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Encyclopedia > Palladium
46 rhodiumpalladiumsilver
Ni

Pd

Pt
General
Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46
Chemical series transition metals
Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d
Appearance silvery white metallic
Standard atomic weight 106.42(1) g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d10
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 18, 0
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 12.023 g·cm−3
Liquid density at m.p. 10.38 g·cm−3
Melting point 1828.05 K
(1554.9 °C, 2830.82 °F)
Boiling point 3236 K
(2963 °C, 5365 °F)
Heat of fusion 16.74 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 362 kJ·mol−1
Heat capacity (25 °C) 25.98 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P(Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T(K) 1721 1897 2117 2395 2753 3234
Atomic properties
Crystal structure cubic face centered
Oxidation states 2, 4
(mildly basic oxide)
Electronegativity 2.20 (scale Pauling)
Ionization energies 1st: 804.4 kJ/mol
2nd: 1870 kJ/mol
3rd: 3177 kJ/mol
Atomic radius 140 pm
Atomic radius (calc.) 169 pm
Covalent radius 131 pm
Van der Waals radius 163 pm
Miscellaneous
Magnetic ordering no data
Electrical resistivity (20 °C) 105.4 n Ω·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 71.8 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 11.8 µm·m−1·K−1
Speed of sound (thin rod) (20 °C) 3070 m/s
Young's modulus 121 GPa
Shear modulus 44 GPa
Bulk modulus 180 GPa
Poisson ratio 0.39
Mohs hardness 4.75
Vickers hardness 461 MPa
Brinell hardness 37.3 MPa
CAS registry number 7440-05-3
Selected isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of palladium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
100Pd syn 3.63 d ε - 107Rh
γ 0.084, 0.074,
0.126
-
102Pd 1.02% Pd is stable with 56 neutrons
103Pd syn 16.991 d ε - 103Rh
104Pd 11.14% Pd is stable with 58 neutrons
105Pd 22.33% Pd is stable with 59 neutrons
106Pd 27.33% Pd is stable with 60 neutrons
107Pd syn 6.5×106 y β- 0.033 107Ag
108Pd 26.46% Pd is stable with 62 neutrons
110Pd 11.72% Pd is stable with 64 neutrons
References

Palladium (pronounced /pəˈleɪdiəm/) is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare silver white transition metal of the platinum group, resembling platinum chemically. It was discovered in platinum ores in 1803, and named after the asteroid Pallas by William Hyde Wollaston. Originally, palladium referred to a statue of anyone called Pallas. It is a Latinization of the Greek word παλλαδιον, and is often transliterated as palladion. More information may be found at Pallas (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a standard display of the periodic table of the elements. ... An extended periodic table was suggested by Glenn T. Seaborg in 1969. ... This is a list of chemical elements, sorted by name and color coded according to type of element. ... A table of chemical elements ordered by atomic number and color coded according to type of element. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... A group, also known as a family, is a vertical column in the periodic table of the chemical elements. ... In the periodic table of the elements, a period is a horizontal row of the table. ... A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups. ... The Group 10 elements are: Nickel (28) Palladium (46) Platinum (78) Darmstadtium (110) Color coding for these atomic numbers: At room temperature, all are solid; red indicates item is synthetic and does not occur naturally. ... A period 5 element is one of the chemical elements in the fifth row (or period) of the periodic table of the elements. ... D Block is a rap group based in Yonkers, New York. ... Color is an important part of the visual arts. ... Palladium sample. ... The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom at rest, most often expressed in unified atomic mass units. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude we list here masses between 60. ... Hydrogen = 1 List of Elements in Atomic Number Order. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals In atomic physics and quantum chemistry, the electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in an atom, molecule, or other physical structure (, a crystal). ... For other uses, see Krypton (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Example of a sodium electron shell model An electron shell, also known as a main energy level, is a group of atomic orbitals with the same value of the principal quantum number n. ... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... For other uses, see Solid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Standard enthalpy change of fusion of period three. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... The standard enthalpy change of vaporization, ΔvHo, also (less correctly) known as the heat of vaporization is the energy required to transform a given quantity of a substance into a gas. ... The joule per mole (symbol: J·mol-1) is an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Enargite crystals In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... The oxidation number of an element in a molecule or complex is the charge that it would have if all the ligands (basically, atoms that donate electrons) were removed along with the electron pairs that were shared with the central atom[1]. It means that the oxidation number is the... Acids and bases: Acid-base extraction Acid-base reaction Acid dissociation constant Acidity function Buffer solutions pH Proton affinity Self-ionization of water Acids: Lewis acids Mineral acids Organic acids Strong acids Superacids Weak acids Bases: Lewis bases Organic bases Strong bases Superbases Non-nucleophilic bases Weak bases edit In... Electronegativity is a measure of the ability of an atom or molecule to attract electrons in the context of a chemical bond. ... The ionization energy (IE) of an atom or of a molecule is the energy required to strip it of an electron. ... Kilojoule per mole are an SI derived unit of energy per amount of material, where energy is measured in units of 1000 joules, and the amount of material is measured in mole units. ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit Atomic radius, and more generally the size of an atom, is not a precisely defined physical quantity, nor is it constant in all circumstances. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... One picometre is defined as 1x10-12 metres, in standard units. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... Atomic radius: Ionic radius Covalent radius Metallic radius van der Waals radius edit The covalent radius, rcov, is a measure of the size of atom which forms part of a covalent bond. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... The van der Waals radius of an atom is the radius of an imaginary hard sphere which can be used to model the atom for many purposes. ... You have big harry skanky balls ... For other senses of this word, see magnetism (disambiguation). ... // Headline text POOP!! Danny Hornsby (also known as Gnome) is a measure indicating how strongly a Gnome can opposes the flow of electric current. ... K value redirects here. ... During heat transfer, the energy that is stored in the intermolecular bonds between atoms changes. ... This page is about the physical speed of sound waves in a medium. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... In solid mechanics, Youngs modulus (E) is a measure of the stiffness of a given material. ... In materials science, shear modulus, G, or sometimes S or μ, sometimes referred to as the modulus of rigidity, is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the shear strain:[1] where = shear stress; force acts on area ; = shear strain; length changes by amount . ... The bulk modulus (K) of a substance essentially measures the substances resistance to uniform compression. ... Figure 1: Rectangular specimen subject to compression, with Poissons ratio circa 0. ... The Mohs scale of mineral hardness characterizes the scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of a harder material to scratch a softer material. ... A Vickers hardness tester The Vickers hardness test was developed in the early 1920s as an alternative method to measure the hardness of materials. ... The Brinell scale characterises the indentation hardness of materials through the scale of penetration of an indenter, loaded on a material test-piece. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... Palladium (Pd) Standard atomic mass: 106. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... Natural abundance refers to the prevalence of different isotopes of an element as found in nature. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Radioactive decay is the process in which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy by emitting radiation in the form of particles or electromagnetic waves. ... The decay energy is the energy released by a nuclear decay. ... The electronvolt (symbol eV) is a unit of energy. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 105 seconds and 106 seconds (27. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 106 seconds (a megasecond) and 107 seconds (11. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A Synthetic radioisotope is a radionuclide that is not found in nature: no natural process or mechanism exists which produces it, or it is so unstable that it decays away in a very short period of time. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 3. ... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Stable isotopes are chemical isotopes that are not radioactive. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Recommended values for many properties of the elements, together with various references, are collected on these data pages. ... The periodic table of the chemical elements A chemical element, or element, is a type of atom that is defined by its atomic number; that is, by the number of protons in its nucleus. ... See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... In chemistry, the term transition metal (sometimes also called a transition element) has two possible meanings: It commonly refers to any element in the d-block of the periodic table, including zinc, cadmium and mercury. ... The platinum group or platinum metals is the collective name sometimes used for six chemical elements within the periodic table. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ...


Palladium is usually found as a free metal, alloyed with others in the platinum group. It is commercially extracted from copper-nickel ores. Palladium has a great affinity for hydrogen, being able to absorb 900 times its own volume of the gas. Palladium metal and its complexes are often used in catalysis such as in catalytic converters on cars, palladium on carbon used in organic chemistry, and other coupling reactions. As a precious metal, it is sometimes used in jewelry, and has the ISO currency code of XPD. Palladium as an investment has attracted recent investment interests. In early 2007, several ETFs backed by physical palladium were launched, including London ETF Security and ZKB Palladium ETF. General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ... -1... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Palladium, like other precious metals, may be used as an investment. ... Exchange-traded funds (or ETFs) are Open Ended investment companies that can be traded at any time throughout the course of the day. ...

Contents

History

Palladium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803.[1][2] This element was named by Wollaston in 1804 after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered two years earlier.[3] This article or section should be merged with Timeline of chemical element discovery The story of the discoveries of the chemical elements is presented here in chronological order. ... William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ...


Wollaston found palladium in crude platinum ore from South America by dissolving the ore in aqua regia, neutralizing the solution with sodium hydroxide, and precipitating platinum as ammonium chloroplatinate with ammonium chloride. He added mercuric cyanide to form the compound palladium cyanide, which was heated to extract palladium metal. South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Freshly prepared aqua regia is colorless, but it turns orange within seconds. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ... Ammonium chloride or Sal Ammoniac (chemically ammonium chloride (NH4Cl); also salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Mercuric cyanide formula Hg(CN)2 is a salt of Mercury. ...


Palladium chloride was at one time prescribed as a tuberculosis treatment at the rate of 0.065g per day (approximately one milligram per kilogram of body weight). Although this treatment did have many negative side effects, but was later replaced by more effective drugs. Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride, is a common starting material in palladium chemistry. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Palladium's affinity for hydrogen led it to play an essential role in the Fleischmann-Pons experiment in 1989, also known as cold fusion. This article is about the nuclear reaction. ... This article is about the nuclear reaction. ...


In the run up to 2000, Russian supply of palladium to global market was repeatedly delayed and disrupted[4] because the export quota was not granted on time, due to political reasons. The ensuing market panic buying drove the palladium price to an all time high of almost $1100, reached in January, 2001.[5] During the time period, Ford Motor Company, in fear of auto vehicle production disruption due to possible palladium shortage, stockpiled large amounts of the metal, purchased near the price high. As prices subsequently fell in early 2001, Ford lost nearly $1 billion U.S. dollars. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... USD redirects here. ...


World demand for palladium increased from 100 tons in 1990 to nearly 300 tons in 2000. The global production from mines was 222 metric tons in 2006 according to USGSdata. Most palladium is used for catalytic converters in the automobile industry.[6] Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van. ...


Occurrence

Palladium output in 2005

In 2005, Russia was the top producer of palladium with at least 50% world share followed by South Africa, USA and Canada, reports the British Geological Survey. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of palladium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 143 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 57 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of palladium output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Russia - 143 tonnes). ... The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


Palladium is found as a free metal and alloyed with platinum and gold with platinum group metals in placer deposits of the Ural Mountains, Australia, Ethiopia, South and North America. It is commercially produced from nickel-copper deposits found in South Africa, Ontario and Siberia; the huge volume of ore processed makes this extraction profitable despite the low proportion of palladium in these ores. The world's largest single producer of palladium is MMC Norilsk Nickel produced from the Norilsk–Talnakh nickel deposits. The Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa contains significant palladium in addition to other platinum group elements. The Stillwater igneous complex of Montana also contains mineable palladium. Miners operate a hydraulic sluice in San Francisquito Canyon, Los Angeles County. ... Map of the Ural Mountains The Ural Mountains (Russian: , Uralskiye gory) (also known as the Urals, the Riphean Mountains in Greco-Roman antiquity, and known as the Stone Belt) are a mountain range that runs roughly north and south through western Russia. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... Copper has played a significant part in the history of mankind, which has used the easily accessible uncompounded metal for nearly 10,000 years. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... MMC Norilsk Nickel (Russian: ) is a nickel and palladium mining and smelting operator in the Norilsk–Talnakh area, in northern Russia. ... Norilsk downtown was designed in a typical Stalinist style. ... For all real structures the volume increases with increasing temperatures is depicted in Figure 33 for PtSb2. ... The Bushveld igneous complex contains one of the richest ore deposits on Earth. ... The platinum group or platinum metals is the collective name sometimes used for six chemical elements within the periodic table. ... The Stillwater igneous complex is a large ultramafic to mafic layered intrusion located in southern Montana in Stillwater, Sweet Grass and Park Counties. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked...


Palladium is also produced in nuclear fission reactors and can be extracted from spent nuclear fuel, see Synthesis of noble metals. An induced nuclear fission event. ... Synthesis of noble metals refers to the realization of the age-old dream of alchemists—to artificially produce noble metals. ...


Palladium is found in the rare minerals cooperite and polarite. Cooperite is a grey mineral consisting of platinum sulfide (PtS), general in combinations with sulfides of other elements such as palladium and nickel (PdS and NiS). ... Polarite (Pd,(Bi,Pb)), is an opaque, yellow-white mineral. ...


Characteristics

Palladium.
Palladium.

Palladium is a soft silver-white metal that resembles platinum. It is the least dense and has the lowest melting point of the platinum group metals. It is soft and ductile when annealed and greatly increases its strength and hardness when it is cold-worked. Palladium is chemically attacked by sulfuric, nitric and hydrochloric acid in which it dissolves slowly.[3] This metal also does not react with oxygen at normal temperatures (and thus does not tarnish in air). Palladium heated to 800°C will produce a layer of palladium(II) oxide (PdO). It lightly tarnishes in moist atmosphere containing sulfur. Image File history File links Palladium_1. ... Image File history File links Palladium_1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... The platinum group or platinum metals is the collective name sometimes used for six chemical elements within the periodic table. ... For other uses, see Annealing. ... Template:Chembox new Sulfuric (or sulphuric) acid, H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is an aqueous solution of hydrogen nitrate (anhydrous nitric acid). ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , Flash point Non-flammable. ... General Name, symbol, number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, period, block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Air redirects here. ...


This metal has the uncommon ability to absorb up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen at room temperatures. It is thought that this possibly forms palladium hydride (PdH2) but it is not yet clear if this is a true chemical compound.[3] Absorption, in chemistry, is a physical or chemical phenomenon or a process in which atoms, molecules, or ions enter some bulk phase - gas, liquid or solid material. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Palladium hydride is metallic palladium that contains a substantial quantity of hydrogen within its crystal lattice. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ...


When palladium has absorbed large amounts of hydrogen, it will expand slightly in size.[7]


Common oxidation states of palladium are 0,+1, +2 and +4. Although originally +3 was thought of as one of the fundamental oxidation states of palladium, there is no evidence for palladium occurring in the +3 oxidation state; this has been investigated via X-ray diffraction for a number of compounds, indicating a dimer of palladium(II) and palladium(IV) instead. Recently, compounds with an oxidation state of +6 were synthesised. In chemistry, the oxidation state is an indicator of the degree of oxidation of an atom in a chemical compound. ... X-ray crystallography is a technique in crystallography in which the pattern produced by the diffraction of x-rays through the closely spaced lattice of atoms in a crystal is recorded and then analyzed to reveal the nature of that lattice. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ...


Isotopes

Main article: isotopes of palladium

Naturally-occurring palladium is composed of six isotopes. The most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years, 103Pd with a half-life of 17 days, and 100Pd with a half-life of 3.63 days. Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 92.936 u (93Pd) to 119.924 u (120Pd). Most of these have half-lives that are less than a half an hour except 101Pd (half-life: 8.47 hours), 109Pd (half-life: 13.7 hours), and 112Pd (half-life: 21 hours). Palladium (Pd) Standard atomic mass: 106. ... For other uses, see Isotope (disambiguation). ... A radionuclide is an atom with an unstable nucleus. ... Palladium-107 is a fission product with a halflife of 6. ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... Palladium-103 is a radioisotope of the element palladium which has uses in radiation therapy for prostate cancer and ocular melanoma. ... ... The unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic and molecular masses. ...


The primary decay mode before the most abundant stable isotope, 106Pd, is electron capture and the primary mode after is beta decay. The primary decay product before 106Pd is rhodium and the primary product after is silver. In physics, the decay mode describes a particular way a particle decays. ... Electron capture is a decay mode for isotopes that will occur when there are too many protons in the nucleus of an atom, and there isnt enough energy to emit a positron; however, it continues to be a viable decay mode for radioactive isotopes that can decay by positron... In nuclear physics, beta decay (sometimes called neutron decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta particle (an electron or a positron) is emitted. ... In nuclear physics, a decay product, also known as a daughter product, is a nuclide resulting from the radioactive decay of a parent or precursor nuclide. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Radiogenic 107Ag is a decay product of 107Pd and was first discovered in the Santa Clara, California meteorite of 1978.[8] The discoverers suggest that the coalescence and differentiation of iron-cored small planets may have occurred 10 million years after a nucleosynthetic event. 107Pd versus Ag correlations observed in bodies, which have clearly been melted since accretion of the solar system, must reflect the presence of short-lived nuclides in the early solar system.[9] A radiogenic nuclide is one that is produced by a process of radioactive decay. ... Location of Santa Clara within Santa Clara County, California. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Nucleosynthesis is the process of creating new atomic nuclei either by nuclear fusion or nuclear fission. ... This article is about the Solar System. ...


Applications

Palladium is also used in dentistry,[10][11] watch making, in aircraft spark plugs and in the production of surgical instruments and electrical contacts.[citation needed] Palladium is also used to make professional transverse flutes.[citation needed] This article is about the dental profession. ... This article is about portable clocks. ... This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... Surgeon excising an arrow from a wounded soldier, Stele from Herculaneum, Rome, 1 BC A surgical instrument is a specially designed tool or device for performing specific actions of carrying out desired effects during a surgery or operation, such as modifying biological tissue, or to provide access or viewing it. ... A contact is part of the active component of an electric switch. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ...


Electronics

The biggest application of palladium in electronics is making the Multi-Layer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC). It is also used in plating of electronic components and in soldering materials. The electronic sector consumed 1.07 million troy ounces of palladium in 2006, according to a Johnson Matthey report. See Capacitor (component) for a discussion of specific types. ... Johnson Matthey plc (LSE: JMAT) is a British chemical company which has its headquarters near Holborn in central London. ...


Technology

Hydrogen easily diffuses through heated palladium; thus, it provides a means of purifying the gas.[3] Palladium (and palladium-silver alloys) are used as electrodes in multi-layer ceramic capacitors.[10] Palladium (sometimes alloyed with nickel) is used in connector platings in consumer electronics. This article is about the chemical element. ... Practical capacitors are often classified according to the material used as the dielectric with the dielectrics divided into two broad categories: bulk insulators and metal-oxide films (so-called electrolytic capacitors). ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ...


It is also used as Palladium-Hydrogen electrode in electrochemical studies. Palladium dichloride can absorb large amounts of carbon monoxide gas, and is used in carbon monoxide detectors. The Palladium-Hydrogen electrode (Abbreviation: Pd/H2) is one of the common reference electrodes used in electrochemical study. ... Palladium(II) chloride, also known as palladium dichloride, is the chemical compound with the formula PdCl2. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ...


Palladium is also the in-game currency of the popular video game, Hellgate London.


Catalysis

When it is finely divided, such as in palladium on carbon, palladium forms a good catalyst and is used to speed up hydrogenation and dehydrogenation reactions, as well as in petroleum cracking. A large number of carbon-carbon bond forming reactions in organic chemistry (such as the Heck and Suzuki coupling) are facilitated by catalysis with palladium compounds. The largest use of palladium today is in catalytic converters.[10] Much research is in progress to discover ways to replace the much more expensive platinum with palladium in this application.[citation needed]-1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Catalysis. ... Hydrogenation is a class of chemical reactions which result an addition of hydrogen (H2) usually to unsaturated organic compounds. ... Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction in which unsaturated bonds between carbon atoms are reduced by attachment of a hydrogen atom to each carbon. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Factory of Shukhov cracking process, Baku, USSR, 1934 In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules such as kerogens or heavy hydrocarbons are broken down into simpler molecules (e. ... A carbon-carbon bond is a covalent bond between two carbon atoms. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... In organic chemistry, the Heck reaction or the Mizoroki-Heck reaction couples an unsaturated halide or triflate with an alkene in a basic solution. ... In organic chemistry, the Suzuki reaction couples the following two things: Organoborane, in a basic solution An aryl, benzyl, or vinyl halide An example of a Suzuki reaction pathway. ... In an automobiles exhaust system, a catalytic converter provides an environment for a chemical reaction where unburned hydrocarbons completely combust. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ...


Hydrogen storage

See Palladium hydride Palladium hydride is metallic palladium that contains a substantial quantity of hydrogen within its crystal lattice. ...


Jewelry

Since 1939[citation needed] palladium itself has occasionally been used as a precious metal in jewelry, as replacement for platinum or white gold. Jewelry (the American spelling; spelled jewellery in Commonwealth English) consists of ornamental devices worn by persons, typically made with gems and precious metals. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... White gold is an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, such as silver or palladium. ...

A Palladium plated belt buckle.
A Palladium plated belt buckle.

This is due to its naturally white properties giving it no need for a rhodium plating. It is slightly whiter, much lighter and about 12% harder. Similar to gold, palladium can be beaten into a thin leaf form as thin as 100 nm (1/250,000 in).[3] Like platinum, it will develop a hazy patina over time. Unlike platinum, however, palladium will discolor at soldering temperatures, become brittle with repeated heating and cooling, and react with strong acids. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2848 × 2136 pixel, file size: 2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number rhodium, Rh, 45 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Standard atomic weight 102. ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... (De)soldering a contact from a wire. ...


It can also be used as a substitute for nickel when making white gold. Palladium is one of three most used metals which can be alloyed with gold to produce white gold.[10] (Nickel and silver can also be used.) Palladium-gold is a much more expensive alloy than nickel-gold but is hypoallergenic and holds its white color better. For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


When platinum was declared a strategic government resource during World War II, many jewelry bands were made out of palladium. As recently as September 2001,[12] palladium was more expensive than platinum and rarely used in jewelry also due to the technical obstacle of casting. However the casting problem has been resolved and its use in jewelry has increased because of a large spike in the price of platinum and a drop in the price of palladium.[13] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the manufacturing process. ...


Prior to 2004, the principal use of palladium in jewelry was as an alloy in the manufacture of white gold jewelry, but beginning early in 2004 when gold and platinum prices began to rise steeply, Chinese jewelers began fabricating significant volumes of palladium jewelry. Johnson Matthey estimated that in 2004 with the introduction of palladium jewelry in China that demand for palladium for jewelry fabrication was 920,000 ounces or approximately 14% of the total palladium demand for 2004, an increase of almost 700,000 ounces from 2003. This growth continued during 2005, with estimated worldwide jewelry demand for palladium of about 1.4 million ounces, or almost 21% of net palladium supply, again with most of the demand centered in China.


Photography

With the platinotype printing process photographers make fine-art black-and-white prints using platinum or palladium salts. Often used with platinum, palladium provides an alternative to silver.[14] Platinotype is a monochrome photographic printing process, based on the light-sensitivity of Ferric Oxalate. ...


See also

Palladium coins are a form of coinage made out of the rare silver-white transition metal palladium. ... For the CSI episode of the same name, see Precious Metal (CSI episode). ... Palladium, like other precious metals, may be used as an investment. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... The Periodic Table redirects here. ...

References

  1. ^ Platinum Metals Review, Rhodium and Palladium - Events Surrounding Its Discovery, accessed 5 Feb 2007.
  2. ^ W. H. Wollaston (1804). "On a New Metal, Found in Crude Platina". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 94: 419-430.. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Los Alamos National Laboratory, Palladium, accessed 5 Feb 2007.
  4. ^ Williamson, A.. Russian PGM Stocks.
  5. ^ Historical Palladium Charts and Data. Kitco. Retrieved on 2007-08-09.
  6. ^ J. Kielhorn, C. Melber, D. Keller, I. Mangelsdorf (2002). "Palladium – A review of exposure and effects to human health". International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 205 (6). doi:10.1078/1438-4639-00180. 
  7. ^ Gray, Theodore, 46 Palladium, <http://www.theodoregray.com/periodictabledisplay/Elements/046/index.s9.html>. Retrieved on 2007-10-14
  8. ^ W. R. Kelly, G. J. Wasserburg, (1978). "Evidence for the existence of 107Pd in the early solar system". Geophysical Research Letters 5: 1079–1082. 
  9. ^ J. H. Chen, G. J. Wasserburg (1990). "The isotopic composition of Ag in meteorites and the presence of 107Pd in protoplanets". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 54 (6): 1729-1743. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(90)90404-9. 
  10. ^ a b c d United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Palladium accessed 5 Feb 2007.
  11. ^ Platinum Metals Review, Palladium in Restorative Dentistry
  12. ^ Johnson Matthey NY: Daily Metal Prices, September 2001
  13. ^ Holmes, E., "Palladium, Platinum's Cheaper Sister, Makes a Bid for Love", Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition). Feb 13, 2007. p. B.1
  14. ^ Mike Ware (2005). "Book Review of : Photography in Platinum and Palladium". Platinum Metals Review 49 (4): 190-195. doi:10.1595/147106705X70291. 

William Hyde Wollaston William Hyde Wollaston FRS (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist and physicist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... Cover of Cover of the first volume of , published in 1665 The Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, or Phil. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Geophysical Research Letters is one of the scientific magazines dedicated to specialized aspects of geophysics, geology, climate science, and related disciplines. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
I, Cringely . The Pulpit . I Told You So | PBS (1077 words)
Palladium is the code name for a Microsoft project to make all Internet communication safer by essentially pasting a digital certificate on every application, message, byte, and machine on the Net, then encrypting the data EVEN INSIDE YOUR COMPUTER PROCESSOR.
Palladium compatible hardware (presumably chipsets and motherboards) will come from both AMD and Intel, and the software will, of course, come from Microsoft.
Palladium assures that whatever hardware is running on the network of 10 years from now, it will be generating revenue for Microsoft.
C&EN: IT'S ELEMENTAL: THE PERIODIC TABLE - PALLADIUM (677 words)
Palladium has been called the "amazing soaking sponge" for its ability at room temperature to absorb up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen, a property that can be exploited to purify hydrogen or activate it for chemical reaction.
Palladium's high resistance to corrosion leads to it being employed in the electronics sector and in the formulation of dental alloys, uses that constituted approximately one-third of world demand in 1999.
The use of palladium catalysis in the synthesis of fine chemicals is certain to continue to grow, stimulated by ongoing developments such as carbon-heteroatom cross-coupling reactions and broadly useful asymmetric processes for fashioning carbon stereocenters of chiral molecules in a single configuration.
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