FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Pali Canon

Part of a series on
Buddhism
Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ...



Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ...

History
The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ...

Dharmic religions
Timeline of Buddhism
Buddhist councils
map showing the prevalence of Dharmic (yellow) and Abrahamic (purple) religions in each country. ... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...

Foundations
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Four Noble Truths
Noble Eightfold Path
The Five Precepts
Nirvāṇa · Three Jewels
The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... The Dharma wheel, often used to represent the Noble Eightfold Path The Noble Eightfold Path (Pāli: Ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo; Sanskrit: Ārya ṣṭāṅga mārgaḥ; Chinese: 八正道, Bāzhèngdào; Japanese: 八正道, Hasshōdō) is, in the teachings of the Buddha, declared to be the way that leads to... The five precepts (Pali: Pañcasīla, Sanskrit: Pañcaśīla Ch: 五戒 wǔ jiè, Sinhala: පන්සිල්) constitute the basic Buddhist code of ethics, undertaken by lay followers of the Buddha Gautama. ... (Devanagari , Pali: Nibbāna िनब्बान -- Chinese: 涅槃; Pinyin: nièpán, Japanese: 涅槃, nehan, Korean: 열반, yeol-bhan, Thai: Nibpan นิพพาน ), is a Sanskrit word that literally means extinction (as in a candle flame) and/or extinguishing (i. ... The Three Jewels, also rendered as Three Treasures, Three Refuges or Triple Gem are the three things that Buddhists give themselves to, and in return look toward for guidance, in the process known as taking refuge. ...

Key Concepts
Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ...

Three marks of existence
Skandha · Cosmology · Dharma
Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Shunyata
Pratitya-samutpada · Karma
After much meditation, the Buddha concluded that everything in the physical world (plus everything in the phenomenology of psychology) is marked by three characteristics, known as the three characteristics of existence or Dharma Seals. ... The skandhas (Sanskrit: Pāli: Khandha; literally: heap or bundle) are the five constituents or aggregates through which the functioning and experience of an individual is created according to Buddhist phenomenology. ... Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries. ... Dharma (Sanskrit) or Dhamma (Pāli) in Buddhism has two primary meanings: the teachings of the Buddha which lead to enlightenment the constituent factors of the experienced world In East Asia, the character for Dharma is 法, pronounced fǎ in Mandarin and hō in Japanese. ... Saṃsāra, the Sanskrit and Pāli term for continous movement or continuous flowing refers in Buddhism to the concept of a cycle of birth (jāti) and consequent decay and death (jarāmaraṇa), in which all beings in the universe participate and which can only be escaped... Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded), upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates (skandhas) which make up that person, becomes one of the contributing causes for the arising of a new group of skandhas which may again be conventionally considered... Śūnyatā, शून्यता (Sanskrit), Suññatā (Pāli) or stong pa nyid (Tibetan), generally translated into English as Emptiness or Voidness, is a concept of central importance in the teaching of the Buddha, intimately related to the doctrine of the three marks of existence (ti-lakkhana). ... The doctrine of Pratītyasamutpāda (Sanskrit: प्रतित्यसमुत्पादा) or Paticcasamuppāda (Pāli: पतिचसमुपादा; Tibetan: ; Chinese:縁起) Dependent Arising is an important part of Buddhist metaphysics. ... Karma (Sanskrit karman) or Kamma (Pāli) means action or doing; whatever one does, says, or thinks is a karma. ...

Major Figures
A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Gautama Buddha
Disciples · Later Buddhists Standing Buddha sculpture, ancient region of Gandhara, northern Pakistan, 1st century CE, Musée Guimet. ... A number of noted individuals have been Buddhists. ...

Practices and Attainment

Buddhahood · Bodhisattva
Four Stages of Enlightenment
Paramis · Meditation · Laity
Media:Example. ... In Buddhist thought, a bodhisattva (Pali: bodhisatta; Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: púsà; Japanese: 菩薩 bosatsu; Korean: ë³´ì‚´ bosal ; Tibetan changchub sempa (byang-chub sems-dpa); Vietnamese: Bồ Tát; Thai: พระโพธิสัตว์) is a being who is dedicated to assisting all sentient beings in achieving complete Buddhahood. ... The four stages of enlightenment in Buddhism are the four degrees of approach to full enlightenment as an Arahant which a person can attain in this life. ... Pāramitā (Sanskrit) or Parami (Pāli): Perfection or Transcendent (lit. ... Buddhist meditation, meditation used in the practice of Buddhism, includes any method of meditation that has Enlightenment as its ultimate aim. The closest word for meditation in the classical languages of Buddhism is bhavana or mental development. // Methods of meditation The main methods of Buddhist meditation are divided into samatha... In canonical Buddhism, householder refers to a particular strata of society whose individuals are typified by having a home life and family. ...

Regions
Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ...

Southeast Asia · East Asia
India · Sri Lanka · Tibet
Western Countries
Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... The Aomori Daibutsu (Big Buddha), Aomori, Japan. ... Tibetan Buddhism (Simplified Chinese: 藏传佛教) is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet, the Himalayan region (including northern Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim and Ladakh), Mongolia, Buryatia, Tuva and Kalmykia (Russia), and northeastern China (Manchuria: Heilongjiang, Jilin). ... The Indo-Greek king Menander (155-130 BCE) is the first Western historical figure documented to have converted to Buddhism. ...

Schools
There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ...

Theravāda · Mahāyāna
Vajrayāna · Early schools
Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest... Relief image of the bodhisattva Kuan Yin from Mt. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Divisions among the early Buddhist schools came about due to doctrinal or practical differences in the views of the Buddhist Sangha following the death of the Buddha. ...

Texts
There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ...

Pali Canon · Mahayana Sutras
Tibetan Canon Mahayana sutras are a very broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that began to be compiled from the first century BCE. They form the basis of the various Mahayana schools, and survive either as original texts in Sanskrit and Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit or as primary translations in Chinese and Tibetan, with... The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. ...

Comparative Studies
Culture · List of Topics
Portal: Buddhism
The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel...

Image:Dharma_wheel_1.png Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

This box: view  talk  edit
Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon
Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon

The Pali Canon is the standard scripture collection of the Theravada Buddhist tradition.[1] It was not printed until the nineteenth century, but is now available in electronic form. However, the English translation, by the Pali Text Society, is not yet complete. The Canon was written down from oral tradition in the last century B.C.E.[2] in Matale Aluvihara, Sri Lanka under the guidance of monk Kuntagantha Tissa. Most scholars give it some sort of pre-eminence among sources for early Buddhism.[3] It is composed in the Pali language, and falls into three general categories, called pitaka (piṭaka, basket) in Pali. Because of this, the canon is traditionally known as the tipitaka (tipiṭaka; three baskets).[4] The three pitakas are as follows. Download high resolution version (1320x1733, 337 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1320x1733, 337 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: European Central Bank in some Romance languages (e. ...

  1. Vinaya Pitaka, dealing with rules for monks and nuns
  2. Sutta Pitaka, discourses, most ascribed to the Buddha, but some to disciples
  3. Abhidhamma Pitaka, variously described as philosophy, psychology, metaphysics etc.

Contents

The Canon in the tradition

The Canon is traditionally described by the Theravada as the Word of the Buddha (Buddhavacana), though this is obviously not intended in a literal sense, since it includes teachings by disciples.[5] Theravada (Pāli: theravāda, Sanskrit: sthaviravāda → English: The Way of the Elders) is the oldest surviving Buddhist school, and for many centuries has been the predominant religion of Sri Lanka (about 70% of the population[1]) and continental Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and parts of southwest...


An official view is given by a spokesman for the Buddha Sasana Council of Burma:[6] the Canon contains everything needed to show the path to nirvana; the commentaries and subcommentaries are useful in understanding it and faithful to its teachings but not infallible.


Although the Canon has existed in written form for two millennia, its oral nature has not been forgotten in actual Buddhist practice within the tradition: memorization and recitation remain common. Even lay people usually know at least a few short texts by heart and recite them regularly; this is considered a form of meditation, at least if one understands the meaning. Monks are of course expected to know quite a bit more (see Dhammapada below for an example). A Burmese monk named Vicittasara even learnt the entire Canon by heart for the Sixth Council.[7] Recitation is in Pali as the ritual language.[8] The Sixth Buddhist Council (Chattha Sangayana) was held in Kaba Aye in Yangon (Rangoon). ...


Origins

According to the scriptures a council was held shortly after the Buddha's death to collect and preserve his teachings. It is traditionally believed by Theravadins that most of the Pali Canon was recited orally from this time, with only a few later additions. There are wide differences of opinion among scholars as to to what extent the teachings may be traced to the historical Buddha himself.[9] Ananda reciting the Sutta Pitaka King Ajatasattu sponsored the First Buddhist council. ... In Buddhism, parinirvana (Sanskrit -- Pali: Parinibbana -- Chinese: 般涅槃; Pinyin: bō niè pán) is the final nirvana, traditionally understood to be within reach only upon the death of someone who attained complete enlightenment. ...


Dr Richard Gombrich, Academic Director of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, former Boden Professor of Sanskrit at the University of Oxford and former President of the Pali Text Society, thinks[10] that the content, as opposed to the form, of large parts of the Canon goes back to the Buddha himself. At the other extreme, Dr Gregory Schopen, Professor of Sanskrit, Tibetan, and Buddhist Studies at the University of Texas at Austin, argues[11] that it is not until the fifth to sixth centuries C.E. that we can know anything definite about the contents of the Canon. Other scholars hold various positions in this range.


Likewise, various positions have been taken on what are the earliest books of the Canon. One school of thought gives this position to prose works: the Vinaya and the first four nikayas of the Sutta. Included in this school are the following: Gombrich;[12] A. K. Warder, Professor Emeritus of Sanskrit in the University of Toronto;[13] Dr Rupert Gethin, Lecturer in Indian Religions in the Department of Theology and Religious Studies, and co-director of the Centre for Buddhist Studies, at the University of Bristol, and current (2006) President of the Pali Text Society.[14] On the other side, some scholars consider some of the poetic books the earliest: the Suttanipata, followed by the Itivuttaka and the Udana. These include the following: the late Professor Nakamura Hajime (surname first in accordance with Japanese practice);[15] and Ui Hakuju.[16] L. S. Cousins, former lecturer in the Department of Comparative Religion at Manchester University and former President of the Pali Text Society, holds a compromise position, adding the Suttanipata to the prose list.[17]


Most of the above scholars would probably agree that their early books include some later additions.[18] Contrariwise, some scholars have claimed[19] that central aspects of late works are or may be much earlier.


According to the Sinhalese chronicles, the Pali Canon was written down in the reign of King Vattagamini (Vaṭṭagamiṇi) (last century B.C.E.) in Sri Lanka, at the fourth Buddhist council. Most scholars hold that little if anything was added to the Canon after this,[20] though Schopen questions this.[21] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Texts and translations

The climate of Theravada countries is not conducive to the survival of manuscripts. Apart from brief quotations in inscriptions and a two-page fragment from the eighth or ninth century found in Nepal, the oldest manusripts known are from late in the fifteenth century,[22] and there is not very much from before the eighteenth.[23]


The first complete printed edition of the Canon was published in Burma in 1900, in 38 volumes.[24] The following editions of the Pali text of the Canon are readily available in the West.

  • Pali Text Society edition, 1877–1927 (a few volumes subsequently replaced by new editions), 57 volumes including indexes, individual volumes also available separately (website)
  • Thai edition, 1925/6–7/8, 45 volumes, electronic transcript by budsir: Buddhist scriptures information retrieval, CD-ROM and online, both requiring payment; more accurate than the PTS edition, but with fewer variant readings[25]
  • Sixth Council edition, Rangoon, 1954–6, 40 volumes, electronic transcript by Vipassana Research Institute available online in searchable database free of charge, or on CD-ROM (p&p only) from the Institute; a rival transcript, produced by the Dhamma Society Fund under the patronage of the Supreme Patriarch of Thailand, is expected online soon; more accurate than the Thai edition, but with fewer variant readings[26]
  • Sinhalese (Buddha Jayanti) edition, 1957–?1993, 58 volumes including parallel Sinhalese translations, transcript in Pali Canon Online Database, searchable, free of charge (not yet fully proofread)

No one edition has all the best readings, and scholars must compare different editions.[27] The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by T.W. Rhys Davids to foster and promote the study of Pali texts. Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism is preserved. ... // 1st Buddhist council (5th century BC) The first Buddhist council was held soon after the death of the Buddha under the patronage of king Ajatasatru, and presided by a monk named Mahakasyapa, at Rajagaha (todays Rajgir). ...


English translations of most of the Canon are available from the Pali Text Society, founded by British civil servant T.W. Rhys Davids. Translations of some books are also available from other publishers. See below for details. The Pali Text Society was founded in 1881 by T.W. Rhys Davids to foster and promote the study of Pali texts. Pali is the language in which the texts of the Theravada school of Buddhism is preserved. ... Thomas William Rhys Davids (May 12, 1843 - December 27, 1922) was an English scholar of the Pāli language and founder of the Pali Text Society. ...


Contents of the Canon

As noted above, the Canon consists of three pitakas.

Details are given below. For fuller information, see standard references on Pali literature.[28] Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka; or Suttanta Pitaka; Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or Pali Canon, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ...


Vinaya Pitaka

Translation: The Book of the Discipline, tr I. B. Horner, 1938-66, 6 volumes, PTS Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ...


The first category, the Vinaya Pitaka, is mostly concerned with the rules of the sangha, both monks and nuns. The rules are preceded by stories telling how the Buddha came to lay them down, and followed by explanations and analysis. According to the stories, the rules were devised on an ad hoc basis as the Buddha encountered various behavioral problems or disputes among his followers. This pitaka can be divided into three parts. Pali or Sanskrit word meaning discipline. The Vinaya is the textual framework for the Buddhist monastic community, or sangha. ... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—and the origin of its name A monk is a person who practices religious asceticism, the conditioning of mind and body in favor of the spirit. ... Nun in cloister, 1930; photograph by Doris Ulmann A nun is a woman who has taken special vows committing her to a religious life. ...

  • Suttavibhanga (-vibhaṅga)
  • Khandhaka
  • Parivara (parivāra)

Suttavibhanga

Commentary on the Patimokkha, a basic code of rules for monks and nuns that is not as such included in the Canon. The monks' rules are dealt with first, followed by those of the nuns' rules not already covered.


Khandhaka

Additional translation: Vinaya Texts, tr T. W. Rhys Davids and Hermann Oldenberg, in Sacred Books of the East, volumes XXXV and XXXVI, 1890-94, Clarendon/Oxford, reissued by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (? and by Dover, New York)


Other rules grouped by topic in 22 chapters.


Parivara

Analysis of the rules from various points of view.


Sutta Pitaka

The second category is the Sutta Pitaka (literally "basket of threads", or of "the well spoken"; Sanskrit: Sutra Pitaka, following the former meaning) which consists primarily of accounts of the Buddha's teachings. The Sutta Pitaka has five subdivisions or nikayas. The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka; or Suttanta Pitaka; Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or Pali Canon, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Sutta Pitaka (suttapiṭaka; or Suttanta Pitaka; Sanskrit सूत्र पिटक Sutra Pitaka) is the second of the three divisions of the Tipitaka or Pali Canon, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings, the scriptures of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Sutta Pitaka (or Sutra Pitaka) is the second of three divisions of the Tipitaka, the great Pali collection of Buddhist writings. ... Nikaya is a word of Pali origin and Sanskrit usage which was adopted into English in reference to Buddhist texts. ...

The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ... The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ... The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ... The Khuddaka Nikaya, or Minor Collection, is the last of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

Digha Nikaya

Translations: The Digha Nikaya (Collection of Long Discourses) is the first part of the Sutta Pitaka- one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...

  • Dialogues of the Buddha, tr T. W. and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1899-1921, 3 volumes, PTS
  • Thus Have I Heard: the Long Discourses of the Buddha, tr Maurice Walshe, 1987, Wisdom Pubns; later reissued under the original subtitle; "a 'substantive' translation ... Nothing has been omitted except ... repetitions"

34 long discourses. Joy Manné argues[29] that this book was particularly intended to make converts, with its high propotions of debates and devotional material.


Majjhima Nikaya

Translations: The Majjhima Nikaya, or Middle-length Discourses of the Buddha, is the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

  • Further Dialogues of the Buddha, tr Lord Chalmers, 1926-7, 2 volumes, currently available from Books on Demand, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
  • The Book of the Middle Length Sayings, tr I. B. Horner, 3 volumes, 1954-9, PTS
  • Discourses of Gotama Buddha: Middle Collection, tr David Evans, Janus Pub, 1991; "Translation in an abridged form ... just about one third the size of Horner's translation, but with well over 90% of the significant content"
  • The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha (review), tr Nanamoli, revised Bodhi, Wisdom Pubns, 1995; the PTS also issues a private edition of this for members only, which is its preferred translation

152 medium discourses. Manné argues[30] that this book was particularly intended to give a solid grounding in the teaching to converts, with a high proportion of sermons and consultations.


Samyutta Nikaya

Translations: The Samyutta Nikaya, the third Nikaya (division) of the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka, contains 2,889 suttas grouped into five sections (vaggas). ...

  • The Book of the Kindred Sayings, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids and F. L. Woodward, 1917-30, 5 volumes, PTS
  • The Connected Discourses of the Buddha tr Bodhi, Wisdom Pubns, 2 volumes, 2000; later reissued in 1 volume; the PTS also issues a private edition (2 volumes) of this for members only, which is its preferred translation

Thousands of short discourses in fifty-odd groups by subject, person etc. Bodhi says this nikaya has the most detailed explanations of doctrine.


Anguttara Nikaya

Translation: The Book of the Gradual Sayings, tr F. L. Woodward and E. M. Hare, 1932-6, 5 volumes, PTS The Anguttara Nikaya (Gradual Collection) is the fourth of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the three baskets that compose the Pali Tipitaka. ...


Thousands of short discourses arranged numerically from ones to elevens. It contains more elementary teaching for ordinary people than the preceding three.


Khuddaka Nikaya

A miscellaneous collection of works in prose or verse. The contents of this nikaya vary somewhat between different editions of the Canon. The "standard" list, given in most western sources,[31] contains the following. The Khuddaka Nikaya, or Minor Collection, is the last of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka of the Tipitaka. ...

However, some editions contain in addition some works that have been described by western scholars as paracanonical or semicanonical; see below. The Khuddakapatha (Pali for short passages; abbreviated as Khp) is the first collection of suttas in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Pali canon. ... The Dhammapada (Pali, translates as Path of the Dharma. ... The Udana (udāna) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Itivuttaka is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Sutta Nipata is a sutta collection in the Khuddaka Nikaya, part of the Tripitaka Buddhist canon. ... The Vimanavatthu is a Buddhist text; it is the sixth book of the Khuddaka Nikaya. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Theragatha, often translated as Verses of the Elder Monks (Pāli: thera elder (masculine) + gatha verse), is a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist sangha. ... The Therigatha, often translated as Verses of the Elder Nuns (Pāli: thera elder (feminine) + gatha verse), is a collection of short poems supposedly recited by early members of the Buddhist sangha. ... The Jataka stories are a significant body of works about the previous lives of Gautama Buddha. ... The Niddesa is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Patisambhidamagga (paṭisambhidā-; sometimes called just Patisambhida for short) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Apadāna (from Sanskrit ava-dāna, a great or glorious act) is a collection of biographical stories found in the Khuddaka Nikaya of the Pāli Canon. ... The Buddhavamsa (-vaṃsa) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ... The Cariyapitaka (cariyāpiṭaka) is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. ...


Khuddakapatha

Translations:

  • Tr Childers, in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1869
  • In Some Sayings of the Buddha, ed & tr F. L. Woodward, London, 1925
  • "The text of the minor sayings", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume I, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1931, PTS
  • "The minor readings", in 1 volume with its commentary, "The illustrator of ultimate meaning", tr Nanamoli, 1960, PTS; this is the PTS's preferred translation, though the older one is still available

Nine short texts in prose or verse. This seems to have been intended as an introductory handbook for novices.[32] Most of its contents are found elsewhere in the Canon.


Dhammapada

Selected translations (out of dozens):

  • Tr F. Max Müller, in: Burlingame, Buddhist Parables, 1869; Sacred Books of the East, volume X, 1881; Clarence Hamilton, Buddhism; published separately, Watkins Pubg, 2006; this is the first English translation (a Latin translation had appeared in 1855)
  • Tr Narada, 1954
  • Tr Juan Mascaró, Penguin Classics, 1973
  • Tr Buddharakkhita, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1985; includes Pali text
  • The Word of the Doctrine, tr K. R. Norman, 1997, PTS

423 verses in 26 chapters by topic. About half the Pali verses are found elsewhere in the canon. In the Sinhalese tradition, monks have been required to know this book by heart before they can be ordained.[33] In the Burmese examination system, this is the first text to be studied in the sutta section of the syllabus (alongside the Patimokkha and Abhidhammatthasangaha).[34]


Udana

Translations:

  • Tr Major-General D. M. Strong, 1902
  • "Verses of uplift", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume II, tr F. L. Woodward, 1935, PTS
  • Tr John D. Ireland, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1990; later reissued in 1 volume with his translation of the Itivuttaka
  • Tr Peter Masefield, 1994, PTS; this is the PTS's preferred translation, though the older one is still available; its stated object is to translate the text as understood by the commentary

80 short passages, mostly verse, ascribed to the Buddha, with introductory stories.


Itivuttaka

Translations:

  • Sayings of Buddha, tr J. H. Moore, Columbia University Press, 1908
  • "As it was said", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume II, tr F. L. Woodward, 1935, PTS
  • Tr John D. Ireland, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1991; later reissued in 1 volume with his translation of the Udana
  • Tr Peter Masefield, PTS, 2000; this is the PTS's preferred translation, though the older one is still available; its stated object is to translate the text as understood by the commentary

112 prose teachings of the Buddha followed by verse paraphrases or complements. These are arranged numerically, from ones to fours.


Suttanipata

Translations:

  • Tr V. Fausbøll, in Sacred Books of the East, volume X, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881; reissued by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (?and by Dover, New York)
  • Buddha's Teachings, tr Lord Chalmers, Harvard Oriental Series, 1932; verse translation, with parallel Pali text
  • Woven Cadences, tr E. M. Hare, 1945, out of print; verse translation
  • The Group of Discourses, tr K. R. Norman, 1984; this originally appeared "with alternative translations by I. B. Horner and Walpola Rahula"; that is, Miss Horner and Ven. Dr Rahula went through Mr Norman's translation and added notes of when they (jointly) disagreed with it (about a quarter of the text, according to the editor); this edition was subsequently reissued in paperback under the title The Rhinoceros Horn and Other Early Buddhist Poems, which is still available; the current hardback edition under the original title is Mr Norman's translation without these alternatives, with some revisions, and with detailed textual notes by the translator
  • Tr Saddhatissa, Curzon Press, London, 1985
  • Tr N. A. Jayawickrama, University of Kelaniya, 2001

Poems, some in prose frameworks. In five parts, of which the first four contain 54 poems. The fifth part is a single poem in 16 sections, plus an introduction and a conclusion, which last includes a little prose. The Rev. ...


Vimanavatthu

Translations:

  • "Stories of the mansions", tr Jean Kennedy, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume IV, 1st edition, 1942; replaced by the following in the 2nd edition
  • "Stories of the mansions", tr I. B. Horner, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, 2nd edition, 1974, PTS
  • In Vimana Stories, tr Masefield, 1989, PTS; this is a translation of the commentary, with an embedded translation of the verses; it is the PTS's preferred translation, though Miss Horner's version is still available

85 poems telling of celestial mansions resulting from good karma.


Petavatthu

Translations:

  • "Stories of the departed", tr Henry Gehman, in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume IV, 1942, PTS
  • In Peta-Stories, tr U Ba Kyaw and Peter Masefield, 1980, PTS; this is a translation of the commentary, with an embedded translation of the verses; it is the PTS's preferred translation, though the old version is still available

51 poems telling of the suffering of ghosts resulting from bad karma. It gives prominence to the idea that gifts to monks can benefit one's deceased relatives' ghosts.


Theragatha

Translations:

  • Psalms of the Brethren, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1913, reissued in Psalms of the Early Buddhists, PTS
  • Elders' Verses, tr K. R. Norman, volume I, 1969, PTS; this is the PTS's preferred translation, though the older one is still available; reissued in paperback as Poems of Early Budhist Monks, with some corrections, and with the translator's textual notes omitted

264 poems ascribed to monks, arranged roughly by increasing number of verses.


Therigatha
  • Psalms of the Sisters, tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1909, reissued in Psalms of the Early Buddhists, PTS
  • Elders' Verses, tr K. R. Norman, volume II, 1971, PTS; this is the PTS's preferred translation, though the older one is still available

The two translations have been reissued in 1 volume under the title Poems of Early Buddhist Nuns


73 poems ascribed to nuns, arranged by increasing number of verses.


Jataka

Translation: The Jataka, or Stories of the Buddha's Former Births, tr E. B. Cowell et al., Cambridge University Press, 1895-1907, 6 volumes; reissued in 3 volumes, PTS; this translation embeds the canonical verses in the stories given by the commentary


547 poems said to relate to the Buddha's previous lives, arranged roughly by increasing number of verses. Professor Oskar von Hinüber[35] says only the last 50 were intended to be intelligible on their own. As a result of the arrangement, these make up the greater part of the book.[36]


Niddesa

Commentary on parts of Suttanipata: the last two parts and one other sutta. Traditionally ascribed to the Buddha's disciple Sariputta.


Patisambhidamagga

Translation: The Path of Discrimination, tr Nanamoli, 1982, PTS


30 treatises on various topics. Traditionally ascribed to Sariputta. Gethin[37] says this book presents the awakening experience as having many different dimensions and aspects, related to the whole of the teaching, and yet as a simple, coherent whole.


Apadana

About 600 poems, most telling how their authors performed a meritorious act in a distant past life, resulting in favourable rebirths and eventual nirvana. There are 589 in the Pali Text Society's edition, 603 in the Sixth Council edition and 592 in a number of others.[38] The following have been translated into English.

  • Buddhapadana (the 1st) by Dwijendralal Barua in B. C. Law Volume, Part II, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Poona, 1946, pages 186-9
  • Paccekabuddhapadana (the 2nd) in The Paccekabuddha, by Ria Kloppenborg, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1974
  • Ratthapalapadana, in Mélanges d'Indianisme offerts par ses élèves à S. Lévi, Paris, 1911
  • Pubbakammapilotikabuddhapadana, quoted in Udana Commentary, tr Peter Masefield, volume II, PTS
  • 25 of the last 40, quoted in Commentary on Verses of Theris, tr William Pruitt, 1998, PTS

Buddhavamsa

Translations:

  • "The lineage of the Buddhas", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume III, 1st edition, tr B. C. Law, 1938, out of print
  • The Genealogy of the Buddhas, tr M. V. Takin, Bombay University Pubns, 1969
  • "Chronicle of Buddhas", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume III, 2nd edition, tr I. B. Horner, 1975, PTS

Short verse book, mainly telling of the previous 24 Buddhas and the current Buddha's meritorious acts towards them in his previous lives.


Cariyapitaka

Translations:

  • "The collection of the ways of conduct", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume III, 1st edition, tr B. C. Law, 1938, out of print
  • "Basket of conduct", in Minor Anthologies of the Pali Canon, volume III, 2nd edition, tr I. B. Horner, 1975, PTS

35 poems telling of the Buddha's practice of 7 of the perfections in his previous lives.


Paracanonical or semicanonical works

Some or all of the following works are included in some editions of the Canon published in Burma,[39] Ceylon[40] and Thailand[41]

  • Nettipakarana(nettipakaraṇa, nettippakaraṇa or just netti)
  • Petakopadesa (peṭakopadesa)
  • Milindapanha (-pañha or -pañhā)

Professor George Bond of Northwestern University says of the first of these books that some Theravadins regard it as quasi-canonical, others as canonical, especially in Burma.[42] About 1800, the head of the Burmese sangha regarded at least the first two of these books as canonical.[43] On the other hand, at least one recent Burmese teacher has not.[44]


Nettipakarana

Translation: The Guide, tr Nanamoli, 1962, PTS


This book presents methods of interpretation. The colophon ascribes it to the Buddha's disciple Kaccana.


Petakopadesa

Translation: Pitaka-disclosure, tr Nanamoli, 1964, PTS


Presents the same methods as the preceding book. They have a large amount of overlap. The text of this book is very corrupt. The colophon ascribes it to the Buddha's disciple Kaccana.


Milindapanha

Translations:

  • The Questions of King Milinda, tr T. W. Rhys Davids, Sacred Books of the East, volumes XIII, XVII and XX, Clarendon/Oxford, 1881-5; reissued by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi (?and Dover, New York)
  • Milinda's Questions, tr I. B. Horner, 1963-4, 2 volumes, PTS

A dialogue between King Menander of Bactria (second century B.C.E.) and the monk Nagasena. Rhys Davids describes this as the greatest work of classical Indian prose literature.

Ancient style of scripture used for the Pali Canon
Ancient style of scripture used for the Pali Canon

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1905x1388, 1900 KB) Ancient style of scripture of the Pali Canon. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1905x1388, 1900 KB) Ancient style of scripture of the Pali Canon. ...

Abhidhamma Pitaka

The third category, the Abhidhamma Pitaka (literally "beyond the dhamma", "higher dhamma" or "special dhamma", Sanskrit: Abhidharma Pitaka), is a collection of texts which give a systematic philosophical description of the nature of mind, matter and time. There are seven books in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ... The abhidhamma is the name of one of the three pitakas, or baskets of tradition, into which the Tipitaka (Pali; Sanskrit: Tripitaka), the canon of early Buddhism, is divided. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

  • Dhammasangani (-saṅgaṇi or -saṅgaṇī)
  • Vibhanga (vibhaṅga)
  • Dhatukatha (dhātukathā)
  • Puggalapannatti (-paññatti)
  • Kathavatthu (kathā-)
  • Yamaka
  • Patthana (paṭṭhāna)

The traditional position is that the Abhidhamma is the absolute teaching, while the suttas are adapted to the hearer. Most scholars describe the abhidhamma as an attempt to systematize the teachings of the suttas: Harvey,[45] Gethin.[46] Cousins says that where the suttas think in terms of sequences or processes the abhidhamma thinks in terms of specific events or occasions.[47] Kathavatthu (Pali), literally Points of Controversy, is one of the seven books in the Abhidhamma Pitaka. ... A kippah (Hebrew: ‎, also kipah, kipa, kippa, plural kippot; Yiddish: , yarmlke, yarmulke, yarmulka, yarmelke, less commonly called kapel) is a thin, usually slightly-rounded cloth skullcap worn by observant Jews (normally men, but not always; see below). ...


Dhammasangani

Translations:

  • A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics tr C. A. F. Rhys Davids, Royal Asiatic Society, 1900, reissued PTS
  • Tr U Kyaw Khine, Department for the Promotion and Propagation of the Sasana, Rangoon, 1996?/Sri Satguru Pubns, Delhi, 1999

Enumeration, definition and classification of dhammas


Vibhanga

Translation: The Book of Analysis, tr U Thittila, 1969, PTS


Analysis of 18 topics by various methods, including those of the Dhammasangani


Dhatukatha

Translation: Discourse on elements, tr U Narada, 1962, PTS


Deals with interrelations between ideas from the previous two books


Puggalapannatti

Translation: A Designation of Human Types, tr B. C. Law, 1922, PTS


Explanations of types of person, arranged numerically in lists from ones to tens


Kathavatthu

Translation: Points of Controversy, tr S. Z. Aung and C. A. F. Rhys Davids, 1915, PTS


Over 200 debates on points of doctrine


Yamaka

Translation published in Malaysia


Applies to 10 topics a procedure involving converse questions (e.g. Is X Y? Is Y X?)


Patthana

Translation in progress: Conditional Relations, volumes I and II, tr U Narada, 1969-81, PTS


Analysis of 24 types of condition


Notes

  1. ^ Gombrich, Theravada Buddhism, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, 2006, page 3
  2. ^ Gombrich, page 20
  3. ^ Hinüber, Handbook of Pali Literature, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1996, page 5; Harvey, Introduction to Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, 1990, page 4; Warder, Indian Buddhism, 3rd edn, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 2000; The World of Buddhism, ed Bechert and Gombrich, Thames and Hudson, London, 1984, page 78; Gethin, Foundations of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, 1998, pages 42 and 44; New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions, 1997, page 380; Nakamura, Indian Buddhism, Japan, 1980, reissued by Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, page 22. However, Schopen, Bones, Stones, and Buddhist Monks, University of Hawai'i Press, 1997, page 30 (reprinted from Studien zur Indologie und Iranistik, volume 10 (1985)), argues that early inscriptions are more reliable sources.
  4. ^ Gombrich, page 4
  5. ^ Gombrich, page 20
  6. ^ Morgan, Path of the Buddha, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1956, pages v, 71
  7. ^ Mendelson, Sangha and State in Burma, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, 1975, page 266
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edn, volume 9, Elsevier, Amsterdam/Oxford, 2006
  9. ^ Gombrich, page 20
  10. ^ pages 20f
  11. ^ page 24
  12. ^ in Bechert and Gombrich
  13. ^ Introduction to Pali, 1963, Pali Text Society, page viii
  14. ^ pages 42f
  15. ^ page 27
  16. ^ cited by Nakamura, loc. cit.
  17. ^ in Buddhist Studies in Honour of Hammalava Saddhatissa, ed Dhammapala, Gombrich and Norman, University of Jayewardenepura, 1984, page 56
  18. ^ Bechert and Gombrich; Warder, Introduction to Path of Discrimination, 1982, Pali Text Society, page xxix
  19. ^ Cousins, "Pali oral literature", in Buddhist Studies, ed Denwood and Piatigorski, Curzon Press, London, 1982/3; Harvey, page 83; Gethin, page 48; The Guide, Pali Text Society, page xxvii
  20. ^ Harvey, page 3; Warder, Path of Discrimination, Pali Text Society, pages xxxixf; Gethin, The Buddha's Path to Awakening, E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1992, page 8
  21. ^ loc. cit.
  22. ^ Hinüber
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ Günter Grönbold, Der buddhistische Kanon: eine Bibliographie, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1984, page 12; as noted there and elsewhere, the 1893 Siamese edition was incomplete
  25. ^ Warder, Introduction to Pali, 1963, PTS, page 382
  26. ^ Hamm in German Scholars on India, volume I, ed Cultural Department of the German Embassy in India, pub Chowkhamba Sanskrit Series Office, Varanasi, 1973, translated from Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, 1962
  27. ^ Cone, Dictionary of Pali, volume I, PTS, 2001
  28. ^ Norman, Pali Literature, Otto Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden, 1983; Hinüber,op. cit.
  29. ^ Journal of the Pali Text Society, volume XV
  30. ^ loc. cit.
  31. ^ Pali Text Society; Norman; Hinüber; Harvey, Appendix; Lamotte, History of Indian Buddhism, 1958, English tr, Oriental Institute, Catholic University of Louvain, 1988
  32. ^ Norman, page 58
  33. ^ Dhammapada, ed Sumangala, pub Humphrey Milford for the Pali Text Society, London, 1914, page v
  34. ^ Mendelson, appendix
  35. ^ op. cit.
  36. ^ This can be verified by inspecting the table of contents of the VRI transcription.
  37. ^ Path, pages 311f
  38. ^ JPTS, volume XX, pages 1-42
  39. ^ The Guide, Pali Text Society, 1962, page xii, notes that all three are included in the Burmese (Sixth Council) edition of the Canon, and Mabel Bode, Pali Literature in Burma, 1909 (before that edition was published), pages 4f, says Burmese tradition includes them in this nikaya.
  40. ^ Enter Nettippakarana in the search engine at [2].
  41. ^ ([3]).
  42. ^ Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, ed Potter, volume VII, Motilal Banarsidass, Delhi, 1996
  43. ^ JPTS, volume XXVIII, pages 61f
  44. ^ Rewata Dhamma, The Buddha and His Disciples, Dhamma-Talaka Pubns, Birmingham, 2001, page 89
  45. ^ loc. cit.
  46. ^ Foundations, page 44
  47. ^ "Pali oral literature", page 7
Buddha in a lotus Buddhism Buddha in a lotus
Terms and concepts History Schools and Sects People By region and country
List of topics Timeline Temples Texts Culture
Portal
v  d  e

Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ... Buddhism is a dharmic, non-theistic religion, which is also a philosophy and a system of psychology. ... Image File history File links Lotus-buddha. ... Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. ... The History of Buddhism spans from the 6th century BCE to the present, starting with the birth of the Buddha Siddhartha Gautama. ... There are many divisions and subdivisions of the schools of Buddhism. ... Buddhist beliefs and practices vary according to region. ... The percentage of Buddhist population of each country was taken from the US State Departments International Religious Freedom Report 2004 [1]. Other sources used were CIA Factbook [2] and adherents. ... Contents: Top - 0–9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z The following is a List of Buddhist topics: A Abhidharma Ahimsa Ajahn Ajahn Chah Ajanta Aksobhya Alexandra David-Néel... 563 BCE: Siddhārtha Gautama, Buddha-to-be, is born in Lumbini, Ancient India. ... Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya Buddhist temples, monasteries, and stupas sorted by location. ... There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... The cultural elements of Buddhism vary by region and include: Buddhist cuisine Buddhist art Buddharupa Art and architecture of Japan Greco-Buddhism Tibetan Buddhist sacred art Buddhist music Buddhist chant Shomyo Categories: Buddhism-related stubs ...

See also

There are a great variety of Buddhist texts. ... The Tripitaka (Sanskrit त्रिपिटक, lit. ... Standard edition of the Thai Pali Canon The Pali Canon is one the earliest existing scripture collections of the Buddhist tradition. ... The Tripitaka Koreana (lit. ...

External links

  • The Three Baskets as in the Buddhist Encyclopedia
  • Guide to Tipitaka– Online transcript of a book by Professor U Ko Lay giving a detailed account of the contents of the Burmese edition of the Canon.

English translations

Other


  Results from FactBites:
 
AllRefer.com - Pali canon (Buddhism) - Encyclopedia (534 words)
The texts in the Pali canon are the earliest Buddhist sources, and for Theravada Buddhists, who claim to conserve the original teachings of the Buddha, they are still the most authoritative sacred texts.
Pali, the language in which the canon is written, is a Prakrit (vernacular dialect) of classical Sanskrit (see Prakrit literature).
The canon is generally called the Tripitaka [threefold basket]; the name refers to the baskets passed from hand to hand by construction workers, and is thus a metaphor for the passing on of tradition.
Buddhist Canon Paper (5089 words)
It was from this council that the earliest Tripitaka (Pali Tipitaka; Ch.
Pali is a dialect of Indic Prakrit, and a form of the ancient Paishachi language.
As with the early Christian canonical texts, there is a long-standing tradition of authorship from certain saints and divine inspiration, whereas scholarly evidence indicates that the authors were very human indeed, drawing on previously existing sources and responding to specific cultural conditions, societal trends, and literary style.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m