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Encyclopedia > Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestinian National Authority

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the Palestinian National Authority
Omaha holdem (or Omaha holdem or simply Omaha) is a community card poker game based on Texas hold em. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Palestinian_National_Authority_COA.svg‎ Based on Image:Palestine COA (alternative). ... ...



Note: On June 14, 2007, President Mahmoud Abbas dismissed Haniyeh's government, and appointed Fayyad to form an emergency government. However, Haniyeh and Hamas maintain that these actions were illegal, and that Haniyeh is still the Prime Minister; Haniyeh still exercises de facto authority in the Gaza Strip, while Fayyad's authority is limited de facto to the West Bank.

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The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‎; Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah  or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation regarded since 1974 as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people."[1] The President of the Palestinian National Authority is the highest-ranking political position (equivalent to head of state) in the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... The Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority is the head of government of the Palestinian government. ... Dr. Salam Fayyad (Arabic: ; b. ... Ismail Haniyeh (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية; sometimes transliterated as Ismail Haniya or Ismail Haniyah); born January 1963) is a senior political leader of Hamas and former Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The Palestinian cabinet that was formed on June 17, 2007 (Arabic: ) by Salam Fayyad is an emergency cabinet. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... The Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council is the chairman of the Palestinian Legislative Council. ... Abdel Aziz Duwaik is a member of Hamas and the new Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council and member from the West Bank. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) currently has 132 members following the legislative election on January 25, 2006. ... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... Elections in the Palestinian National Authority gives information on election and election results in the PNA. Palestine elects on national level a head of state - the president - and a legislature. ... On January 20, 1996, elections took place in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem for President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and for members of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislative arm of the PNA. The 1996 elections took place in a moment of optimism in... The 2005 Palestinian presidential election — the first to be held since 1996 — took place on January 9, 2005 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... Early presidential and parliamentary election to the Palestinian National Authority will be held as soon as the split between the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip under PM Ismail Haniyeh and the Fatah-controlled West Bank under PM Salam Fayyad and President Mahmoud Abbas has been overcome, according to statements by Abbas. ... On January 20, 1996, elections took place in the West Bank, Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem for President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA), and for members of the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislative arm of the PNA. The 1996 elections took place in a moment of optimism in... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Early presidential and parliamentary election to the Palestinian National Authority will be held as soon as the split between the Hamas-controlled Gaza Strip under PM Ismail Haniyeh and the Fatah-controlled West Bank under PM Salam Fayyad and President Mahmoud Abbas has been overcome, according to statements by Abbas. ... Map showing governorates and areas of formal Palestinian control (green) After the signing of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian territories were divided into three areas and 16 governorates under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. ... The 16 Governorates of the West Bank and Gaza Strip are divided into 16 electoral districts (Aqdya, singular - qadaa). ... The Palestinian Declaration of Independence, led to Palestines recognition by 93 countries and to the renaming of the PLO mission in the UN to Palestine. After the formation of the Palestinian Authority, many countries exchanged embassies and delegations with it. ... The Foreign Minister of the Palestinian National Authority is in charge of foreign relations. ... Combatants Hamas Fatah Commanders Ismail Haniya Khaled Meshaal Mohammed Deif Mahmoud Abbas Mohammed Dahlan Strength Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades: 15,000 Executive Force: 6,000[1][2] National Security: 30,000 Police and Preventive Security: 30,000 General Intelligence: 5,000 Presidential Guard: 4,200 Al Aqsa Martyrs... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Image File history File links ArPLO.ogg Summary Pronunciation of Palestine Liberation Organization in Arabic Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


The PLO was founded by the Arab League in May 1964, under the chairmanship of Ahmad Shuqeiri, a Palestinian with long experience as an Arab diplomat.[2] The original PLO Charter declared the establishment of Israel "illegal, null and void" and outlined goals to "liberate the homeland" via armed struggle. Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also Al-Shuqeiry, Shukeiry, etc. ...


Palestinian statehood was not mentioned, although in 1974 the PLO adopted the idea of an independent state between the Jordan River and Mediterranean Sea.[3] More recently, the PLO officially adopted a two-state solution, with Israel and Palestine living side by side contingent on specific terms such as making East Jerusalem capital of the Palestinian state and giving Palestinians right of return,[4] This article is about the Jordan River and its valley in western Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in...


In 1993, P.L.O. chairman Yasser Arafat recognized the State of Israel in an official letter to its prime minister, Yitzhak Rabin: Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ...

"The signing of the Declaration of Principles marks a new era. … I would like to confirm the following PLO commitments: The PLO recognizes the right of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security. The PLO accepts United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. The PLO commits itself … to a peaceful resolution of the conflict between the two sides and declares that all outstanding issues relating to permanent status will be resolved through negotiations. … The PLO renounces the use of terrorism and other acts of violence and will assume responsibility over all PLO elements and personnel in order to assure their compliance, prevent violations and discipline violators. … The PLO affirms that those articles of the Palestinian Covenant which deny Israel's right to exist, and the provisions of the Covenant which are inconsistent with the commitments of this letter are now inoperative and no longer valid. Consequently, the PLO undertakes to submit to the Palestinian National Council for formal approval the necessary changes in regard to the Palestinian Covenant."

In response to Arafat's letter, Israel recognized the PLO as "the representative of the Palestinian people". Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The State of Israel (Hebrew: מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, transliteration: ; Arabic: دَوْلَةْ اِسْرَائِيل, transliteration: ) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line UN Security Council Resolution 338, adopted on October 22, 1973, called for the ceasefire in the Yom Kippur War in article 1 and for implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 in article 2. ... The Palestinian National Covenant (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition (or Israel-PLO Recognition or Letters of Mutual Recognition) were a series of official letters of recognition between the government of Israel and its Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organizations Chairman Yasser Arafat dated September 9, 1993. ...


The PLO has at times undertaken to amend its charter originally calling for the elimination of Israel. It undertook this in its note to the Hebron Protocol, and by convening the PNC to that effect. To date however it has yet to do so. One reason given is that it will be rewritten when Israel writes its own constitution. [5] [6] Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as The Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, began January 7 and was concluded from January 15 to January 17, 1997 between Israel, represented by Prime Minister of Israel Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), represented by PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat...


Arafat was the Chairman of the PLO Executive Committee from 1969 until his death in 2004. He was succeeded by Mahmoud Abbas (also known as Abu Mazen). Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...

Contents

Overview

The PLO emblem shows the Flag of Palestine above a map of State of Palestine (present-day Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.)
The PLO emblem shows the Flag of Palestine above a map of State of Palestine (present-day Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.)

The PLO has a nominal legislative body, the Palestinian National Council (PNC), but most actual political power and decisions are controlled by the PLO Executive Committee, made up of 15 people elected by the PNC. The PLO incorporates a range of generally secular ideologies of different Palestinian movements committed to the struggle for Palestinian independence and liberation, hence the name of the organization. The Palestine Liberation Organization is considered by most countries, including the Arab League[1][7] the United Nations[8] and Israel, to be the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and holds a permanent observer seat in the United Nations General Assembly. The official PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) Source: [1] This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The official PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) Source: [1] This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The Executive Committee (PLO EC) is the highest executive body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ...

History

Creation

In spite of the 1949 Armistice Agreements, the Arab states remained unreconciled to the existence of Israel as they had been to the UN-mandated partition of Palestine in 1948. The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ...


The Hamdi League at the Cairo Summit in January 1964 proposed the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people. The Palestinian National Council convened in (east) Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. During this meeting the Palestinian Liberation Organization was founded on 2 June 1964. Its Statement of Proclamation of the Organization[9] declared: is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...

"... the right of the Palestinian Arab people to its sacred homeland Palestine and affirming the inevitability of the battle to liberate the usurped part from it, and its determination to bring out its effective revolutionary entity and the mobilization of the capabilities and potentialities and its material, military and spiritual forces".

The Palestinian National Charter of 1964[10] stated: The Palestinian National Covenant (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ...

"The claims of historic and spiritual ties between Jews and Palestine are not in agreement with the facts of history or with the true basis of sound statehood... [T]he Jews are not one people with an independent personality because they are citizens to their states." (Article 18).

However, as Egypt and Jordan favored the creation of a Palestinian state on land they considered to be occupied by Israel, they would not grant sovereignty to the Palestinian people in lands under Jordanian and Egyptian military occupation, amounting to 53% of the territory allocated to Arabs under the UN Partition Plan. Hence Article 24 provided:

"This Organization does not exercise any territorial sovereignty over the West Bank in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, on the Gaza Strip or in the Himmah Area."

Due to the influence of the Egyptian President Nasser the PLO supported the Pan-Arabist vision then espoused by Nasser, according to which Arabs should collectively belong to one unified state. Nonetheless the core idea of the PLO from the beginning was to represent the Palestinian People under Jordanian and Egyptian Rule and in Exile with the aim of an independent Palestinian State. The first executive committee was formed on 9 August, with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader. The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, commonly called Jordan, is a country in the Middle East. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also Al-Shuqeiry, Shukeiry, etc. ...


Leadership by Yasser Arafat

The defeat of Syria, Jordan and Egypt in the Six Day War of 1967 undermined the credibility of the states that sought to be patrons of the Palestinian people and weakened Nasser significantly. Yasser Arafat played an instumental role in making the PLO a fully independent organization under the control of the fedayeen organizations.[11] At the Palestinian National Congress meeting of 1969, Fatah gained control of the executive bodies of the PLO. At the Palestinian National Congress in Cairo on February 3, 1969 Arafat was appointed PLO chairman. From then on, the Executive Committee was composed essentially of representatives of the various member organizations. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ...


The PLO and Palestinian Women

One of the main implications of the 1967 War, therefore, was that the PLO became more representative of the interests of Palestinian movements and of the Palestinian people more generally. This in turn had consequences for Palestinian women's groups and their role in the political struggle. The new leadership structure of the PLO initially had connections with the General Union of Palestinian Women in the territories that were now under Israeli occupation. Arguably a sign of this was that there were 100 women imprisoned by Israeli forces by 1968, compared with what had been a minimal number beforehand in 1967.[12]


Just over a decade later, in 1979, the amount of Palestinian women imprisoned had risen to 3,000, a result of their increasing involvement in 'resistance' organisations in the occupied territories. This growing political activity on the part of women had partly been facilitated by the greater interaction of women and men working alongside each other in voluntary programmes organised by the Palestinian National Front (who assumed leadership of the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip at the beginning of the 1970s). Political participation amongst women was also further enhanced by gaining the vote for the first time, when suffrage for everyone over the age of twenty-one was implemented by 'Israeli military order' at elections in 1976.[13]


War of Attrition

From March 1969 to September 1970 the PLO, with passive support from Jordan,[citation needed] fought a war of attrition with Israel. During this time, the PLO launched artillery attacks on the moshavim and kibbutzim of Bet Shean Valley Regional Council, while fedayeen launched numerous attacks on Israeli civilians. Israel raided the PLO camps in Jordan, withdrawing only under Jordanian military pressure. For other uses, see War of Attrition (disambiguation). ... Moshav (Hebrew: מושב Translit. ... Kibbutz Merom Golan as seen from Bental mountain A Kibbutz (Hebrew: Translit. ... B.S.V. Regional Council emblem The Bet Shean Valley Regional Council is a regional council in northern Israel that encompasses most of the settlements in the Bet Shean Valley. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ...


This conflict culminated in Jordan's expulsion of the PLO in September 1970. Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ...


Black September in Jordan

The PLO suffered a major reversal with the Jordanian assault on its armed groups in the events known as Black September in 1970. Shortly afterwards, the Cairo Agreement led the PLO to establish itself in Lebanon. During the 1970s the PLO, while maintaining a central role, found its politics and activities complicated by the emergence of several factions headquartered in Damascus and Beirut, all competing with the PLO, from distinct ideological and strategical positions, to engage in armed resistance to either Zionism or the Israeli occupation. [14] Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Secret agreement between Palestine Liberation Organization and the government of Lebanon granting the PLO the right to operate on Lebanese soil. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ...


Ten Point Program

In 1974, the PNC approved the Ten Point Program[15] formulated by Fatah's leaders which called for the establishment of a national authority 'over every part of Palestinian territory that is liberated with the aim of 'completing the liberation of all Palestinian territory'. The program implied that the liberation of Palestine would be partial (at least, at some stage), and though it emphasized armed struggle, it did not exclude other means. Therefore, it was considered the first attempt by PLO at a compromise.[citation needed] Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


This led to several radical PLO factions (such as the PFLP, PFLP-GC and others) breaking out to form the Rejectionist Front, which would act independently of PLO over the following years. Suspicion between the Arafat-led mainstream and more hard line factions, inside and outside of the PLO, have continued to dominate the inner workings of the organization ever since, often resulting in paralysis or conflicting courses of action. A temporary closing of ranks came in 1977, as Palestinian factions joined with hardline Arab governments in the Steadfastness and Confrontation Front to condemn Egyptian attempts to reach a separate peace with Israel (eventually resulting in the 1979 Camp David Accords). The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) (Arabic Al-Jabhah al-Shabiyyah Li-Tahrir Filastin الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين) is a secular, Marxist-Leninist, nationalist Palestinian organization, founded after the Six-Day War in 1967. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization. ... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... The Steadfastness and Confrontation Front was a political initiative by a number of Arab governments in the 1970s, related to the Arab-Israeli Conflict. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ...


Israel saw the Ten Point Program as dangerous[citation needed] because it appeared to allow the Palestinian leadership to enter into negotiations with Israel on issues where Israel can compromise, but with an apparent intent to exploit compromises in order to 'improve positions' for attacking Israel. This program was thus called in Hebrew the Step/stage Program (Tokhnit HaShlavim or Torat HaShlavim).[citation needed] Over the years, negotiations were conducted with this suspicion in mind, with Israeli concerns that the Palestinians' willingness to compromise might be nothing more than a smoke-screen to implement the Ten Point Program.[citation needed]. When the Oslo Accords were signed, Israeli right-wing politicians have consistently claimed that this is part of the ploy to implement the Stage Program. The Ten Point Program was never officially canceled by the Palestinians and it has been claimed that many Palestinians saw the Oslo Accords as a step in the Ten Point Program.[16]


The PLO in Lebanon and the Lebanese Civil War

Main article: Lebanese Civil War

In the mid-1970s, Arafat and his Fatah movement found themselves in a tenuous position. The Rejectionist Front opposed Arafat's growing calls for diplomacy from the mid-1970s, implied in his Ten Points Program, which was denounced by the Rejectionist Front, and by his support for a 1976 UN Security Council draft resolution calling for a two-state settlement on the pre-1967 borders that was vetoed by the United States. The population in the West Bank and Gaza Strip saw Arafat as their best hope for a resolution to the conflict, especially in the aftermath of the Camp David Accords, which Palestinians had seen as a blow to their aspirations to self-determination. Abu Nidal, a sworn enemy of the PLO since 1974, assassinated the PLO's diplomatic envoy to the European Economic Community, which in the Venice Declaration of 1980 had called for the Palestinian right of self-determination to be recognized by Israel. Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... The Rejectionist Front, official name Front of the Palestinian Forces Rejecting Solutions of Surrender, was a political coalition formed in 1974 by hardline Palestinian factions. ... The two-state solution is the name for a class of proposed resolutions of the long-running Arab-Israeli conflict now explicitly backed by the Israeli and United States governments. ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


In 1976, the PLO and Lebanese National Movement entered the Christian town of Damour and killed between 200-500 Lebanese civilians including children in what is known as the Damour Massacre[citation needed]. Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lebanese National Movement was led by Kamal Jumblat, a prominent Druze. ... Damour (Arabic: دامور) is a Lebanese Christian town that is 12 miles south of Beirut. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ...


During the Lebanese Civil War, the PLO first fought against Maronite militias, then against Israel, then, finally, against the Syrian-supported Amal militia[citation needed]. In the 1985-88 War of the Camps, Amal and other pro-Syrian militias besieged Palestinian refugee camps in Lebanon to drive out supporters of Arafat. Many thousands of Palestinians, including women and children, were slaughtered or died of starvation[citation needed]. After the Amal siege ended, there was a great deal of intra-Palestinian fighting in the camps. Maronites (Marunoye ܡܪܘܢܝܐܶ; in Syriac, Mâruniyya مارونية in Arabic) are members of an Eastern Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... The War of the Camps was a subconflict within the Lebanese Civil War in which Palestinian refugee camps were besieged by the Shiite Amal militia. ... bjhgfshudgfgbfsfas Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A camp in Guinea for refugees from Sierra Leone. ...


The PLO timeline

  • 1964 : Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) founded.
  • 1969 : Organization of the Islamic Conference admits Palestine, represented by the PLO.
  • 22 November 1974 : The United Nations General Assembly grants the PLO observer status.
  • 20 January 1976 : PLO militiamen slaughter 500 Christian-Lebanese civilians known as the Damour Massacre.
  • 9 September 1976 : Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) admitted as a member of Arab League.
  • 13 August 1978 : PLO headquarters in Beirut bombed, 150 are killed.
  • 1982: The vast majority of the PLO relocated to Tunis after being driven out of Beirut during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon
  • 16 April 1988 : Khalil al-Wazir "Abu Jihad", PLO 2nd in command, is killed by Israel, in Tunis.
  • 15 November 1988 : Palestine National Congress meeting in Algiers declared a Palestinian state on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (to no effect).
  • 14 January 1991 : Salah Khalaf "Abu Iyad", PLO 3rd in command, is assassinated in Tunis by an Abu Nidal operative.
  • 4 May 1994 : Palestinian Authority created to administer most of Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank

The flag of the Organ of the Islamic Conference (OIC) Membership in the OIC:  Member Members once temporarily suspended Withdrew Observer Attempted to join but blocked OIC redirects here. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Damour massacre took place on 20 January 1976 during the 1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Abu Iyad Salah Khalaf (Arabic صلاح خلف), also known as Abu Iyad (Arabic أبو إياد) (born 1933 – January 14, 1991) was deputy chief and head of intelligence for the Palestine Liberation Organization, and the second most senior official of Fatah after Yasser Arafat. ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

The PLO as a partner for peace

Opposition to Arafat was fierce not only among radical Arab groups but among many on the Israeli right as well, including Menachem Begin, who had stated on more than one occasion that even if the PLO accepted UN Security Council resolution 242 and recognized Israel's right to exist, he would never negotiate with the organization because of their terrorist ties and activities (Smith, op. cit., p. 357). This contradicted the official United States position that it would negotiate with the PLO if the PLO accepted resolution 242 and recognized Israel, which the PLO had thus far been unwilling to do. Other Arab voices had recently called for a diplomatic resolution to the hostilities in accord with the international consensus, including Egyptian leader Anwar Sadat on his visit to Washington in August 1981 and Crown Prince Fahd of Saudi Arabia in his 7 August peace proposal; together with Arafat's diplomatic maneuver, these developments made Israel's argument that it had "no partner for peace" seem increasingly problematic. Thus, in the eyes of Israeli hard-liners, "the Palestinians posed a greater challenge to Israel as a peacemaking organization than as a military one" (Smith, op. cit., 376).   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Jewish-Polish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tunis and Algeria

In 1982, the PLO relocated to Tunis after it was driven out of Lebanon by Israel during Israel's six-month invasion of Lebanon. It remained active in Lebanon, but not to the same extent as before 1982. Tunis is the capital of Tunisia. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450...


On October 1, 1985, in Operation Wooden Leg, Israeli Air Force F-15s bombed the PLO's Tunis headquarters, killing more than 60 people. is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ...


First Intifada

Main article: First Intifada

In 1987 the First Intifada broke out in the Occupied Territories. The Intifada caught the PLO by surprise,[17] and the leadership abroad could only indirectly influence the events while a new local leadership, the Unified Intifada Leadership comprised of many leading Palestinian factions, emerged. After King Hussein of Jordan proclaimed the administrative and legal separation of the West Bank from Jordan in 1988,[18] the Palestine National Council adopted the Palestinian Declaration of Independence in Algiers proclaiming an independent State of Palestine. The declaration made reference to UN resolutions without explicitly mentioning Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. A month later, Arafat declared in Geneva that the PLO would support a solution of the conflict based on these Resolutions. Effectively the PLO recognized Israel's right to exist within pre-1967 borders, with the understanding that the Palestinians would be allowed to set up their own state in the West Bank and Gaza. The United States accepted this clarification by Arafat and began to allow diplomatic contacts with PLO officials. While the Intifada many members of PLO organizations take a part at the activities or organized them, especially as "Unified Intifada Leadership" and its branches. Activities (especially those involing violence) were organized by the PLO. The Proclamation of Independence did not lead to a Palestinian State, although over 100 states recognized the "State of Palestine"[citation needed]. Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), in Algiers on 15 November 1988. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ... ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line UN Security Council Resolution 338, adopted on October 22, 1973, called for the ceasefire in the Yom Kippur War in article 1 and for implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 242 in article 2. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ...


Persian Gulf War

In 1990, the PLO under Yasser Arafat openly supported Saddam Hussein in his regime's invasion of Kuwait, leading to a later rupture in Palestinian-Kuwaiti ties and the expulsion of many Palestinians from Kuwait.[1] Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Combatants Republic of Iraq State of Kuwait Commanders Ali Hassan al-Majid N/A Strength 100,000[1] 16,000[2] Casualties 37+ aircraft (est. ...


Oslo Accords

In 1993, the PLO secretly negotiated the Oslo Accords with Israel. The accords were signed on 20 August 1993. There was a subsequent public ceremony in Washington D.C. on September 13, 1993 with Yasser Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin. The Accords granted the Palestinians right to self-government on the Gaza Strip and the city of Jericho in the West Bank through the creation of the Palestinian Authority. Yasser Arafat was appointed head of the PA and a timetable for elections was laid out which saw Arafat elected president in January 1996, 18 months behind schedule. Although the PLO and the Palestinian Authority are not formally linked the PLO dominates the administration. The headquarters of the PLO were moved to Ramallah on the West Bank. Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... Arabic رام الله Founded in 16th century Government City (from 1995) Governorate Ramallah & Al-Bireh Population 23,347 (2006) Jurisdiction 16,344 dunams (16. ...


On 9 September 1993, Arafat issued a press release stating that "the PLO recognizes the right of the State of Israel to exist in peace and security". is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Numerous leaders within the PLO and the PA, including Yasser Arafat himself, have declared that the State of Israel has a permanent right to exist, and that the peace treaty with Israel is genuine, though members of the PLO have claimed, and, sometimes boasted, responsibility for a number of attacks against Israelis since the Oslo Accords. Some Palestinian officials have stated that the peace treaty must be viewed as permanent. According to some opinion polls majority of Israelis believe Palestinians should have a state of their own—a major shift in attitude from the pre-Oslo years—even though both Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Peres were both against the creation of a Palestinian state both before and after the signing of Oslo. For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


At the same time, a significant portion of the Israeli public and some political leaders (including the former Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu) express doubt over whether a peaceful, coherent state can be founded by the PLO and call for significant re-organization, including the elimination of all terrorism, before any talk about independence. The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ...


Al-Aqsa Intifadah

Main article: Al-Aqsa Intifada

The Second or Al-Aqsa Intifada started concurrent with the breakdown of talks at Camp David with Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak. The Intifada never ended officially, but violence has hit relatively low levels since 2005. The death toll both military and civilians of the entire conflict in 2000-2004 is estimated to be 3,223 Palestinians and 950 Israelis, although this number is criticized for not differentiating between combatants and civilians. For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ...


Development and reactivation

In the Cairo Declaration and the Prisoners' Document, Palestinian factions agreed to rebuild the PLO. A meeting will be held in Damascus to discuss its future.[citation needed] The National Conciliation Document of the Prisoners or the Prisoners Document is a document drafted by some Palestinian militant leaders in Israeli jails as a base for the Palestinian national dialogue. ...


The PLO in the United Nations

The PLO was recognized as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people before the international community, and was granted observer status as a national liberation movement by the United Nations General Assembly.[19][20] On January 12, 1976 the UN Security Council voted 11-1 with 3 abstentions to allow the Palestine Liberation Organization to participate in a Security Council debate without voting rights, a privilege usually restricted to UN member states. Wars of national liberation were conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


The United Nations General Assembly discussed the implications of the 1988 Palestinian Declaration of Independence on 15 December 1988 and concluded that the proclamation was in accord with UNGA Resolution 181 and the Palestinian right to self-determination.[21] Accordingly, representation for Palestinians in the UN was renamed from the "Palestine Liberation Organization" to "Palestine" from that point forward.[21] On July 7, 1998, this status was extended to allow participation in General Assembly debates, though not in voting. The Declaration of Independence was adopted by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO), in Algiers on 15 November 1988. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


In numerous Resolutions by the General Assembly the PLO was declared the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian People". This was recognised by Israel in the Oslo Accords from 1993.


PLO National Charter

The Palestinian National Charter[22] as amended in 1968 endorsed 'armed struggle' against 'Zionist imperialism.' Article 10 of the Palestinian National Charter states: The Palestinian National Covenant (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ...

'Commando (Fedayeen) action constitutes the nucleus of the Palestinian popular liberation war. This requires its escalation, comprehensiveness, and the mobilization of all the Palestinian popular and educational efforts and their organization and involvement in the armed Palestinian revolution. It also requires the achieving of unity for the national (watani) struggle among the different groupings of the Palestinian people, and between the Palestinian people and the Arab masses, so as to secure the continuation of the revolution, its escalation, and victory.' Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... A War of Liberation is a conflict which is primarily intended to bring freedom or independence to a nation or group. ...

Ilan Pappe argues that, in their charter, the PLO emphasised the importance of the process of the 'liberation struggle' ahead of the aims at which the struggle was directed; that they saw the means as being more important than the ends. He cites clause eight of the Charter, which states that 'the armed struggle for the liberation of Palestine is a strategy, not tactics', and suggests that this was considered central to the reinforcement of a collective identity amongst the dispersed Palestinian community, as a common thread with which to connect them.[23]


The most controversial element of text of the Palestinian National Charter was a clause declaring the creation of the state of Israel 'null and void', since it was created by force on Palestinian soil under imperial auspices. The Palestinian National Covenant (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ...


In letters exchanged between Arafat and Rabin following the 1993 Oslo Accords, Arafat wrote that: Israel-Palestine Liberation Organization letters of recognition (or Israel-PLO Recognition or Letters of Mutual Recognition) were a series of official letters of recognition between the government of Israel and its Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the Palestine Liberation Organizations Chairman Yasser Arafat dated September 9, 1993. ... Arafat may refer to: Arafat Waheed Khan (born 1981), 2006 transatlantic aircraft terrorist plot suspect Fathi Arafat (1933-2004), Palestinian physician Moussa Arafat (circa 1940-2005), cousin of Yasser Arafat Raed Arafat (born 1964), Romanian physician Suha Arafat (born 1963), widow of Yasser Arafat Yasir Arafat (cricketer) (born 1982), Pakistani... Rabin is a Hebrew surname. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ...

'the PLO affirms that those articles of the Palestinian Covenant which deny Israel's right to exist, and the provisions of the Covenant which are inconsistent with the commitments of this letter are now inoperative and no longer valid. Consequently, the PLO undertakes to submit to the Palestinian National Council for formal approval the necessary changes in regard to the Palestinian Covenant.' The Palestinian National Covenant (Arabic: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ...

On 26 April 1996, the Palestine National Council held a meeting in camera, at whose end it was announced that the Council had voted to nullify or amend all such clauses, and called for a new text to be produced. At the time, some Israeli political figures and academics expressed suspicions and doubts this that this is what had actually taken place, and continued to claim that controversial clauses were still in force.[citation needed] is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


A letter from Arafat to US President Bill Clinton in 1998 listed the clauses concerned, and a meeting of the Palestine Central Committee approved that list. To remove all doubt the vote this time was held in a public meeting of PLO, PNC and PCC members which was televised worldwide and in the presence of none other than the President of the United States Bill Clinton in person, who arrived in the Gaza Strip for that specific purpose. Israel's Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu accepted this as the promised nullification. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...   (‎, Binyamin Bibi Netanyahu, born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is Chairman of the Likud Party. ...


The fact that a new text of the Charter has never been produced the source of a continuing controversy, with critics of the Palestinian organizations claim that failure to produce a new text proves the insincerity of the clause nullifications.[24] One of several Palestinian responses is that the proper replacement of the Charter will be the constitution of the forthcoming state of Palestine.[citation needed]The published draft constitution states that the territory of Palestine 'is an indivisible unit based upon its borders on the 4th of June 1967' - which clearly implies an acceptance of Israel's existence in its 1967 borders.


Designation of Terrorism by United States Congress

In 1987 the United States Congress declared the PLO to be a terrorist organization under the Anti-Terrorism Act 1987, citing among others the Achille Lauro attack.[25][26] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... The Willem Ruys The Achille Lauro The Achille Lauro, formerly the Willem Ruys, was a passenger liner. ...


Terrorist attacks it directed

The Savoy Operation was a terrorist act masterminded by Abu Jihad On the night of March 4th, 1975, at 11:00 PM eight terrorists in two teams landed by boat on the Tel-Aviv beach. ... Dalal Al Mughrabi Dalal Mughrabi and Ehud Barak Charred remains of the hijacked bus Front end remains of the hijacked bus The Kamal Odwan Operation In 1970s the Israeli Mossad committed massacres inside and outside Palestine, the foremost of which was the assassination of the three Palestinian Leaders, martyrs...

Assets and Mismanagement

Before it formally renounced terrorism as a one of the means to gain Palestinian self-determination, the PLO was considered 'the richest of all terrorist organizations" with US$8-$10 billion in assets and an annual income of $1.5-$2 billion from "donations, extortion, payoffs, illegal arms dealing, drug trafficking, money laundering, fraud, etc.", according to a 1993 British National Criminal Intelligence Service report. England's Daily Telegraph reported in 1999 that the PLO had $50 billion in secret investments around the world.[27]. According to other sources, Arafat's personal fund manager, the Kurd Muhammad Rashid, managed a secret channel with former Israeli intelligence chief Yossi Ginossar involving covert payments and jopint enterprises which helped swell Arafat's personal coffers. [28] A terrorist organisation is an organisation that engages in terrorist tactics, they are also (perhaps more neutrally) referred to as militant organisations. ... A Donation is a gift given, typically to a cause or/and for charitable purposes. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... Retail selling Street selling is the bottom of the chain and can be accomplished through purchasing from prostitutes, through cloaked retail stores or refuse houses for users in the act located in red-light districts which often also deal in paraphernalia, dealers marketing merriment at night clubs and other events... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ... In the United Kingdom, the National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) was set up as a separate body in April 1992 to centralise the gathering and distribution of intelligence on serious and organised criminal matters. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


Withe the establishment of the Palestine Authority, instruments of financial review have been put in place. The Palestinian Legislative Council has set up a special commission to investigate corruption and the comptroller's first report, on one conspicuous scandal, revealed that mismanagement and corruption distracted some 40% of the annual budget from its proper use, in what it called a 'Mafia-styled government'.In October 1999, Azmi Shuaibi, chairman of the PLC's Budget Committee, speaking at the 9th International Anti-Corruption Conferencein in Durban, South Africa[29], remarked that: 'The recent corruption found in the PA is similarto the corruption that exists in the rest of the Arab countries'governments.'[30]. Financial oversight was, until Arafat's death, difficult to put in place, given the leader's tight personal control of monies. As Azmi Shuaibi put it at the time: “We are afraid if something happens to Arafat, we will not know where the money is.'[28] The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... For other uses, see Durban (disambiguation). ...


Statements made by members of the PLO

On fighting against Israel:

"I come bearing an olive branch in one hand, and the freedom fighter's gun in the other. Do not let the olive branch fall from my hand." -- Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO (November, 1974, while speaking at the United Nations)
"This is my homeland; no one can kick me out." -- Yasser Arafat's reply to Ariel Sharon's threat to expel him from the occupied territories. September 11, 2003.
"Whoever thinks of stopping the uprising before it achieves its goals, I will give him ten bullets in the chest." --Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO
"We know only one word: Jihad, Jihad, Jihad. When we stopped the intifada, we did not stop the jihad for the establishment of a Palestinian state whose capital is Jerusalem. And now we are entering the phase of the great jihad prior to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state whose capital is Jerusalem...We are in a conflict with the Zionist movement and the Balfour Declaration and all imperialist activities." --Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO (During an October 21,1996 speech at the Dehaishe refugee camp)
"The Palestinian people does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the state of Israel for our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of a Palestinian people, since Arab national interests demand that we posit the existence of a distinct "Palestinian people" to oppose Zionism. For tactical reasons, Jordan, which is a sovereign state with defined borders, cannot raise claims to Haifa and Jaffa. While as a Palestinian, I can undoubtedly demand Haifa, Jaffa, Beer-Sheva and Jerusalem. However, the moment we reclaim our right to all of Palestine, we will not wait even a minute to unite Palestine and Jordan." --PLO executive committee member Zahir Muhsein, March 31, 1977, interview with the Dutch newspaper Trouw."

On accepting Israel: is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

"Palestinians are no strangers to compromise. In the 1993 Oslo Accords, we agreed to recognize Israeli sovereignty over 78 percent of historic Palestine and to establish a Palestinian state on only 22 percent." -- Saeb Erekat, Chief Palestinian negotiator, 5 August 2000
"Consequently, the PLO undertakes to submit to the Palestinian National Council for formal approval the necessary changes in regard to the Palestinian covenant." --Yasser Arafat, Chairman of the PLO (in the exchange of letters with Israel on 9 September 1993)
"Israel must not demand that the PLO alter its covenant, just as the PLO does not demand that the Jewish nation cancel the Bible." --Ziad Abu Ziad, senior PLO official (in a speech to the American Jewish Federation, 23 October 1993)
In his 22 April 2004 interview with the Jordanian newspaper Al-Arab, the PLO minister still living in Tunisia Farouk Kaddoumi said that the PLO charter was never changed so as to recognize Israel's right to exist. "The Palestinian national charter has not been amended until now. It was said that some articles are no longer effective, but they were not changed. I'm one of those who didn't agree to any changes." He said also: "...the national struggle must continue. I mean the armed struggle... Fatah was established on the basis of the armed struggle and that this was the only way to leading to political negotiations that would force the enemy to accept our national aspirations. Therefore there is no struggle other than the armed military struggle... If Israel wants to leave the Gaza Strip, then it should do so. This means that the Palestinian resistance has forced it to leave. But the resistance will continue. Let the Gaza Strip be South Vietnam. We will use all available methods to liberate North Vietnam."
"If you are asking me, as a man who belongs to the Islamic faith, my answer is also "From the river to the sea," the entire land is an Islamic Waqf which cannot be bought or sold, and it is impossible to remain silent while someone is stealing it..." -- Faisal Husseini (1940-2001), Fatah leader and PA Minister for Jerusalem, 'Al-Arabi' (Egypt), 24 June 2001.[31] Similar statements were made in the newspaper 'As-Safir' on 3 March 2001.[32][33]

On whether the PLO police force will work with Israel against terrorism: Saeb Erekat Saeb Erakat (Saib Muhammad Salih Urayqat. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Farouk al-Kaddoumi (alternative spelling, Faruq al-Qaddumi), a. ... This article is about the religious endowment. ... Faisal Husseini Faisal Abdel Qader Al-Husseini (Arabic: فيصل عبدالقادر الحسيني) (July 17, 1940 - May 31, 2001) was a Palestinian politician who was considered a possible future leader of the Palestinian people. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

"The Joint Security Coordination and Cooperation Committee set up under Article II hereunder shall develop a plan to ensure full coordination between the Israeli military forces and the Palestinian police..." -- from the agreement signed by Israel and the PLO in Cairo on 4 May 1994 (paragraph 2a of Annex I to the agreement)
"Anyone who thinks the Palestinian police will try to prevent attacks outside the borders of the autonomous area is making a bitter mistake." --- Sufian Abu Zaida, a leader of Yasser Arafat's Fatah faction in Gaza (Maariv, 25 April 1994)
"If there are those who oppose the agreement with Israel, the gates are open to them to intensify the armed struggle." -- Jibril Rajoub, PLO security chief for the West Bank, during a lecture at Bethlehem University (Yediot Aharonot, 27 May 1994)

On the right of return of Palestinian refugees: is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

"I recently read an interview with an elderly Palestinian woman living in the Ein el Hilwa camp in Lebanon. Tightly gripping the rusted key to her family's farm near Jaffa, she asked her interviewer how she should explain to her grandchildren, who had known only the stench of the camp's open sewers, what it was like to wake up to the scent of fresh lemons." -- Elia Zureik, a Professor of Sociology at Queen's University, Kingston, Canada, Advises the Palestine Liberation Organization on Refugee Issues
"800,000 Palestinians among those who left after 1967 will come back in the transitional period, which is five years. Those who left in 1948 will come back after the declaration of the Palestinian independent state." -- Nabil Sha'ath, head of the PLO delegation to the talks with Israel in Taba (Al-Hayat, 28 September 1993)
"In my opinion, the refugees problem is more important than a Palestinian state" -- Faruk Kadumi, general secretary of the Fatah council (Kul Al-Arab, 3 January 2003)

On why the PLO signed the Cairo agreement with Israel: is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

"The money is the carrot for signing the peace agreement with Israel. We have signed." -- Hassan Abu Libdah, deputy chairman of the PLO's Palestinian Economic Council for Development and Reconstruction (The New York Times, 10 June 1994)

On Palestinian statehood: The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...

"Palestinians believe that Jerusalem should be a shared, open city; two capitals for two states." -- Faisal Husseini, senior PLO representative in Israel, 3 July 2000
"Gradually, stage by stage, we will reach an independent Palestinian state with Jerusalem as the capital." -- Faisal Husseini, senior PLO representative in Israel (Beirut Times, 16 September 1993)
The Palestinian flag "will fly over the walls of Jerusalem, the churches of Jerusalem and the mosques of Jerusalem." -- Yasser Arafat, Former Chairman of the PLO (Jordanian TV, 13 September 1993)

Faisal Husseini Faisal Abdel Qader Al-Husseini (Arabic: فيصل عبدالقادر الحسيني) (July 17, 1940 - May 31, 2001) was a Palestinian politician who was considered a possible future leader of the Palestinian people. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...

PLO in popular culture

Hip-hop artist M.I.A. references the PLO in her song "Sunshowers", with the line "Like PLO, I don't surrendero". She has recently had trouble entering the U.S. due to problems with her Visa, and she has speculated that this comment could possibly be related to this line.[34] For other uses, see MIA. Mathangi Maya Arulpragasam (born on July 17, 1977)[1] is a vocalist, songwriter, composer, record producer and visual artist of Sri Lankan Tamil origin. ...


American rock band Blondie mentiones PLO in their single "Warchild" (PLO lovers courting after the curfew/Your father and brother have the West Bank blues).


American Rapper Method Man has an song entitled "P.L.O Style" the title of the song is said many times thru out the song and the album it self. This article is about Method Man. ...


"Ebin" from the Sublime song is "down with the PLO."


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal (switched sides) LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength Israel: 76,000 troops 800 tanks 1,500 APCs 634 aircraft Syria: 22,000 troops 352 tanks 300 APCs 450... Palestinian terrorism refers to acts of violence committed for political reasons by Palestinians or Palestinian militant groups. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also Palestinian state and State of Palestine). ... ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... The Palestinian Liberation Army (PLA) was set up as the military wing of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) in 1964, with the mission of fighting Israel. ... Hamas (; acronym: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement[1]) is a Palestinian Islamist[2][3] militant organization and political party. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... The conflict between various Palestinian groups and Israel has existed in one form or another since the first half of the 20th century, and has left much bitterness and death on both sides. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Madiha Rashid al Madfai, Jordan, the United States and the Middle East Peace Process, 1974-1991, Cambridge Middle East Library, Cambridge University Press (June 25th 1993). ISBN 0521415233. p. 21:"On 28 October 1974, the seventh Arab summit conference held in Rabat designated the PLO as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and reaffirmed their right to establish an independent state."
  2. ^ Helena Cobban,’’ The Palestinian Liberation Organisation,’’ Cambridge University Press 1984 p.10
  3. ^ The PNC Program of 1974, June 8, 1974. On the site of MidEastWeb for Coexistence R.A. - Middle East Resources. Page includes commentary. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  4. ^ William L. Cleveland, A History of the Modern Middle East, Westview Press (2004). ISBN 0813340489.
  5. ^ Efraim Karsh, Arafat’s War: The Man and His Battle for Israeli Conquest,Grove Press 2004 p.85
  6. ^ Khalid Shikaki, ìThe Internal Consequences of Unstable Peace: Psychological and Political Responses of the Palestinians,’in Robert L.Rothstein, (ed) After the Peace: Resistance and Reconciliation,' Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Colorado, 1999 pp.29-66 p.163
  7. ^ Esam Shashaa, 1964 - PLO representative of the Palestinian people, Zajel, An-Najah National University (Palestine), September 26, 2004. Accessed online 27 December 2006.
  8. ^ United Nations General Assembly Resolution 60/39, December 1, 2005. Accessed online on the Jewish Virtual Library, 27 December 2006.
  9. ^ Statement of Proclamation of the Organization, Palestine Liberation Organization, Jerusalem, 28 May 1964. Online on the site of the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  10. ^ The Palestinian National Charter, Adopted in 1964 by the 1st Palestinian Conference. Online on the site of the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  11. ^ Sela, Avraham. "Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 689-696.
  12. ^ I. Jad, 'From Salons to the Popular Committees: Palestinian Women, 1919-89', in I. Pappe (ed.), The Israel-Palestine Question: A Reader (Routledge, London, 2007), pp.190-91.
  13. ^ I. Jad, 'From Salons to the Popular Committees: Palestinian Women, 1919-89', in I. Pappe (ed.), The Israel-Palestine Question: A Reader (Routledge, London, 2007), pp.191-92.
  14. ^ For details see Rex Brynen, Sanctuary and Survival: The PLO in Lebanon,Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado 1990 passim.
  15. ^ Political Program Adopted at the 12th Session of the Palestine National Council, Cairo, 8 June 1974. Online on the site of the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
  16. ^ (Hebrew) http://www.nfc.co.il/archive/003-D-6200-00.html?tag=23-15-32 nfc.co.il news site.
  17. ^ Yasser Arafat obituary, socialistworld.net (Committee for a Worker’s International) 11 November 2004. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  18. ^ King Hussein, Address to the Nation, Amman, Jordan, July 31, 1988. On the Royal Hashemit Court's official site in tribute to King Hussein. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  19. ^ Who Represents the Palestinians Officially Before the World Community?. Institute for Middle East Understanding (2006 - 2007). Retrieved on 07.27.2007.
  20. ^ Security Council. WorldMUN2007 - United Nations Security Council (26 March - 30 March 2007). Retrieved on 07.31.2007.
  21. ^ a b Eric Suy, Karel Wellens (1998). International Law: Theory and Practice : Essays in Honour of Eric Suy. Martinus Nijhoff, 378. ISBN 9041105824. 
  22. ^ Original PLO Charter (1964) from the Permanent Observer Mission of Palestine to the United Nations
  23. ^ I. Pappe, A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2004), p.192.
  24. ^ Hollander, Ricki. "CAMERA: A Look Back: Is Fatah Really Moderate?" CAMERA: Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America. 14 August 2007. 2 March 2008.
  25. ^ U.S. Code TITLE 22 > CHAPTER 61 > § 5201. Findings; determinations, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  26. ^ 22 USC CHAPTER 61 - ANTI-TERRORISM - PLO, Office of the Law Revision Counsel (United States). Accessed 5 December 2006.
  27. ^ Rachel Ehrenfeld to be fixed
  28. ^ a b Barry M. Rubin, Judith Colp Rubin, Yasir Arafat: A Political Biography,Oxford University Press 2003 p.233
  29. ^ Azmi Shuaibi, 'Elements of Corruption in the Middle East and North Africa: The Palestinian Case,' noted in Rachel Ehrenfeld, with R James Woolsey, Funding Evil: How Terrorism is Financed-- and how to Stop it, Bonus Books 2003 p.247
  30. ^ And a Thief, Too: Yasser Arafat takes what he likes, National Review, July 29, 2002.
  31. ^ The Oslo Accords: A Trojan Horse, Middle East Media Research Institute, Special Dispatch Series - No. 236, July 2, 2001. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  32. ^ Yitzhak Santis, The Middle East: A Century of Conflict. A Critique of National Public Radio's Seven-Part Series on the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Jewish Community Relations Council (San Francisco), January 1, 2003. p. 23. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  33. ^ Joel S. Fishman, Ten Years Since Oslo: The PLO's "People's War" Strategy and Israel's Inadequate Response, Jerusalem Viewpoints (Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs), No. 503 1-15 September 2003. Archived 6 December 2003 onthe Internet Archive. Accessed 5 December 2006.
  34. ^ From The Magazine : Radar Online : Hip-hop renegade M.I.A. has an explosive new album, disses George W. Bush and the Department of Homeland Security in this Radar interview

Efraim Karsh is Professor and Head of Mediterranean Studies at Kings College London. ... Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) is a non-profit, tax-exempt media watchdog group based in Boston chiefly monitoring media coverage of the Arab-Israeli conflict and focusing primarily on correcting coverage that it considers inaccurate or unfairly skewed against Israel. ... Robert James Woolsey, Jr. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

External links

Official sites

History and Overview

Documents

is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

Analysis

General


 
 

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