conquests)


Kalabhras were the South Indian dynasty who between the 3rd and the 6th century C.E. ruled over entire Tamil country, displacing the ancient Chola, Pandya and Chera dynasties. ...  Extent of Kadamba Empire, 500 CE Capital Banavasi Language(s) Sanskrit, Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 345 - 365 Mayurasharma Krishna Varma II History  - Earliest Kadamba records 450  - Established 345  - Disestablished 525 Kadamba Dynasty (Kannada:ಕದಂಬರು) (345 - 525 CE) was an ancient royal dynasty of Karnataka that ruled from Banavasi in... Virupaksha temple, Pattadakal, built 740 Badami Chalukya Territories in the reign of Pulakesi II, 640 The Chalukya dynasty (Sanskrit/Marathi[1]:चालुक्य राजवंश,Kannada:ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯರು) IPA: ) was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries. ... Jain cave in Ellora The Rastrakutas (Sanskrit:राष्ट्रकूट, Kannada: ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಕೂಟ) were a dynasty which ruled the southern and the central parts or the Deccan, India during the 8th - 10th century. ... Extent of Western Chalukya Empire, 1121 CE Capital Manyakheta, Basavakalyan Language(s) Kannada Religion Hindu Government Monarchy King  - 957 – 997 Tailapa II  - 1184 – 1189 Somesvara IV History  - Earliest records 957  - Established 973  - Disestablished 1189 The Western Chalukya Empire (Kannada:ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಚಾಲುಕ್ಯ ಸಾಮ್ರಾಜ್ಯ) ruled most of the western deccan, South India, between the 10th... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... Gandhāra (Sanskrit: गन्धार, Persian; Gandara, Waihind) (Urdu: گندھارا) is the name of an ancient Indian Mahajanapada, currently in northern Pakistan (the North-West Frontier Province and parts of northern Punjab and Kashmir) and eastern Afghanistan. ... The Achaemenid Empire (Persian: IPA: ) (559 BC–330 BC) was the first of the Persian Empires to rule over significant portions of Greater Iran. ... In ancient times, trade between India and Greece flourished with silk, spices and gold being traded. ...

  • Indo-Greeks


(Islamic invasions)
The Indo-Greek Kingdom (or sometimes Graeco-Indian Kingdom[1]) covered various parts of the northwest and northern Indian subcontinent from 180 BCE to around 10 CE, and was ruled by a succession of more than thirty Hellenistic kings,[2] often in conflict with each other. ... The Indo-Scythians are a branch of the Indo-Iranian Sakas (Scythians), who migrated from southern Siberia into Bactria, Sogdiana, Arachosia, Gandhara, Kashmir, Punjab, and into parts of Western and Central India, Gujarat and Rajasthan, from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 1st century BCE. The first... Coin of Gondophares (20-50 CE), first and greatest king of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (35-405) were Saka rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states). ... Coin of the Indo-Sassanid kushansha Varhran I (early 4th century). ... Coin of Kidara (reigned circa 360-380 CE), founder of the Kidarite Kingdom Obv: King Kidara standing. ... The Hephthalite bowl, NFP Pakistan, 5-6th century CE. British Museum. ... The Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent took place during the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, during the 7th to the 12th centuries. ...

(Islamic empires) Coin of the Shahi king Spalapati Deva, circa 750-900. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ...



Notes

  1. ^ Other sources describe him as a Persian, see Bodhidharma article
  2. ^ Kamil V. Zvelebil (1987). "The Sound of the One Hand", Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 107, No. 1, p. 125-126.
  3. ^ Graeme Lyall. Seon - The Buddhism of Korea.
  4. ^ Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas – 1938, p 20, Cadambi Minakshi
  5. ^ Les legendes de le Nagi et de l'Apsaras, Bulletin de l'Ecole Francaise d'Extreme-Orient, Victor Goloubew
  6. ^ Administration and Social Life Under the Pallavas – 1938, pp 20, 25, 39, Cadambi Minakshi
  7. ^ See for example, Brahama Purana, 8.36; Harivamsa 14.4
  8. ^ See Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D. , Nilakanta Sastri, K.A., A History of South India
  9. ^ Appar - http://www.tamilnation.org/sathyam/east/saivaism/63nayanmars.htm#_VPID_31
  10. ^ Now referred to as the Mayidavolu, Hirahadagalli and the British Museum plates - Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P. G. Publishers, Guntur (1988)
  11. ^ The absolute chronology for these dates is derived from the Saka dates in the Jain manuscript on cosmology Lokavibhaga
  12. ^ See Nilakanta Sastry, K.A History of South India (OUP) reprinted 2000

For information about all peoples of Iran, see Demographics of Iran. ... Bodhidharma (early 6th century CE) was the Buddhist monk traditionally credited as founder of Zen. ... A cataphract-style parade armour of a Saka royal from the Issyk kurgan. ... JAIN is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. ...

References

  • Durga Prasad, History of the Andhras up to 1565 A. D., P. G. PUBLISHERS, GUNTUR (1988)
  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955). A History of South India, OUP, New Delhi (Reprinted 2002).
  • South Indian Inscriptions - http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/
  • Divakar has written a recent novel - Vicithra cithan, dealing with the period of Narasimha pallava and him changing from jainism back to Hindusim and becoming a shivaite

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pallava at AllExperts (1014 words)
The Pallavas engaged in constant warfare with the Chalukyas of Badami and were finally eclipsed by the Chola kings in the 8th century CE.
Pallavas are most noted for their patronage of Dravidian architecture, seen even today in Mahabalipuram.
The incursion of the Kalabhras and the confusion in the Tamil country was broken by the Pandya Kadungon and the Pallava Simhavishnu.
THE IRANIAN: Pallava empire of Dravidia, Samar Abbas (6382 words)
This paper reveals the ancient Pallava Dynasty of Dravidia to be of the Iranic race, and as constituting a branch of the Pahlavas, Parthavas or Parthians of Persia.
Pallava administration was based on the Maurya pattern, which was in turn based on that of the Achaemenid Empire.
The Pallavas are believed to be identical with the Kurumbas, of whom the Kurumbar of the Tamil country and the Kurubas of the Kanarese districts and of the Mysore State may be taken as the living representatives.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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