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Encyclopedia > Palestinian exodus
Palestinian refugees in 1948
Palestinian refugees in 1948

The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. It is called the Nakba (Arabic: النكبة), meaning "disaster" or "cataclysm," by Palestinians. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... A Palestinian Arab (or Arab Palestinian) is an Arab of Palestine - either the historical region of Palestine or any of the political divisions designated as Palestine. Journalists, historians and some diplomats or government officials frequently refer to Palestianian Arabs as Palestinians for short. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


Prior to the beginning of the war, friction between Jewish and Arab communities intensified, frequently erupting into violence. In August of 1947, as the remaining British forces prepared to evacuate, Haganah assumed autonomy and assaulted Arabs and their holdings—by January of the next year, what was to become a pattern of ethnic cleansing began as the village of Mansurat al-Khayt was raided and taken by Haganah.[1] By May, Jaffa, Beisan, Safad and Acre were under Jewish occupation[2] and towns such as Tiberias, traditionally home to amicable ethnic relations, were assaulted by militant Zionists. The circumstances which led directly to the involvement of the surrounding Arab states had formed by early May; as armed Jewish groups took villages by force and expelled the Arab inhabitants, the latter fled en masse. in 1951, the United Nations gave the final estimate of their number as 711,000.[3] For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Jaffa port Sunset at Jaffa port Jaffa ( Hebrew: יָפוֹ, Yafo Arabic: يَافَا  ; also Japho, Joppa; also, ~1350 B.C.E. Amarna Letters: Yapu; ), is an ancient port city located in south Tel Aviv, Israel on the Mediterranean Sea. ... Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Map of Arab League states in dark green with non-Arab areas in light green and Mauritania, Somalia and Djibouti in striped green due to their Arab League membership but non-Arab population. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ...


The initial exodus—as well as the related Jewish exodus from Arab lands—and the current situation of Palestinian refugees is a contentious and politically controversial topic of high importance to all parties in the Arab-Israeli conflict. The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration and expulsion of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (Arabic: ‎, meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United...

Contents

History

Ruins of the former Arab village of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line west of Hebron.
Ruins of the former Arab village of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line west of Hebron.

The history of the Palestinian exodus is closely tied to the events of the war in Palestine, which lasted from 1947 to 1949. Many factors played a role in bringing it about. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x516, 100 KB) Remnants of former Palestinian village of Bayt Jibrin, destroyed in 1949. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (900x516, 100 KB) Remnants of former Palestinian village of Bayt Jibrin, destroyed in 1949. ... Ruins of the former Palestinian village of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line of Hebron Bayt Jibrin (Arabic: , also: Beit Jibrin) was a Palestinian village that was captured by Israel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war and depopulated. ... The mostly deserted market in the old city. ...

Ruins of the Palestinian village of Suba, near Jerusalem, overlooking Kibbutz Zova, which was built on the village lands.
Ruins of the Palestinian village of Suba, near Jerusalem, overlooking Kibbutz Zova, which was built on the village lands.
For more information on the historical context, see 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Zionism, Palestinian nationalism, and Jewish exodus from Arab lands.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3264 × 2448 pixel, file size: 3. ... Ruins of the Palestinian village of Suba overlooking Kibbutz Zova. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Palestinian nationalism is a nationalist ideology which calls for the creation of a Palestinian state in all or part of the former British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration and expulsion of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ...

First stage of the flight, December 1947 - March 1948

In the first few months of the civil war the climate in Palestine became volatile. Hostilities between Jews and Arabs increased and general lawlessness spread as the British declared that their mandate would end in May 1948. Strategically, the period was marked by Arab initiatives and Jewish reprisals (Morris, 2003, p. 65), although the Irgun and Lehi reverted to their 1937-1939 strategy of placing bombs in crowded places such as bus stops, shopping centres and markets, and their attacks on British forces reduced British troops' ability and willingness to protect Jewish traffic (Ibid, p. 66). General conditions deteriorated: the economic situation became unstable and unemployment grew (Gelber, p. 75). Rumours spread that the Husaynis were planning to bring in bands of fallahin to take over the towns (Gelber, p. 76). Some Palestinian Arab leaders set a bad example by sending their own families abroad (Gelber, pp. 76-77). The Arab Liberation Army embarked on a systematic evacuation of non-combatants from several frontier villages in order to turn them into military strongholds (Gelber, p. 79). By the end of March 1948 around 100,000 Palestinian Arabs had fled to other parts of Palestine such as Nazareth, Nablus and Bethlehem or had left the country altogether (Morris, p. 67) to settle in Transjordan or Egypt. Many of these were Palestinian Arab leaders, middle and upper-class Palestinian Arab families from urban areas. Around 22 March the Arab governments agreed that their consulates in Palestine would only issues visas to old people, women and children and the sick (Ibid, p. 134). On 29-30 March the Haganah Intelligence Service (HIS) reported that 'the AHC was no longer approving exit permits for fear of [causing] panic in the country' (Ibid, p. 137 quoting Haganah Archive (HA) 105257). Etzel emblem Irgun (ארגון), shorthand for Irgun Tsvai Leumi (ארגון צבאי לאומי, also spelled Irgun Zvai Leumi), Hebrew for National Military Organization, was a clandestine militant Zionist group, considered Terrorist by the British, that operated in Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... Lehi emblem Lehi (IPA: , Hebrew acronym for Lohamei Herut Israel, Fighters for the Freedom of Israel, לחי - לוחמי חירות ישראל) was an armed underground Zionist faction in the Palestine Mandate that had as its goal the eviction of the British from Palestine to allow unrestricted immigration of Jews and the formation of a Jewish... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (82nd in leap years). ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ...


During this period there was no official Yishuv policy favoring expulsion and Jewish leaders anticipated that the new Jewish state would have a sizable Arab minority. The Haganah was instructed to avoid spreading the conflagration by indiscriminate attacks and to avoid provoking British intervention (Morris, 2003, pp. 68-86). On 18 December, 1947 the Haganah approved an aggressive defense strategy, which in practice meant 'a limited implementation of "Plan May" (Tochnit Mai or Tochnit Gimel), which, produced in May 1946, was the Haganah master plan for the defence of the Yishuv in the event of the outbreak of new troubles... The plan included provision, in extremis, for "destroying Arab transport" in Palestine, and blowing up houses used by Arab terrorists and expelling their inhabitants. (Ibid, p. 75). In early January the Haganah adopted Operation Zarzir, a scheme to assassinate leaders affiliated to Amin al-Husayni, placing the blame on other Arab leaders, but in practice few resources were devoted to the project and the only attempted killing was of Nimr al Khatib (Ibid, p. 76). Yishuv is a Hebrew word meaning settlement. ... In the Gregorian calendar, December 18 is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years), with 13 days remaining until the end of the year. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Sheikh Muhammad Nimr al-Khatib was leader of the Muslim Bretheren and pro-Husseini head of the Arab Committee in Haifa during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ...


Palestinian belligerency in these first few months was 'disorganised, sporadic and localised and for months remained chaotic and uncoordinated, if not undirected' (Morris, 2003, p. 86). Husayni lacked the resources to mount a full-scale assault on the Yishuv and restricted himself to sanctioning minor attacks and to tightening the economic boycott (Ibid, p. 87). Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...


Throughout this period both Arab and Jewish leaders tried to limit the hostilities (Morris, 2003, pp. 90-99).


The only official expulsion at this time took place at Qisarya, south of Haifa, where Palestinian Arabs were evicted and their houses destroyed on 19 February - 20 February 1948 (Morris, 2003, p. 130). Qisarya (alt. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


Overall Morris concludes that the 'Arab evacuees from the towns and villages left largely because of Jewish - Haganah, IZL or LHI - attacks or fear of impending attack' but that only 'an extremely small, almost insignificant number of the refugees during this early period left because of Haganah or IZL or LHI expulsion orders or forceful "advice" to that effect' (Morris, 2003, pp. 138-139).


See also: List of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war‎ This is a list of massacres committed during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ...


Second stage of the flight, April 1948 - June 1948

Palestinians
Israeli-Palestinian conflict

Balfour Declaration
1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
Partition · British Mandate
Transjordan · Israel
Palestinian exodus
Jordanian control (West Bank)
Egyptian control (Gaza Strip)
1st Intifada · Oslo Accords
· Hafrada (Separation) · Israeli Gaza Strip barrier
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Israel's unilateral disengagement plan
Timeline
See also Template:Arab citizens of Israel
The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, that both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... The Balfour Declaration was a letter dated November 2, 1917 from the British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation, a private Zionist organization. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Map of the West Bank today Rule of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Hafrada (Hebrew: ) is the English transliteration of the Hebrew word for separation. ... Gaza Strip Barrier near the Karni Crossing The Israeli Gaza Strip barrier is a separation barrier along the armistice line of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War between the Gaza Strip and Israel. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The barrier route as of May 2005. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (termed in Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to... This is an incomplete timeline of events in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ...

Palestinian National Authority

Geography of the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Palestinian territories
List of Arab localities in Palestine 1948
West Bank · Gaza Strip
Districts · Cities · East Jerusalem
Refugee camps
Biodiversity Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... Location: Middle East, west of Jordan Geographic coordinates: Map references: Middle East Area: total: 5,860 km² land: 5,640 km² water: 220 km² note: includes West Bank, Latrun Salient, and the northwest quarter of the Dead Sea, but excludes Mount Scopus; East Jerusalem and Jerusalem No mans land... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... District of Acre Acre Amqa Arab al-Samniyya al-Bassa al-Birwa al-Damun Dayr al-Qassi al-Ghabisiyya Iqrit Iribbin, Khirbat Jiddin, Khirbat al-Kabri Kafr Inan Kuwaykat al-Manshiyya al-Mansura Miar al-Nabi Rubin Nahf al-Nahr al-Ruways Sakhnin Shaab Suhmata al-Sumayriyya Suruh... The 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are divided into 16 districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa). ... Map of the West Bank Map of Gaza Strip This is a list of cities and towns in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the two territories that make up the Palestinian territories. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... List of Palestinian refugee camps with current population and year they were established: Gaza, 8 camps, 478,854 refugees 1948, Beach camp (Shati), 76,109 1949, Bureij, 30,059 1948, Deir el-Balah, 20,188 1948, Jabalia (Jabalyia, Abalyia), 103,646 1949, Khan Yunis, 60,662 1949, Maghazi, 22,536... This article is about the fauna and flora in the geographical region of Israel and the Disputed Territories (the West Bank and Gaza Strip). ...

Politics

PLO · PNA · PNC · PLO EC · PLC
Political Parties
Hamas · Fatah
National Covenant · Foreign Relations
... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ‎;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization regarded by the Arab League since October 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Executive Committee (PLO EC) is the highest executive body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement; the Arabic acronym means zeal) is a Palestinian Islamist organization that currently (since January 2006) forms the majority party of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian Declaration of Independence, led to Palestines recognition by 93 countries and to the renaming of the PLO mission in the UN to Palestine. After the formation of the Palestinian Authority, many countries exchanged embassies and delegations with it. ...

Demographics

Demographics of the West Bank
People
The Palestinian territories, occupied — according to the United Nations terminology — since the 1967 Six-Day War, include the West Bank and the Gaza strip. ... See also: Demographics of Israel, demographics section in Gaza strip Population: 2,020,298 note: in addition, there are some 171,000 Israeli settlers in the West Bank and about 172,000 in East Jerusalem (July 2000 est. ...

Economy

Economy of the West Bank
Economy - overview: Economic conditions in the West Bank - where economic activity is governed by the Paris Economic Protocol of April 1994 between Israel and the Palestinian Authority - have deteriorated since the early 1990s. ...

Religion & religious sites

Palestinian Jew · Palestinian Christian
Druze · Sunni Muslim
Al-Aqsa Mosque · Dome of the Rock
Church of the Nativity · Rachel's Tomb
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
See also Template:History of the Levant
Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... A Palestinian Jew is a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine throughout certain periods of Middle East history. ... The Palestinian Christians are Palestinians who follow Christianity. ... Druze star The Druze (Arabic: درزي, derzÄ« or durzÄ«, plural دروز, durÅ«z; Hebrew: , Druzim; also transliterated Druz or Druse) are a Middle Eastern religious community whose traditional religion stemmed primarily from an offshoot of an Islamic sect, but is unique in its incorporation of Gnostic, neo-Platonic and other philosophies. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Rachels Tomb is a holy site of high significance to Judaism and is located in Northern Judea (Southern West Bank) just outside of the Jerusalem neighborhood of Gilo at the northern entrance to Bethlehem along what was once the Biblical Bethlehem-Ephrath road. ... Main Entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. ...

Culture

Music · Dance · Arab cuisine
Palestinian Arabic
Palestinian flag Palestinian culture is most closely related to the cultures of the nearby Levantine countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan and of the Arab World. ... In the areas now controlled by Israel and Palestinian National Authority, multiple ethnic groups, races and religions have long held on to a diverse culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Arab cuisine is the cuisine of the Arab countries. ... Palestinian Arabic is a Levantine Arabic dialect subgroup. ...

Notable personalities

Rashid Khalidi · Rim Banna
Edward Said · Emile Habibi · Hanan Ashrawi
Ghassan Kanafani · Qustandi Shomali
Ghada Karmi· Mahmoud Darwish ·
Samih al-Qasim · Nathalie Handal ·
Khalil al-Sakakini · Elia Suleiman ·
Hany Abu-Assad · May Ziade ·
Mohammad Amin al-Husayni
The following is a list of prominent Palestinians, both from Palestine and from the Palestinian diaspora. ... Rashid Khalidi (1950 - ) is the Edward Said Professor of Arab Studies at Columbia University, and the head of Columbias Middle East Institute. ... Rim Banna is a Palestinian singer, composer and arranger, well-known for her modern interpretations of traditional folk songs. ... Edward Wadie Said (Arabic: , transliteration: ) (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and outspoken Palestinian activist. ... Emile Habibi (August, 1921 - May 3, 1996) was a Palestinian-Israeli writer and politician. ... Hanan Ashrawi Dr. Hanan Daoud Khalil Ashrawi (born 8 October 1946 in Ramallah, British Mandate of Palestine) is a Palestinian Anglican scholar and political activist. ... Ghassan Kanafani Ghassan Kanafani (غسان كنفاني, born April 9, 1936 in Acre, Palestine - died July 8, 1972 in Beirut, Lebanon) was a Palestinian writer and a spokesman for the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Qustandi Shomali Born in Beit Sahour on 8 July 1946, worked as an Arabic teacher in Algeria from 1965-72; received a B.A in Arabic Literature from Oran University in Algeria in 1971, worked as editor of the Arab World Review in Canada from 1972 to 1975 and as... —Ghada Karmi (1939- ) (Arabic: ‎) is a Palestinian doctor of medicine, author and academic. ... Mahmoud Darwish Mahmoud Darwish (born 1941 in Al-Birwah, British mandate of Palestine) is a contemporary Palestinian poet and writer of prose. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Nathalie Handal (born July 29, 1969) is a Palestinian poet, writer and playwright and a literary researcher. ... Khalil Sakakini Khalil al-Sakakini (خليل السكاكيني) (January 23, 1878 - August 13, 1953) was a distinguished Palestinian Jerusalemite educator, scholar, and poet. ... Elia Suleiman (born July 28, 1960 in Nazareth) is a Palestinian film director and actor. ... Hany Abu-Assad (Arabic: ‎, born 11 October 1961) is a Dutch-Palestinian film director. ... May Ziade (1886 - 1941) was born in Palestine (of the Ottoman Empire) in 1886. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ...

Portal:Palestine

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By May 1, 1948, two weeks before Israeli and the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, nearly 175,000 Palestinians had fled Israel.[4] May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising...


The fighting in these months was concentrated in the Jerusalem - Tel Aviv area, where consequently, most depopulations took place. The Deir Yassin massacre in early April, and the exaggerated rumours that followed it, helped spread fear and panic among the Palestinians (Morris[5], p. 264). The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


By the estimates of Morris, 250,000 to 300,000 Palestinians became refugees during this stage (Morris[5], p. 262). Keesing's Contemporary Archives in London place the total number of refugees before Israel's independence at 300,000.[6] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Third stage of the flight, July-October 1948

The largest single expulsion of the war began in Lydda and Ramla July 14. 60,000 inhabitants of the two cities were forcibly expelled on the orders of Ben-Gurion and Yitzhak Rabin. Rabin wrote in his memoirs: Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 170 days remaining. ...   (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: ) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ... For other people named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...

What would they do with the 50,000 civilians in the two cities ... Not even Ben-Gurion could offer a solution, and during the discussion at operation headquarters, he remained silent, as was his habit in such situations. Clearly, we could not leave [Lydda's] hostile and armed populace in our rear, where it could endanger the supply route [to the troops who were] advancing eastward. ... Allon repeated the question: What is to be done with the population? Ben-Gurion waved his hand in a gesture that said: Drive them out! ... 'Driving out' is a term with a harsh ring ... Psychologically, this was one of the most difficult actions we undertook. The population of [Lydda] did not leave willingly. There was no way of avoiding the use of force and warning shots in order to make the inhabitants march the 10 to 15 miles to the point where they met up with the legion. (Soldier of Peace, p. 140-141)

Additionally, widespread looting and several cases of rape ([1]) took place during the evacuation. In total, about 100,000 Palestinians became refugees in this stage according to Morris (2003, p. 448).


Fourth stage of the flight, October 1948 - November 1948

This period of the exodus was characterized by Israeli military accomplishments, which were met with resistance from the Palestinian Arabs who were to become refugees. The Israeli military activities were confined to the Galilee and the sparsely populated Negev desert. It was clear to the villages in the Galilee, that if they left, return was far from imminent. Therefore far fewer villages were spontaneously depopulated than previously. Most of it was due to a clear, direct cause: expulsion and deliberate harassment, as Morris writes 'commanders were clearly bent on driving out the population in the area they were conquering' (2003, p. 490). Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ...


Operation Hiram, which was the Israeli military operation that conquered the upper Galilee, is one of the examples in which a direct expulsion order was given to the commanders: 'Do all you can to immediately and quickly purge the conquered territories of all hostile elements in accordance with the orders issued. The residents should be helped to leave the areas that have been conquered.' (October 31, 1948, Moshe Carmel) Operation Hiram was a military operation conducted by the Israel Defence Force (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War It was led by Moshe Carmel and aimed at capturing the entire Galilee region for Israel. ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... Moshe Carmel (January 17, 1911 – August 15, 2003) was born in Minsk, then in Russian Empire, now in Belarus. ...


Altogether 200,000 to 230,000 Palestinians left in this stage, according to Morris (Ibid, p. 492). According to New Historian Ilan Pappe, "In a matter of seven months, five hundred and thirty one villages were destroyed and eleven urban neighborhoods emptied [...] The mass expulsion was accompanied by massacres, rape and [the] imprisonment of men [...] in labor camps for periods [of] over a year."[7] The New Historians are a loosely-defined group of Israeli historians who have declared as their goal the reexamination of the history of Israel and Zionism. ... Ilan Pappé (born 1954) is an Israeli historian who teaches at Haifa University. ...


Contemporary mediation and the Lausanne Conference

UN mediation

The United Nations was involved in the conflict from the very beginning. In the autumn of 1948 the refugee problem was a fact and possible solutions were discussed. Count Folke Bernadotte said on September 16: Count Folke Bernadotte af Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), is noted for his negotiation for the release of prisoners from the German concentration camps in World War II. He was the son of Oscar Bernadotte, Count of Wisborg (formerly Prince Oscar of Sweden) and his wife, née... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ...

No settlement can be just and complete if recognition is not accorded to the right of the Arab refugee to return to the home from which he has been dislodged. It would be an offence against the principles of elemental justice if these innocent victims of the conflict were denied the right to return to their homes while Jewish immigrants flow into Palestine, and indeed, offer the threat of permanent replacement of the Arab refugees who have been rooted in the land for centuries (Bowker, 2003, pp. 97-98).

UN General Assembly Resolution 194, which was passed on December 11, 1948, and reaffirmed every year since, was the first resolution that called for Israel to let the refugees return: United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

the [Palestinian] refugees wishing to return to their homes and live at peace with their neighbours should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable date, and that compensation should be paid for the property of those choosing not to return and for loss of or damage to property which, under principles of international law or in equity, should be made good by the Governments or authorities responsible.

The Lausanne Conference of 1949

See also main article Lausanne Conference, 1949 The Lausanne Conference, 1949 was convened by the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) from 27 April to 12 September, 1949. ...


In 1949 at the Lausanne conference, Israel proposed allowing 100,000 refugees to return, this number included an alleged 25,000 who had already returned surreptitiously and 10,000 projected family-reunion cases. The offer was conditional on a full peace treaty that would allow Israel to keep all the territory it had captured and on the Arab states agreeing to absorb the remaining refugees. The offer was rejected by the Arab states (Morris, 2003, pp. 549-587). Safran concluded that "The Arab states, who had refused even to negotiate face-to-face with the Israelis, turned down the offer because it implicitly recognized Israel's existence". (Nadav Safran, Israel: The Embattled Ally, Harvard University Press, p 336)". The Lausanne Conference, 1949 was convened by the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) from 27 April to 12 September, 1949. ...


Causes of the Palestinian exodus

Historians have given over the years different reasons and assigned different responsibilities to the Palestinian exodus. This topic remains controversial today, more than half a century after the events. The answers given to these questions could have important consequences for the future of these refugees and their descendants, as well as to other Arabs and Jews in Israel.


The following theories were proposed:

  • The 'Arab leaders' endorsement of the refugee flight' was the official line taken by the governments of Israel and mainstream Israeli Historians, assigning the main responsibility for the exodus to calls made by local and foreign Arab leaders.
  • The 'Transfer principle' Theory, proposed by the Israeli 'New Historians' (mainly Benny Morris), contends that displacement of population was a consequence of a common line of thought in Zionist politics that emphasized the transfer of Palestinian Arabs as a precondition to the establishment of a Jewish state.
  • The 'Master Plan' theory, proposed by Palestinian historian Walid Khalidi, claims that the Palestinian exodus was planned and organised in advance by Jewish authorities.
  • The 'Two-stage explanation' is a theory brought forth by Yoav Gelber, which distinguishes between two phases of the exodus. Before the Arab invasion, it explains the exodus as a result of the crumbling Arab social structure, and after the invasion as a result of actions by the Israeli army during the campaign in the Galilee and Negev.

The "Arab leaders' endorsement of flight" Theory

Claims that the Flight was Instigated by Arab Leaders

Israeli official sources have long claimed that the refugee flight was in large part instigated by Arab leaders. For example, Yosef Weitz wrote in October 1948: 'The migration of the Arabs from the Land of Israel was not caused by persecution, violence, expulsion [but was] deliberately organised by the Arab leaders in order to arouse Arab feelings of revenge, to artificially create an Arab refugee problem.'[citation needed] Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


In a 1959 paper, Walid Khalidi attributed the "Arab evacuation story" to Joseph Schechtman, who wrote two 1949 pamphlets in which 'the evacuation order first makes an elaborate appearance'.


In his book Palestine 1948, Yoav Gelber writes, referring to historiographic work of Schechtman, that the exodus greatly astonished the Yishuv's leaders and that 'attempting to explain the phenomenon they raised several conjectures that later become pillars of the Israeli argumentation on the issue'. (Gelber[8] p. 84)


Benny Morris concluded the following: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

[I]t turns out that there was a series of orders issued by the Arab Higher Committee and by the Palestinian intermediate levels to remove children, women and the elderly from the villages. So that on the one hand, the book reinforces the accusation against the Zionist side, but on the other hand it also proves that many of those who left the villages did so with the encouragement of the Palestinian leadership itself.[9]

Morris, however, did not find any blanket call for evacuation, such as Weitz claims had existed. On that matter he writes:

Had such a blanket order (or series of orders) been given, it would have found an echo in the thousands of documents produced by the Haganah's Intelligence Service, the IDF Intelligence Service, the Jewish Agency's Political Department Arab Division, the Foreign Ministry Middle East Affairs Department; or in the memoranda and dispatches of the various British and American diplomatic posts in the area (in Tel Aviv, Jerusalem, Haifa, Amman, Beirut, Damascus, and Cairo); or in the various radio monitoring services (such as the BBC's). Any or all of these would have produced reports, memoranda, or correspondence referring to the Arab order and quoting from it. But no such reference to or quotation from such an order or series of orders exists in the contemporary documentation. This documentation, it should be noted, includes daily, almost hourly, monitoring of Arab radio broadcasts, the Arab press inside and outside Palestine, and statements by the Arab and Palestinian Arab leaders. (Tikkun, Jan/Feb 1990, p80)

Morris and other historians agree, however, that Arab radio-propaganda which inflated casualty figures and atrocities (real and alleged alike) contributed to this flight. Although intended to arouse hatred against the Jewish state, it cause a good deal of fear and flight on the part of Arabs in Israel.[5]


Proponents of the Instigated-Flight Theory assert that Israel made significant efforts to keep Arabs within its borders. For example, Israel's very Declaration of Independence calls upon Arabs to stay within Israel and help in its construction. Further examples include the events in the city of Haifa (see below).[10] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The flight from Haifa

Historian Efraim Karsh writes that not only had half of the Arab community in Haifa community fled the city before the final battle was joined in late April 1948, but another 5,000-15,000 left apparently voluntarily during the fighting while the rest, some 15,000-25,000, were ordered to leave against their wishes, almost certainly on the instructions of the Arab Higher Committee, the effective 'government' of the Palestinian Arabs. Karsh concludes that there was no Jewish grand design to force this departure, nor was there a psychological 'blitz', but that on the contrary, both the Haifa Jewish leadership and the Hagana went to great lengths to convince the Arabs to stay.[11]. The case of Haifa is frequently cited by pro-Zionist sources to show that the flight of the Arabs was not precipitated by the Jewish leadership, and that the Arabs left of their own accord or on orders from the Arab Higher committee. These sources point out the fact that the mayor of Haifa, Shabtai Levy, and the labour leader Abba Hushi, as well as Haganah high command, intervened to try to convince Arabs to stay, but the leadership explained that Arab higher committee members had left, the community was disintegrating as they talked, and there was nothing they could do[12]. Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ... Abba Hushi was born in 1898 in Turkah (today in the Ukraine) as Abba Shneler to a Jewish family. ...


Shmuel Katz quotes a report by the Haifa District HQ of the British Palestine Police sent on April 26, 1948, to Police HQ in Jerusalem, in which it was said : Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל ×›×¥ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ...

The situation in Haifa remains unchanged. Every effort is being made by the Jews to persuade the Arab populace to stay and carry on with their normal lives, to get their shops and businesses open and to be assured that their lives and interests will be safe. On the other side the evacuation goes on and a large road convoy escorted by Military and containing a large percentage of Christians left Haifa for Beirut yesterday. An estimated number of 700 has been given for this convoy and evacuation by sea goes on steadily. At the same time the convoy and evacuation of women, children and older inhabitants from Tireh and surrounding villages has become a problem and these are taking refuge in a disused army camp near Tireh. They are being carried out to Transjordan and Military lorries have been loaned to get this section clear. At the moment it looks as if the greater part of very healthy crops which will soon require attention are going to be abandoned and lost. Tireh was attacked again yesterday morning but managed to repulse the attack. There have been no other incidents reported."[13]

Another police report, filed by the same superintendent on the same date notes that

"An appeal has been made to the Arabs by the Jews to reopen their shops and businesses in order to relieve the difficulties of feeding the Arab population. Evacuation was still going on yesterday and several trips were made by 'Z' craft to Acre. Roads too, were crowded with people leaving Haifa with all their belongings. At a meeting yesterday afternoon Arab leaders reiterated their determination to evacuate the entire Arab population and they have been given the loan of ten 3-ton military trucks as from this morning to assist the evacuation".[12]

According to Katz:

Two days later, the Haifa police continued to report. The Jews were "still making every effort to persuade the Arab populace to remain and to settle back into their normal lives in the towns"; as for the Arabs, "another convoy left Tireh for Transjordan, and the evacuation by sea continues. The quays and harbour are still crowded with refugees and their household effects, all omitting no opportunity to get a place on one of the boats leaving Haifa" (Katz[14], pp. 74) Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל כץ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ...

The Haganah broadcast a warning to Arabs in Haifa on 21 April: "that unless they sent away 'infiltrated dissidents' they would be advised to evacuate all women and children, because they would be strongly attacked from now on"[15]. April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ...


Commenting on the use of "psychological warfare broadcasts" and military tactics in Haifa , Benny Morris writes: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Throughout the Haganah made effective use of Arabic language broadcasts and loudspeaker vans. Haganah Radio announced that 'the day of judgement had arrived' and called on inhabitants to 'kick out the foreign criminals' and to 'move away from every house and street, from every neighbourhood occupied by foreign criminals'. The Haganah broadcasts called on the populace to 'evacuate the women, the children and the old immediately, and send them to a safe haven'... Jewish tactics in the battle were designed to stun and quickly overpower opposition; demoralisation was a primary aim. It was deemed just as important to the outcome as the physical destruction of the Arab units. The mortar barrages and the psychological warfare broadcasts and announcements, and the tactics employed by the infantry companies, advancing from house to house, were all geared to this goal. The orders of Carmeli's 22nd Battalion were 'to kill every [adult male] Arab encountered' and to set alight with fire-bombs 'all objectives that can be set alight. I am sending you posters in Arabic; disperse on route'. (Morris[5], pp. 191-192) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

A rumour spread through Haifa that the British army would protect and evacuate anyone who managed to reach the harbour and a British intelligence officer gave a detailed account of the scene there a few hours later:

During the morning [the Jews], were continually shooting down on all Arabs who moved both in Wadi Nisnas and the Old City. This included completely indiscriminate and revolting machine-gun fire, mortar fire and sniping on women and children sheltering in churches and attempting to get out... through the gates into the docks... The 40 RM. CDO. [i.e., Royal Marine Commando] who control the docks... sent the Arabs through in batches but there was considerable congestion outside the East Gate of hysterical and terrified Arab women and children and old people on whom the Jews opened up mercilessly with fire. (Morris[5], p. 191) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

By mid-May only 4000 Arabs remained in Haifa. These were concentrated in Wadi Nisnas in accordance with Plan D whilst the systematic destruction of Arab housing in certain areas, which had been planned before the War, was implemented by Haifa's Technical and Urban Development departments in cooperation with the IDF's city commander Ya'akov Lublini. (Morris[5], pp. 209-211) This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Claims by Arab leaders

After the war, a few Arab leaders tried to present the Palestinian exodus as a victory by claiming to have planned it. The prime minister of Iraq, Nuri Said, declared: "We will smash the country with our guns and obliterate every place the Jews seek shelter in. The Arabs should conduct their wives and children to safe areas until the fighting has died down." (Sir Am Nakbah”, Nazareth, 1952).


An oft-quoted example from the memoirs of Khalid al-`Azm, who was prime minister of Syria from December 17, 1948, to March 30, 1949, (after most of the exodus had already taken place), gives a different explanation, however. In his memoirs, Al-Azm listed a number of reasons for the Arab defeat in an attack on the Arab leaders, including his own predecessor, Jamil Mardam Bey: Khalid al-Azm (1903-1965) was a Syrian nationalist leader, Prime Minister (April 4 - September 16, 1941), (December 16 - 29, 1946), (December 17, 1948 - March 30, 1949), (December 27, 1949 - June 4, 1950), (March 27 - August 9, 1951), (September 17, 1962 - March 9, 1963) and Acting President (April 4 - September... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (90th in leap years). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...

Fifth: the Arab governments' invitation to the people of Palestine to flee from it and seek refuge in adjacent Arab countries, after terror had spread among their ranks in the wake of the Deir Yassin event. This mass flight has benefited the Jews and the situation stabilized in their favor without effort.
...
Since 1948 we have been demanding the return of the refugees to their homeland, while it is we who constrained them to leave it. Between the invitation extended to the refugees and the request to the United Nations to decide upon their return, there elapsed only a few months.
-Al-`Azm, Mudhakarat (al-Dar al Muttahida lil-Nashr, Beirut, 1972), Volume I, pp 386-7. scan

However, as Yehoshua Porath argues 'Neither . . . is the admission of the Syrian leader Khalid al-Azm that the Arab countries urged the Palestinian Arabs to leave their villages until after the victory of the Arab armies final proof that the Palestinian Arabs in practice heeded that call and consequently left.' [2]. In his re-examination of the Palestinian exodus Benny Morris is even more skeptical, concluding: Yehoshua Porath is Professor Emeritus of Middle East History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

The former Prime Minister of Syria, Khalid al'Azm, in his memoirs Mudhakkirat Khalid al'Azm, I, 386, wrote: 'We brought destruction on 1 million Arab refugees by calling upon them and pleading with them repeatedly to leave their lands and homes and factories.' (I am grateful to Dr Gideon Weigart of Jerusalem for this reference.) But I have found no contemporary evidence of such blanket, official 'calls' by any Arab government. And I have found no evidence that the Palestinians or any substantial group left because they heard such 'calls' or orders by outside Arab leaders. The only, minor, exceptions to this are the traces of the order, apparently by the Syrians, to some of the inhabitants of Eastern Galilee to leave a few days prior to, and in preparation for, the invasion of 15-16 May. This order affected at most several thousand Palestinians and, in any case, 'dovetailed' with Haganah efforts to drive out the population in this area. (Morris[5], p. 269).

Morris goes on to speculate that, although al-`Azm may have been referring to the minor Syrian order mentioned above, it is more probable that 'he inserted the claim to make some point within the context of inter-Arab polemics (i.e., blaming fellow Arab leaders for the exodus).' This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Furthermore Katz says that "as late as 1952, the charge had the official stamp of the Arab Higher Committee. In a memorandum to the Arab League states, the Committee wrote" (Schechtman, pp. 197-198):

"Some of the Arab leaders and their ministers in Arab capitals -- declared that they welcomed the immigration of Palestinian Arabs into the Arab countries until they saved Palestine. Many of the Palestinian Arabs were misled by their declarations... It was natural for those Palestinian Arabs who felt impelled to leave their country to take refuge in Arab lands -- and to stay in such adjacent places in order to maintain contact with their country so that to return to it would be easy when, according to the promises of many of those responsible in the Arab countries (promises which were given wastefully), the time was ripe. Many were of the opinion that such an opportunity would come in the hours between sunset and sunrise".

The Arab National Committee in Jerusalem, following the March 8, 1948, instructions of the Arab Higher Committee, ordered women, children and the elderly in various parts of Jerusalem to leave their homes and move to areas

"far away from the dangers. Any opposition to this order...is an obstacle to the holy war...and will hamper the operations of the fighters in these districts." [16]

Morris also documented that the Arab Higher Committee ordered the evacuation of "several dozen villages, as well as the removal of dependents from dozens more” in April-July 1948. "The invading Arab armies also occasionally ordered whole villages to depart, so as not to be in their way" (The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 592).


The Secretary of the Arab League Office in London, Edward Atiyah, wrote in his book, The Arabs: Edward Atiyah (1903-64) was born in Lebanon. ...

"This wholesale exodus was due partly to the belief of the Arabs, encouraged by the boastings of an unrealistic Arabic press and the irresponsible utterances of some of the Arab leaders that it could be only a matter of weeks before the Jews were defeated by the armies of the Arab States and the Palestinian Arabs enabled to re­enter and retake possession of their country. But it was also, and in many parts of the country, largely due to a policy of deliberate terrorism and eviction followed by the Jewish commanders in the areas they occupied, and reaching its peak of brutality in the massacre of Deir Yassin.
There were two good reasons why the Jews should follow such a policy. First, the problem of harbouring within the Jewish State a large and disaffected Arab population had always troubled them. They wanted an exclusively Jewish state, and the presence of such a population that could never be assimilated, that would always resent its inferior position under Jewish rule and stretch a hand across so many frontiers to its Arab cousins in the surrounding countries, would not only detract from the Jewishness of Israel, but also constitute a danger to its existence. Secondly, the Israelis wanted to open the doors of Palestine to unrestricted Jewish immigration. Obviously, the fewer Arabs there were in the country the more room there would be for Jewish immigrants. If the Arabs could be driven out of the land in the course of the fighting, the Jews would have their homes, their lands, whole villages and towns, without even having to purchase them. And this is exactly what happened." ("The Arabs", 1955, pp. 182-183) ” Terrorist redirects here. ... The Deir Yassin massacre (Deir Yassin is also transliterated from Arabic as Dayr Yasin and frequently (mis)transliterated from Hebrew writings as Dir Yassin) refers to the killing of scores of Arab civilians at the village of Deir Yassin just east of Jerusalem in Palestine by Jewish irregular forces between...

Edward Atiyah himself in the Spectator 23 June 1961 dismissed that his book could be used as evidence of "Arab orders". He wrote: Edward Atiyah (1903-64) was born in Lebanon. ... Cover of the Nov 12, 2005 issue of The Spectator magazine. ...

....there is no suggestion whatever in what I wrote that the exodus of the Arab refugees was a result of a policy of evacuating the Arab population. What I said is something quite different from the Zionist allegation that the Arab refugees were ordered or ever told by their leaders to evacuate which is the main point in the whole controversy. (Quoted in Broadcasts, p.80.) A bilingual poster in Romanian and Hungarian promoting a film about Jewish settlement in Palestine, 1930s. ... Blaming the Victims: Spurious Scholarship and the Palestinian Question, is a collection of esseys, co-edited by Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens, and first published by Verso in 1988 ( ISBN 0-86091-887-4). ...

The Arab League claims their reasons for limited assistance and instructions to bar the granting of citizenship to Palestinian Arab refugees (or their descendants) is "to avoid dissolution of their identity and protect their right to return to their homeland". [17] Many critics find the lack of Arab effort to relieve the refugee crisis as a way of using the Palestinians as political pawns, and/or to promote anti-Israel sentiment.[citation needed] The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: ‎), is an organization of predominantly Arab states (compare Arab world). ...


Other claims

Time Magazine, on May 3, 1948, published an article on the Arab flight from Haifa: (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

The Jews' most dazzling military prize of the week was Haifa, the only port where seagoing ships can dock. As British troops prepared last week to withdraw from all of the city except the dock area, Jewish soldiers began to filter into the town. Others gathered on the slopes of Mount Carmel. One morning at i a.m. they struck. Behind a creeping mortar barrage, the Jews moved into the Arab quarters of the city. Bewildered Arabs gathered for one brief counterattack, then collapsed in leaderless confusion. Within a day, the Jews had taken Haifa.
Of the 60,000 Arabs who lived there, many had fled to safety even before the attack started. As the panicky evacuation began during the Jewish assault, the remaining thousands gathered what few belongings they could carry. Lashed on by the mortar barrage, more than a thousand men, women & children hammered at the No. 3 gate of the British-controlled port area to seek safety. Royal Marine guards finally let them on to the docks.
"One entire jetty," cabled TIME Correspondent Eric Gibbs, "was packed with these refugees, sitting on their pathetic bundles or clutching them with the strength of despair. What did these simple, bewildered people seize in the moment of panic? A small Turkish carpet, a radio, a sewing machine were among the treasures. A three-year-old hugged his pet pigeon. One woman brought a battered aluminum chamberpot. Hour after hour they sat, waiting for barges, British landing craft and other odd boats now doing ferry service across the blue bay to Acre." Other thousands fled to the Arab-held hills near Nablus.
The mass evacuation, prompted partly by fear, partly by orders of Arab leaders, left the Arab quarter of Haifa a ghost city. More than pride and defiance was behind . the Arab orders. By withdrawing Arab workers, their leaders hoped to paralyze Haifa. Jewish leaders said wishfully: "They'll be back in a few days. Already some are returning." [3]

Criticisms of the "endorsement of flight" theory

Erskine Childers, an Irish academic, examined the British record of the radio broadcasts by the Arab leaders at the time, and found no evidence of such orders. "There was not a single order, or appeal, or suggestion about evacuation from Palestine from any Arab radio station, inside or outside Palestine, in 1948. There is repeated monitored record of Arab appeals, even flat orders, to stay put."[18] Erskine Childers (1929-1996) came from a highly respected family of Irish campaigners for freedom and liberty. ...


An interview frequently cited in Zionist historiography was with Monsignor George Hakim, then Greek Catholic bishop of Galilee, in the Beirut newspaper Sada al Janub, August 16, 1948: "The refugees were confident that their absence would not last long, and that they would return within a week. Their leaders had promised them that the Arab armies would crush the "Zionist gangs" very quickly, and that there was no need for panic or fear of a long exile." Erskine Childers investigated these claims, and wrote in the Spectator May 12, 1961: "I wrote to His Grace, asking for his evidence of such orders. I hold signed letters from him, with permission to publish, in which he has categorically denied ever alleging Arab evacuation orders; he states that no such orders were ever given. He says that his name has been abused for years; and that the Arabs fled through panic and forcible eviction by Jewish troops."[4]. Hakim later commented on this use of his words: "There is nothing in this statement to justify the construction which many propagandists had put on it... At no time did I state that the flight of the refugees was due to the orders, explicit or implicit, of their leaders, military or political, to leave the country... On the contrary, no such orders were ever made... Such allegations are sheer concoctions and falsifications. ...as soon as hostilities began between Israel and the Arab States, it became the settled policy of the Government to drive away the Arabs..." (Childers[19], 197-198.) Maximos V Hakim was elected Melkite Greek Catholic Patriarch in 1967 and served until 2000. ... Erskine Childers (1929-1996) came from a highly respected family of Irish campaigners for freedom and liberty. ... Cover of the Nov 12, 2005 issue of The Spectator magazine. ... Erskine Childers was the name of two Irish leaders of British birth who were key players in 20th century Ireland. ...


The "Transfer principle" Theory

The idea that 'transfer ideology' is responsible for the exodus was first brought up by several Palestinian authors, and supported by Erskine Childers in his 1971 article, "The wordless wish". However, historian Benny Morris became in the 1980s the most well-known advocate of this theory. In his book The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem he presented the prevalent idea of population transfer within Zionist thinking as the 'ultimate cause' for the Palestinian exodus. According to Morris, the demographic reality of Palestine, in which most residents were non-Jewish Arabs, had long been a major obstacle to the establishment of a Jewish national state. He also notes that the attempt to achieve a demographic shift through aliyah (Jewish immigration to the land of Israel) had not been successful (due both to higher Arab birth rate and immigration [5] and to restrictions by the mandatory administration. As a result, some Zionist leaders adopted the transfer of a large Arab population as the only viable solution. (Morris, 2003, p. 69) Erskine Childers (1929-1996) came from a highly respected family of Irish campaigners for freedom and liberty. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ...


The idea of population transfer was first placed on Palestine's political agenda in 1937 by the Peel Commission. The commission recommended that Britain should withdraw from Palestine and that the land be partitioned between Jews and Arabs. It called for a "transfer of land and an exchange of population", including the removal of 250,000 Palestinian Arabs from what would become the Jewish state (Arzt, 1997, p. 19), along the lines of the mutual population exchange between the Turkish and Greek populations after the Greco-Turkish War of 1922. This solution, writes Morris, was embraced by Zionist leaders, including David Ben-Gurion, who wrote: Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... The Peel Commission of 1936, formally known as the Palestine Royal Commission, was a British Royal Commission of Inquiry set out to propose changes to the British Mandate of Palestine following the outbreak of the Great Uprising. ...   (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: ) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ...

... and [nothing] greater than this has been done for our case in our time [than Peel proposing transfer]. ... And we did not propose this - the Royal Commission ... did ... and we must grab hold of this conclusion [i.e, recommendation] as we grabbed hold of the Balfour Declaration, even more than that - as we grabbed hold of Zionism itself we must cleave to this conclusion, with all our strength and will and faith (quoted in Morris, 2001, p. 42).

However, while Ben-Gurion was in favor of the Peel plan, he and other Zionist leaders considered it important that it be publicized as a British plan and not a Zionist plan. To this end, Morris quotes Moshe Sharett, director of the Jewish Agency's Political Department, who said (during a meeting of the Jewish Agency Executive on 7 May 1944 to consider the British Labour Party Executive's resolution supporting transfer): The name Balfour Declaration is applied to two key British government policy statements associated with Conservative statesman and former Prime Minister Arthur Balfour. ... Moshe Sharett (Hebrew: משה שרת); born Moshe Shertok (Hebrew: משה שרתוק), (October 15, 1894 – July 7, 1965) was the second Prime Minister of Israel (1954-1955), serving for a little under two years between David Ben-Gurions two terms. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Labour Party has been, since its founding in the early 20th century, the principal political party of the left in England, Scotland and Wales. ...

Transfer could be the crowning achievements, the final stage in the development of [our] policy, but certainly not the point of departure. By [speaking publicly and prematurely] we could mobilizing vast forces against the matter and cause it to fail, in advance. ... What will happen once the Jewish state is established - it is very possible that the result will be the transfer of Arabs (quoted in Morris, 2001, p. 46).

All of the other members of the JAE present, including Yitzhak Gruenbaum (later Israel's first interior minister), Eliahu Dobkin (director of the immigration department), Eliezer Kaplan (Israel's first finance minister), Dov Joseph (later Israel's justice minister) and Werner David Senator (a Hebrew University executive) spoke favorably of the transfer principle (Morris, 2001, p. 47).


Morris concludes that the idea of transfer was not, in 1947-1949, a new one. He writes:

Many if not most of Zionism's mainstream leaders expressed at least passing support for the idea of transfer during the movement's first decades. True, as the subject was sensitive they did not often or usually state this in public (Morris, 2001, p. 41; see Masalha, 1992 for a comprehensive discussion).

Other authors, including Palestinian writers and Israeli New Historians, have also described this attitude as a prevalent notion in Zionist thinking and as a major factor in the exodus. Israeli historian and former diplomat Shlomo Ben-Ami wrote: The New Historians are a loosely-defined group of Israeli historians who have declared as their goal the reexamination of the history of Israel and Zionism. ... Shlomo Ben-Ami (born July 17, 1943) is an Israeli diplomat, politician and author. ...

The debate about whether or not the mass exodus of Palestinians was the result of a Zionist design or the inevitable concomitant of war should not ignore the ideological constructs that motivated the Zionist enterprise. The philosophy of transfer was not a marginal, esoteric article in the mindset and thinking of the main leaders of the Yishuv. These ideological constructs provided a legitimate environment for commanders in the field actively to encourage the eviction of the local population even when no precise orders to that effect were issued by the political leaders (Ben-Ami, Shlomo Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy, 2005, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 0-297-84883-6).

While not discounting other reasons for the exodus, the 'transfer principle' theory suggests that this prevalent 'attitude of transfer' is what made it easy for local Haganah and IDF commanders to resort to various means of expelling the Arab population, even without a 'master plan' or a blanket command given by Israeli authorities. Morris sums it up by saying that the circumstances, 'had prepared and conditioned hearts and minds (...) so that, when it occurred, few Jewish voices protested or doubt; it was accepted as inevitable and natural by the bulk of the Jewish population' (Morris, p. 60). Morris also points out that "[if] Zionist support for 'Transfer' really is 'unambiguous'; the connection between that support and what actually happened during the war is far more tenuous than Arabs propagandists will allow" (Morris, p.6). Haganah Poster (1940s) The Haganah (Hebrew: The Defense, ×”×”×’× ×”) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in what was then the British Mandate for Palestine from 1920 to 1948. ... The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ...


Historian Christopher Sykes saw the causes of the Arab flight differently:

It can be said with a high degree of certainty that most of the time in the first half of 1948 the mass-exodus was the natural, thoughtless, pitiful movement of ignorant people who had been badly led and who in the day of trial found themselves forsaken by their leaders. Terror was the impulse, by hearsay most often, and sometimes through experience as in the Arab port of Jaffa which surrendered on the 12th of May and where the Irgunists, to quote Mr. John Marlowe, 'embellished their Dir Yassin battle honours by an orgy of looting'.
   "But if the exodus was by and large an accident of war in the first stage, in the later stages it was consciously and mercilessly helped on by Jewish threats and aggression towards Arab populations. (Cross Roads to Israel, 1973)

The 'transfer principle' theory came under attack from several historians, notably Efraim Karsh, who claimed that 'Morris engages in five types of distortion: he misrepresents documents, resorts to partial quotes, withholds evidence, makes false assertions, and rewrites original documents" (Karsh, Efraim, 'Benny Morris and the Reign of Error', The Middle East Quarterly, Vol. 4 No. 2, 1999 [6]) Also See: [7]. To the point in question, Karsh argued that transferist thinking was a fringe philosophy within Zionism, and had no significant effect on expulsions. The debate is still going strong today. Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ...


The "Master Plan" Theory

Palestinian Historian Walid Khalidi, who had proposed the 'Master Plan' Theory

Based on the aforementioned alleged prevalent idea of transfer, and on actual expulsions that took place in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Walid Khalidi, a Palestinian historian, introduced a thesis in 1961 according to which the Palestinian exodus was planned in advance by the Zionist leadership. He based that thesis on Plan D, a plan devised by the Haganah high command in March 1948, which stipulated, among other things that if Palestinians in villages controlled by the Jewish troops resist, they should be expelled (Khalidi, 1961). Plan D was aimed to establish Jewish sovereignty over the land allocated to the Jews by the United Nations (Resolution 181), and to prepare the ground toward the expected invasion of Palestine by Arab states after the imminent establishment of the state of Israel. In addition, it was introduced while Jewish-Palestinian fighting was already underway and while thousands of Palestinians had already fled. Nevertheless, Khalidi argued that the plan was a master-plan for the expulsion of the Palestinians from the territories controlled by the Jews. He argued that there was an omnipresent understanding during the war that as many Palestinian Arabs as possible had to be transferred out of the Jewish state, and that that understanding stood behind many of the expulsions that the commanders on the field carried out. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x700, 41 KB)Walid Khalidi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x700, 41 KB)Walid Khalidi. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... Plan Dalet, or Plan D, (in Hebrew, dalet is the fourth letter, similar to d in English), was a plan that the Haganah in Palestine worked out during autumn 1947 to spring 1948. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predomiantly Sunni Islam as well as Shia Islam, Coptic Orthodox Church, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholic, Maronite, Alawite Islam, Druze and Ibadi Islam An entry was temporarily removed here. ... The term Jewish state is sometimes used to describe the State of Israel and refers to its status as a nation-state for the Jewish people. ...


Khalidi and Ilan Pappé (A History of Modern Palestine, p. 131) are among those to defend this thesis. Others are skeptical of their conclusion: they emphasize that no central directive has surfaced from the archives and that if such an omnipresent understanding had existed, it would have left a mark in the vast amounts of documentation the Zionist leadership produced at the time. Furthermore, Yosef Weitz, who was strongly in favor of expulsion, had explicitly asked Ben-Gurion for such a directive and was turned down. Finally, settlement policy guidelines drawn up between December 1947 and February 1948, meant to handle the absorption of the anticipated first million immigrants, planned some 150 new settlements, about half of them in the Negev, with the rest along the lines of the UN partition map (29 November 1947) for the north and centre of the country. Ilan Pappé (born 1954) is an Israeli historian who teaches at Haifa University. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...


Benny Morris, in particular, disagrees with the "Master Plan" theory but argues transfer was inevitable. He writes: This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

My feeling is that the transfer thinking and near-consensus that emerged in the 1930s and early 1940s was not tantamount to pre-planning and did not issue in the production of a policy or master-plan of expulsion; the Yishuv and its military forces did not enter the 1948 War, which was initiated by the Arab side, with a policy or plan for expulsion. But transfer was inevitable and inbuilt into Zionism - because it sought to transform a land which was 'Arab' into a 'Jewish' state and a Jewish state could not have arisen without a major displacement of Arab population; and because this aim automatically produced resistance among the Arabs which, in turn, persuaded the Yishuv's leaders that a hostile Arab majority or large minority could not remain in place if a Jewish state was to arise or safely endure. By 1948, transfer was in the air. The transfer thinking that preceded the war contributed to the denouement by conditioning the Jewish population, political parties, military organisations and military and civilian leaderships for what transpired. Thinking about the possibilities of transfer in the 1930s and 1940s had prepared and conditioned hearts and minds for its implementation in the course of 1948 so that, as it occurred, few voiced protest or doubt; it was accepted as inevitable and natural by the bulk of the Jewish population. (Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, p. 60)

Supporters of the "Master Plan" theory argue that the missing central directives have not been found because they were deliberately omitted or because the understanding of the significance of expulsion was so widespread that no directive was necessary. They claim that the Zionist leadership in general and Ben-Gurion in particular were well aware of how historiography worked. What would be written about the war and what light Israel would be presented in was so important that it was worth making an intentional effort to hide those of their actions that might seem reprehensible.


The Two-Stage Theory

Yoav Gelber has a different approach. [8] Underlining the importance of the consequences of the debate he writes: 'Since the abortive talks at Camp David in July 2000, the Palestinian refugee problem has re-emerged as the hard core of the Arab-Israeli conflict. For five decades, the Israelis have swept the problem under the carpet, while the Palestinians have consistently developed their national ethos around their Right of Return' Many Palestinian refugees in Arab nations and elsewhere claim a Right of Return to lands which they or their families had held in Israel prior to the Palestinian Exodus. ...


Gelber describes the "master plan thesis" as propaganda in which Palestinian historians 'have composed a false narrative of deliberate expulsion, stressing the role of Deir Yassin and Plan Dalet in their exodus', but he also dismisses the "call of flight from Arab leadership thesis": 'Later, this guess would become the official line of Israeli diplomacy and propaganda. However, the documentary evidence clearly shows that the Arab leaders did not encourage the flight.'


Gelber distinguishes two main phases during the exodus: before and after the intervention of Arab armies in May 1948.


First Stage: The Crumbling of Arab Palestinian social structure

Gelber describes the exodus before May 1948 as being mainly due to the inability of the Palestinian social structure to withstand a state of war:

Mass flight accompanied the fighting from the beginning of the civil war. In the absence of proper military objectives, the antagonists carried out their attacks on non-combatant targets, subjecting civilians of both sides to deprivation, intimidation and harassment. Consequently, the weaker and backward Palestinian society collapsed under a not-overly-heavy strain. Unlike the Jews, who had nowhere to go and fought with their back to the wall, the Palestinians had nearby shelters. From the beginning of hostilities, an increasing flow of refugees drifted into the heart of Arab-populated areas and into adjacent countries... The Palestinians’ precarious social structure tumbled because of economic hardships and administrative disorganization. Contrary to the Jews who built their “State in the Making” during the mandate period, the Palestinians had not created in time substitutes for the government services that vanished with the British withdrawal. The collapse of services, the lack of authority and a general feeling of fear and insecurity generated anarchy in the Arab sector.

30,000 Arabs, mostly intellectuals and members of the social elite, had fled Palestine in the months following the approval of the partition plan, undermining the social infrastructure of Palestine.[4] According to Gelber the disintegration of the civil structure built by the British amplified the problem:

Thousands of Palestinian government employees — doctors, nurses, civil servants, lawyers, clerks, etc. — became redundant and departed as the mandatory administration disintegrated. This set a model and created an atmosphere of desertion that rapidly expanded to wider circles. Between half to two-thirds of the inhabitants in cities such as Haifa or Jaffa had abandoned their homes before the Jews stormed these towns in late April 1948.

Other historians share this analysis, such as Efraim Karsh or Howard Sachar. In his interpretation of the second wave (Gelber's first stage), as he names Israeli attacks (Operations Nachshon, Yiftah, Ben 'Ami, ...) Sachar considers Israeli attacks only as a secondary reason for flight, with the meltdown of the Palestinian society as the primary : Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ... Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ...

The most obvious reason for the mass exodus was the collapse of Palestine Arab political institutions that ensued upon the flight of the Arab leadership. ... [O]nce this elite was gone, the Arab peasant was terrified by the likelyhood of remaining in an institutional and cultural void. Jewish victories obviously intensified the fear and accelerated departure. In many cases, too ... Jews captured Arab villages, expelled the inhabitants, and blew up houses to prevent them from being used as strongholds against them. In other instances, Qawukji's men used Arab villages for their bases, provoking immediate Jewish retaliation.[20]

Second Stage: Israeli army victories and expulsions (after May 1948)

During the second phase of the war, after the Arab invasion, Gelber considers the exodus to have been a result of Israeli army's victory and the expulsion of Palestinians. He writes:

"The position of these new escaping or expelled Palestinians was essentially different from that of their predecessors of the pre-invasion period. Their mass flight was not the result of their inability to hold on against the Jews. The Arab expeditions failed to protect them, and they remained a constant reminder of the fiasco. These later refugees were sometimes literally deported across the lines. In certain cases, IDF units terrorized them to hasten their flight, and isolated massacres — particularly during the liberation of Galilee and the Negev in October 1948 — expedited the flight."

Morris agrees that such expulsions occurred. For example, concerning whether in Operation Hiram there was a comprehensive and explicit expulsion order he replied : Operation Hiram was a military operation conducted by the Israel Defence Force (IDF) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War It was led by Moshe Carmel and aimed at capturing the entire Galilee region for Israel. ...

Yes. One of the revelations in the book is that on October 31, 1948, the commander of the Northern Front, Moshe Carmel, issued an order in writing to his units to expedite the removal of the Arab population. Carmel took this action immediately after a visit by Ben-Gurion to the Northern Command in Nazareth. There is no doubt in my mind that this order originated with Ben-Gurion. Just as the expulsion order for the city of Lod, which was signed by Yitzhak Rabin, was issued immediately after Ben-Gurion visited the headquarters of Operation Dani [July 1948]. [9]

Other historians, such as Karsh, deny the expulsion [10], but they refer only to the first phase of the war which is not contested by Gelber or Morris. In between the first and second truce of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Operation Danny (or Operation Dani - Mivtza Dani in Hebrew) was carried out. ...


Gelber also underlines that Palestinian had certainly in mind the opportunity they would have to return their home after the conflict and that this hope must have eased their flight: 'When they ran away, the refugees were confident of their eventual repatriation at the end of hostilities. This term could mean a cease-fire, a truce, an armistice and, certainly, a peace agreement. The return of escapees had been customary in the Middle East's wars throughout the ages'.


Conclusion by Morris

In a "conclusion" by Benny Morris in The Guardian[11]: The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ...

I spent the mid-1980s investigating what led to the creation of the refugee problem, publishing The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949 in 1988. My conclusion, which angered many Israelis and undermined Zionist historiography, was that most of the refugees were a product of Zionist military action and, in smaller measure, of Israeli expulsion orders and Arab local leaders' urgings or orders to move out. Critics of Israel subsequently latched on to those findings that highlighted Israeli responsibility while ignoring the fact that the problem was a direct consequence of the war that the Palestinians - and, in their wake, the surrounding Arab states - had launched. And few noted that, in my concluding remarks, I had explained that the creation of the problem was "almost inevitable", given the Zionist aim of creating a Jewish state in a land largely populated by Arabs and given Arab resistance to the Zionist enterprise. The refugees were the inevitable by-product of an attempt to fit an ungainly square peg into an inhospitable round hole.

Results of the Exodus

"Absentee" property

Palestinian refugees - Area of UNWRA operations.

In 1950, the Absentee Property Law was passed in Israel. It provided for confiscation of the property and land left behind by departing Palestinians, the so-called "absentees". Arabs who never left Israel, and received citizenship after the war, but stayed for a few days in a nearby village had their property confiscated. (Fischbach, 1999, p. 23; p. 39) About 30,000-35,000 Palestinians became "present absentees" - persons present at the time but considered absent (Benvenisti, 2002, p. 201). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1236, 122 KB) Summary Palestinian refugees - Area of UNWRA operations. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (750x1236, 122 KB) Summary Palestinian refugees - Area of UNWRA operations. ... Internally displaced Palestinians is a term used to refer to Palestinians and their descendants, who as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war or al-Nakba, became internally displaced refugees within what became the state of Israel. ...


How much of Israel's territory consists of land confiscated with the Absentee Property Law is uncertain and much disputed. According to Robert Fisk, an Israeli Custodian of Absentee Property, told him that, including the Gaza Strip and The West Bank it could amount to up to 70% of the territory: For people named Robert Fiske, see Robert Fiske (disambiguation). ... Map of the West Bank. ...

The Custodian of Absentee Property does not choose to discuss politics. But when asked how much of the land of the state of Israel might potentially have two claimants - an Arab and a Jew holding respectively a British Mandate and an Israeli deed to the same property - Mr. Manor [the Custodian in 1980] believes that 'about 70 percent' might fall into that category (Robert Fisk, 'The Land of Palestine, Part Eight: The Custodian of Absentee Property', The Times, December 24, 1980).

Other sources, such as the Jewish Virtual Library, claim that Custodial and Absentee land is only 12% of the total: For people named Robert Fiske, see Robert Fiske (disambiguation). ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (359th in leap years). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ...

The third source of national land pertains to the remaining 12 percent, the most politically sensitive type of national land. A statutory body established in 1950, the Development Authority, received its holdings from the Custodian of Absentee Property, a governmental body that took charge of land owned mostly by Arab residents who left or were expelled from their place of residence during the 1948-9 war. Most of these lands have been leased or sold. [12]


The Jewish National Fund, from Jewish Villages in Israel, 1949:

Of the entire area of the State of Israel only about 300,000-400,000 dunums -- apart from the desolate rocky area of the southern Negev, at present quire unfit for cultivation -- are State Domain which the Israeli Government took over from the Mandatory regime. The J.N.F. and private Jewish owners possess under two million dunums. Almost all the rest belongs at law to Arab owners, many of whom have left the country. The fate of these Arabs will be settled when the terms of the peace treaties between Israel and her Arab neighbours are finally drawn up. The J.N.F., however, cannot wait until then to obtain the land it requires for its pressing needs. It is, therefore, acquiring part of the land abandoned by the Arab owners, through the Government of Israel, the sovereign authority in Israel.

Whatever the ultimate fate of the Arabs concerned, it is manifest that their legal right to their land and property in Israel, or to the monetary value of them, will not be waived, nor do the Jews wish to ignore them. Legal conquest of territory is a powerful factor in determining the frontiers and the sovereignty of a state. But conquest by force of arms cannot, in law or in ethics, abrogate the rights of the legal owner to his personal property. The J.N.F., therefore, will pay for the lands it takes over, at a fixed and fair price. The Government will receive the money and in due time will make compensation to the Arabs.

from Jewish Villages In Israel, by the Jewish National Fund, (Keren Kayemeth Leisrael) Summer 1949 Jerusalem pg XXI


The absentee property played an enormous role in making Israel a viable state. In 1954, more than one third of Israel's Jewish population lived on absentee property and nearly a third of the new immigrants (250,000 people) settled in urban areas abandoned by Arabs. Of 370 new Jewish settlements established between 1948 and 1953, 350 were on absentee property (Peretz, Israel and the Palestinian Arabs, 1958).


Palestinian refugees

See also main article Palestinian refugee In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (Arabic: ‎, meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and...

Palestinian refugees
Total population

4.9 million (including descendants and re-settled)[21]

Regions with significant populations
Gaza Strip, Jordan, West Bank, Lebanon, Syria
Languages
Arabic
Religions
Islam, predominantly; Christianity

Although there is no accepted definition of who can be considered a Palestinian refugee for legal purposes, UNRWA defines them as 'persons whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and May 1948, who lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict'. UNRWA's definition of a refugee also covers the descendants of persons who became refugees in 1948. Under this definition, the total number of Palestinian refugees is estimated to have grown from 914,000 in1950 to 4.9 million [13], one third of whom live in the West Bank and Gaza; slightly less than one third in Jordan; 17% in Syria and Lebanon (Bowker, 2003, p. 72) and around 15% in other Arab and Western countries. Approximately 1 million refugees have no form of identification other than an UNWRA identification card (Bowker, 2003, pp. 61-62). Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the teachings of Muhammad, a 7th century Arab religious and political figure. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


The Nakba's role in the Palestinian narrative

The Nakba or Al-Nakba (Arabic: النكبة, pronounced An-Nakba) is a term meaning "cataclysm" or "catastrophe". It is the term with which Palestinians usually refer to the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, or more specifically, the Palestinian exodus. Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising...


The term "Nakba" was coined by Constantin Zureiq, a professor of history at the American University of Beirut, in his 1948 book Ma'na al-Nakba (The Meaning of the Disaster). After the Six Day War in 1967 Zureiq wrote another book, The New Meaning of the Disaster, but the term Nakba is reserved for the 1948 war. Constantin Zureiq (born Damascus 1909-2000), a prominent Arab intellectual and academic, was one of the pioneering theorists of modern Arab nationalism. ... The American University of Beirut (AUB; Arabic: ) is a private, independent, non-sectarian university in Beirut, Lebanon. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...

Naji al-Ali's Handala

Together with Naji al-Ali's Handala (the barefoot child always drawn from behind), and the symbolic key for the house in Palestine carried by so many Palestinian refugees, the 'collective memory of' the Nakba 'has shaped the identity of the Palestinian refugees as a people' (Bowker, 2003, p. 96). Image File history File links Naji al-Alis character Handala, from. ... Image File history File links Naji al-Alis character Handala, from. ... Naji al-Ali Naji Salim al-Ali (c. ... Naji al-Ali Naji Salim al-Ali (c. ... Handala, the Palestinian defiance symbol Handala (or Hanzala) is the most famous of the Palestinian cartoonist Naji al-Alis cartoon characters. ... Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


The events of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War great influenced the Palestinian culture. Countless books, songs and poems have been written about the the Nakba. The exodus is usually described in strongly emotional terms. For example, at the controversial 2001 World Conference Against Racism in Durban, prominent Palestinian scholar and activist Hanan Ashrawi referred to the Palestinians as "a nation in captivity held hostage to an ongoing Nakba [catastrophe], as the most intricate and pervasive expression of persistent colonialism, apartheid, racism, and victimization."[citation needed] Palestinian flag Palestinian culture is most closely related to the cultures of the nearby Levantine countries such as Lebanon, Syria, and Jordan and of the Arab World. ... The World Conference against Racism (WCAR) has been held three times: in 1978, 1983, and 2001. ... Durban (Zulu: eThekwini (IPA: ) is the second most populous city in South Africa, forming part of the eThekwini metropolitan municipality. ... Hanan Ashrawi Dr. Hanan Daoud Khalil Ashrawi (born 8 October 1946 in Ramallah, British Mandate of Palestine) is a Palestinian Anglican scholar and political activist. ...


In the Palestinian calendar, the day that Israel declared independence (May 15) is observed as Nakba Day. It is traditionally observed as an important day of remembrance (Bowker, 2003, p. 96). May 15 is the 135th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (136th in leap years). ...

Cairo 1998: Yasser Arafat attends the Arab League meeting to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Al-Nakba.

Image File history File links Nakba50. ... Image File history File links Nakba50. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press, 132. ISBN 978-0521009676. 
  2. ^ Jews for Justice in the Middle East. The Origin of the Palestine-Israel Conflict (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  3. ^ United Nations General Assembly (1951-08-23). General Progress Report and Supplementary Report of the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (OpenDocument). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Benny Morris, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, 2003, p. 288.
  6. ^ Quoted in Mark Tessler's A History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Keesing's Contemporary Archives (London: Keesing's Publications, 1948-1973). p. 10101.
  7. ^ Ilan Pappe (Spring 2006). Calling a Spade a Spade: The 1948 Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine (HTML). Retrieved on 2007-05-03.
  8. ^ Yoav Gelber (2001). Palestine 1948: War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Brighton & Portland: Sussex Academic Press. 
  9. ^ Benny Morris - From an Ha'aretz interview prior to the publication of Morris' latest findings in The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited, 2003.
  10. ^ Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli–Palestinian Conflict (Indiana University Press, 1994), p. 302, ISBN 0-253-20873-4
  11. ^ Nakbat Haifa: Collapse and Dispersion of a Major Palestinian Community, E. Karsh, Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 37, Number 4/October 01, 2001
  12. ^ a b British Police Report: Arab Flight From Haifa
  13. ^ British Police Memo on 1948 Exodus
  14. ^ Katz, Shmuel (1973). Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine. Shapolsky Pub. ISBN 0-933503-03-2. 
  15. ^ 'British Proclamation In Haifa Making Evacuation Secure', The Times, Thursday, April 22, 1948; pg. 4; Issue 51052; col D
  16. ^ Benny Morris (1986), The causes and character of the Arab exodus from Palestine: the Israel defence forces intelligence branch analysis of June 1948, Middle Eastern Studies, vol 22, 5-19.
  17. ^ A Million Expatriates to Benefit From New Citizenship Law by P.K. Abdul Ghafour, Arab News. October 21 , 2004. Accessed July 20, 2006
  18. ^ http://www.alhewar.org/INTIFADAH%20PAGE/intifadah_questions_and_answers.htm
  19. ^ E. B. Childers (1971). "Transformation of Palestine", in I. Abu-Lughod: The Wordless Wish. Northwestern University Press. 
  20. ^ Howard M. Sachar. A History of Israel from the Rise of Zionism to Our Time. Published by Alfred A. Knopf. New York. 1976. p. 333. ISBN 0-394-48564-5.
  21. ^ www.un.org,

2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... August 23 is the 235th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (236th in leap years), with 130 days remaining. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up spring in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Haaretz (הארץ, The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... ArabNews is the leading English language source of news presented from an Arab perspective. ...

References

  • Arzt, Donna E. (1997). Refugees into Citizens: Palestinians and the End of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Council on Foreign Relations. ISBN 0-87609-194-X
  • Atiyah, Edward Selim, The Arabs, London, Penguin Books, 1958
  • Beit-Hallahmi, Benny (1993). Original Sins: Reflections on the History of Zionism and Israel. Oliver Branch Press. ISBN 1-56656-131-0
  • Benvenisti, Meron (2002) Sacred Landscape. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-23422-7
  • Bowker, Robert (2003). Palestinian Refugees: Mythology, Identity, and the Search for Peace. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 1-58826-202-2
  • Dershowitz, Alan (2003). The Case for Israel. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0-471-67962-6.
  • Finkelstein, Norman (2003). Image and Reality of the Israel-Palestine Conflict, 2nd Ed. Verso. ISBN 1-85984-442-1
  • Fischbach, Michael R. (2003). Records of Dispossession: Palestinian Refugee Property and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-12978-5
  • Gelber, Yoav (2006). Palestine 1948. War, Escape and the Emergence of the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Sussex Acadam Press. ISBN 1-84519-075-0.
  • Kanaaneh, Rhoda A. (2002). Birthing the Nation: Strategies of Palestinian Women in Israel. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22944-4
  • Katz, Shmuel (1973) Battleground: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine Shapolsky Pub; ISBN 0-933503-03-2
  • Khalidi, Walid (1959). Why Did the Palestinians Leave? Middle East Forum, July 1959. Reprinted as 'Why Did the Palestinians Leave Revisited', 2005, Journal of Palestine Studies, XXXIV, No. 2., pp. 42-54.
  • Khalidi, Walid (1961). Plan Dalet, Master Plan for the Conquest of Palestine. Middle East Forum, November 1961.
  • Lehn, Walter & Davis, Uri (1988). The Jewish National Fund. London : Kegan Paul.
  • Morris, Benny (2001). Revisiting the Palestinian exodus of 1948. In The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948 (pp. 37-59). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79476-5
  • Morris, Benny (2003). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7
  • Masalha, Nur (1992). Expulsion of the Palestinians: The Concept of "Transfer" in Zionist Political Thought, 1882-1948. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-235-0
  • Pappe, Ilan (2006). The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: One World Books. (2006) ISBN 1-85168-467-0
  • Peretz, Don (1958). Israel and the Palestinian Arabs. Washington: Middle East Institute.
  • Plascov, Avi (1981). Palestinian Refugees in Jordan, 1948-1957. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-3120-5
  • Quigley, John B. (2005). The Case For Palestine: An International Law Perspective. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-3539-5
  • Rogan, Eugene L., & Shlaim, Avi (Eds.). (2001). The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79476-5
  • Joseph B. Schechtman, The Refugees In the World (New York, 1963)
  • Schulz, Helena L. (2003). The Palestinian Diaspora. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26821-4
  • Sternhell, Zeev (1999). The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-00967-8

Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American lawyer and law professor. ... Norman Finkelstein on Democracy Now! Norman G. Finkelstein (born December 8, 1953) is an American professor of political science and author. ... Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל כץ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

See also

Combatants  Israel Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin Glubb Pasha, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by March 1949 Egypt: 10,000 initially rising... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century emigration and expulsion of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... In the course of history, Jewish populations have been expelled or ostracised by various local authorities and have sought asylum from Anti-Semitism numerous times. ... // Several of these have been re-settled since the Six-Day War. ... The New Historians are a loosely-defined group of Israeli historians who have declared as their goal the reexamination of the history of Israel and Zionism. ... Palestinian immigrations into Israel were numerous border-crossings by Palestinian Arabs considered illegal by the Israeli authorities, during the first years of Israeli statehood. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (Arabic: ‎, meaning disaster or catastrophe). The United Nations definition of a Palestinian refugee is a person whose normal place of residence was Palestine between June 1946 and... Plan Dalet, or Plan D, (in Hebrew, dalet is the fourth letter, similar to d in English), was a plan that the Haganah in Palestine worked out during autumn 1947 to spring 1948. ... Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Palestinian exodus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6024 words)
The history of the Palestinian Exodus is closely tied to the events of the war in Palestine, which lasted from 1947 to 1949.
Based on the aforementioned alleged prevalent idea of transfer, and on actual expulsions that took place in the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Walid Khalidi, a Palestinian historian, introduced in 1961 a thesis according to which the Palestinian Exodus was planned in advance by the Zionist leadership.
He argued that there was an omnipresent understanding during the war that as many Palestinian Arabs as possible had to be transferred out of the Jewish state, and that that understanding stood behind many of the expulsions that the commanders on the field carried out.
Palestinian refugee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1635 words)
Furthermore, in 1948 and 1949, 46,000-48,000 Palestinians were internally displaced within Israel[5]; including descendants, they number 150,000-200,000 today, and for the most part have yet to recover their confiscated land.
To allow all Palestinian Arabs and their descendants to return home, would mean that Israel would cease to exist as a Jewish state, given the majority of the population would be non-Jewish if all of the refugees were to return.
Palestinians in the West Bank who had regular Jordanian passports were issued these temporary ones upon expiration of their old ones, and entry into Jordan by Palestinians is time-limited and considered for tourism purposes only.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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