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Encyclopedia > Palestine (region)
Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. (1922-1948)
Map of the British Mandate of Palestine. (1922-1948)

Palestine (Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn or Falasṭīn, Greek: Παλαιστίνη Palaistinē, Latin: Syria Palæstina, Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina or ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael) is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. Many different definitions of the region have been used in the past three millennia (see also definitions of Palestine). Download high resolution version (379x864, 70 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ... Download high resolution version (379x864, 70 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Arabic (; , less formally, ) is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River today The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ...

Contents


Boundaries and Name

1759 map of "Terra Sancta sive Palæstina"
1759 map of "Terra Sancta sive Palæstina"

Egyptian writings refer to the region as R-t-n-u (for convenience pronounced Rechenu). Several names for the region are found in the Bible: Eretz Yisrael "Land of Israel", Eretz Ha-Ivrim "land of the Hebrews", "land flowing with milk and honey", "land that [God] swore to your fathers to assign to you", "Holy Land", and "land of the Lord". The portion of the land lying west of the Jordan was also called "land of Canaan" during the period in which it fell under the control of Egyptian vassals traditionally descended from Canaan the son of Ham. After the division of the Jewish kingdom into two the southern part was called "land of Judah" and the northern part was called "land of Israel". Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1676, 1785 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of ancient Israel and Judah Israelite Jewish history User:Humus sapiens/contribs ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1676, 1785 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of ancient Israel and Judah Israelite Jewish history User:Humus sapiens/contribs ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Palestine or the Land of Israel. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל Eretz Yisrael) is the land that made up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... The phrase The Holy Land (Arabic الأرض المقدسة, al-Arḍ ul-Muqaddasah; Hebrew ארץ הקודש: Standard Hebrew Éreẓ haQodeš, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÉreṣ haqQāḏēš; Latin Terra Sancta) generally refers to Palestine or the Land of Israel. ... Canaan or Knáan (Arabic کنعان, Hebrew כְּנַעַן, Septuagint Greek Χανααν) is an ancient term for a region roughly corresponding to present-day Israel/Palestine including the West Bank, western Jordan, southern and coastal Syria and Lebanon continuing up until the border of modern Turkey. ... The Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after...


The name "Palestine" comes from the Philistine people, who are first recorded by the ancient Egyptians as P-r/l-s-t (conventionally Peleset), one of the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III's reign. "Palestine" (Hebrew פלשת Pəléšeth, P(e)léshet) is used in the Bible to denote the coastal region inhabited by the Philistines, whose five principal cities were Gaza, Ashdod, Ekron, Gath, and Ashkelon. Usage of the term, usually in the form "Syria Palestina", to denote the inland areas as well was common among Greek writers as early as Herodotus. Josephus, however, apparently intended by the name only the land of the Philistines. The Philistines (meaning "invaders" in Hebrew) were subjugated by David; however, by Amos' time they had regained their independence. They are no longer mentioned by Assyrian times. The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Sea Peoples is the term used for a mysterious confederacy of ship-faring raiders who sailded into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, invaded Cyprus, Hatti and the Levant, and attempted to enter Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially year 5 of Rameses III of the 20th... Osirid statues of Ramses III at his temple at Medinet Habu. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... The city of Gaza is the principal city in the Gaza Strip. ... Ashdod (Hebrew אַשְׁדּוֹד, Standard Hebrew AÅ¡dod;, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡dôḏ, Arabic إسدود ʾIsdÅ«d) is a port city in Israel located halfway between Tel Aviv and Gaza, in the Southern District of Israel. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Gath (Hebrew: winepress) was one of the five Philistine city states established in southwestern Philistia. ... Ashkelon or Ashqelon (Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן; Standard Hebrew AÅ¡qÉ™lon; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic عسقلان   Ê¿Asqalān?; Latin Ascalon) was an ancient Philistine seaport on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea just north of Gaza. ... A bust that is believed to be Flavius Josephus. ... Michelangelos David. ... (עָמוֹס Burden, Standard Hebrew Ê¿Amos, Tiberian Hebrew Ê¿Ä€môs) was a person in the Bible, and putative author of the speeches reported in the Book of Amos (for Bible citation Amo). ... This article concerns the Assyrian people. ...


5th century B.C.E.

The term "Syria Palaestina" is first recorded by the 5th century B.C.E. Greek historian Herodotus, who wrote of the "district of Syria, called Palaistinêi", and later Ptolemy and Pliny (who alludes to a region of Syria that was "formerly called Palaestina"), to refer to the eastern coast of the Mediterranean; it is generally accepted that the region they referred to extended further inland than the domain of the Philistines. See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Ἡροδοτος, Herodotos) was a historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BC-ca. ... Claudius Ptolemaeus, given contemporary German styling, in a 16th century engraved book frontispiece. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19c portrait. ...


Roman times

In 135, the Roman emperor Hadrian changed the name of the Roman province of Syria Judea to Syria Palaestina, which is the Latin version of the Greek name, and it became an administrative political unit within the Roman Empire, following the fall of a Jewish revolt led by Bar Kokhba in 132-135. In approximately 390, Palaestina was further organised into three units: First, Second, and Third Palaestina. Palastina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the coast, and Peraea which the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan — once part of Arabia — and most of Sinai with Petra the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris. This reorganization reduced Arabia to the northern Jordan east of Peraea. Roman administration of Palestine ended temporarily during the Persian occupation of 614-28, then permanently after the Arabs conquered the region beginning in 635. For other uses, see number 135. ... A bust of Hadrian from a Venice museum Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76–July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was Roman emperor from 117–138, and a member of the gens Aelia. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... The Roman Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian (better known as Caesar Augustus), until its radical reformation in what was later to be known as the Byzantine Empire. ... Bar Kokhba’s revolt (132-135 CE) against the Roman Empire, also known as The Second Jewish-Roman War or The Second Jewish Revolt, was a second major rebellion by the Jews of Iudaea. ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ... Events The messianic, leader Simon bar Kokhba starts a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Samaria, Sumaria or Shomron (Hebrew שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Å omÉ™ron, Tiberian Hebrew ŠōmÉ™rôn, Arabic سامريّون SāmariyyÅ«n (but commonly called in Arabic جبال نابلس Jibal Nablus), in the New Testament Greek Σαμαρεία) is a term used for the mountainous northern part of the area on the west bank of the Jordan River. ... Perea (the country beyond), a portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the eastern side of the Jordan River valley, from about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee to about one third the way down the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; it did... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Galilee (Hebrew hagalil הגליל, Arabic al-jaleel الجليل), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל; Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... The oval forum and cardo of Gerasa (Jerash) The Decapolis (Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Syria and Judea (renamed Palestine in 135 AD). ... Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Ruins in the Negev desert The Negev (Hebrew נֶגֶב, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... The Treasury at Petra Petra (from petrus, rock in Greek; Arabic: البتراء, al-Bitrā) is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. ...


Arab rule

A map of Palestine as described by the medieval Arab geographers, with the junds of Jordan and Filasṭin highlighted in grey
A map of Palestine as described by the medieval Arab geographers, with the junds of Jordan and Filasṭin highlighted in grey

The new Arab rulers divided the province of ash-Sham (Syria) into five districts. Jund Filastin (Arabic جند فلسطين, literally "the army or military district of Palestine") was a region extending from the Sinai to south of the plain of Acre. At times it reached down into the Sinai. Major towns included Rafaḥ, Caesarea, Gaza, Jaffa, Nablus, Jericho, Ramla and Jerusalem. Initially Ludd (Lydda) was the capital, but in 717 it was moved to the new city of ar-Ramlah (Ramla). (The capital was not moved to Jerusalem until much later, when the organization into Junds was already breaking down.) Jund al-Urdunn (literally "Jordan") was a region to the north and east of Filastin. Major towns included Tiberias, Legio, Acre, Beisan and Tyre. The capital was at Tiberias. Various political upheavals led to readjustments of the boundaries several times. After the 10th century, the division into Junds began to break down and the Turkish invasions of the 1070s, soon followed by the Crusades and the establishment of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, completed that process. Download high resolution version (979x1072, 213 KB)Map of Palestine during the Middle Ages according to the description of the Arab geographers, drawn by Geo. ... Download high resolution version (979x1072, 213 KB)Map of Palestine during the Middle Ages according to the description of the Arab geographers, drawn by Geo. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Tiberias in 1862, the ruins reminiscent of its ancient heritage. ... Centuries: 10th century - 11th century - 12th century Decades: 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s - 1070s - 1080s 1090s 1100s 1110s 1120s Years: 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 Significant Events and Trends: 1071 Byzantine Empire loses Battle of Manzikert to Turkish army. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ...


From the 11th to the 19th centuries we have instances that Filasṭin did not refer to the land of Palestine but to its by then defunct capital ar-Ramla.

  • See also the Mideastweb map of "Palestine Under the Caliphs", showing Jund boundaries (external link).

Muslim division into districts

After Muslim control over Palestine was reestablished in the 12th and 13th centuries, the division into districts was reinstated, with boundaries that were frequently redrawn. Around the end of the 13th century, Palestine comprised several of nine "kingdoms" of Syria, namely the Kingdoms of Gaza (including Ascalon and Hebron), Karak (including Jaffa and Legio), Safad (including Safad, Acre, Sidon and Tyre) and parts of the Kingdom of Damascus (sometimes extending as far south as Jerusalem). By the middle of the 14th century, Syria had again been divided into five districts, of which Filastin included Jerusalem (its capital), Ramla, Ascalon, Hebron and Nablus, while Hauran included Tiberias (its capital).


Ottoman rule

After the Ottoman conquest, the name disappeared as the official name of an administrative district but remained in popular and semi-official use. Many examples of its usage in the 16th and 17th centuries have survived [Gerber]. During the 19th century, the "Ottoman Government employed the term Arz-i Filistin (the 'Land of Palestine') in official correspondence, meaning for all intents and purposes the area to the west of the River Jordan which became 'Palestine' under the British in 1922" [Mandel, page xx]. Amongst the educated Arab public, Filastin was a common concept, referring either to the whole of Palestine or to the Jerusalem sanjaq alone [Porath]. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40... This page is about districts of the Ottoman Empire; for a region in Serbia and Montenegro, see Sandžak. ...


20th Century

In European usage up to World War I, the name "Palestine" was used informally for a region that extended in the north-south direction typically from Raphia (south-east of Gaza) to the Litani River (now in Lebanon). The western boundary was the sea, and the eastern boundary was the poorly-defined place where the Syrian desert began. In various European sources, the eastern boundary was placed anywhere from the Jordan River to slightly east of Amman. The Negev Desert was not included. [Biger] Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... The city of Gaza is the principal city in the Gaza Strip. ... The Litani river is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... Amman (Arabic عمان Ê¿Ammān), the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan, is a city of more than 1. ... The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ...


Under the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, most of Palestine was envisioned as an international zone not under direct French or British colonial control. [1] The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 9, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...


British Mandate

A stamp from Palestine under the British Mandate
A stamp from Palestine under the British Mandate

Main article: British Mandate of Palestine ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ... Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ...


Formal use of the English word "Palestine" returned with the British Mandate. During this period, the name "Eretz Yisrael" (Hebrew: ארץ ישראל) was also part of the official name of the territory. Between 1920 and 1922, Palestine was defined by the San Remo Conference as the area bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, Lebanon, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and a short stretch of Red Sea coastline between the latter two. These borders include all of present-day Israel, the West Bank. the Gaza Strip, and Jordan. [2][3]. However, the final text left the borders unspecified (note in particular Article 25.) Map of the territory under the British Mandate of Palestine. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: Eretz Yisrael) refers to the land making up the ancient Jewish Kingdoms of Israel and Judah. ... Hebrew is a Semitic language of the Afro-Asiatic language family spoken by more than 6 million people, mainly in Israel, the West Bank, the United States and by Jewish communities around the world. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea (Arabic البحر الأحمر Baḥr al-Aḥmar, al-Baḥru l-’Aḥmar; Hebrew ים סוף Yam Suf; Tigrigna ቀይሕ ባሕሪ QeyH baHri) is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...

Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine including Palestine and Transjordan
Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine including Palestine and Transjordan

After Transjordan was split off from Palestine in 1922, the term Palestine referred to the segment west of the Jordan river [4] (see History of Palestine, History of Jordan). Even before the Mandate came into legal effect in 1922 (text), British terminology applied the word Palestine to the part west of the Jordan River and Trans-Jordan (or Transjordania) to the part east of the Jordan River. This terminology was applied consistently during the Mandate period and it is difficult to find any official documents that use any name other than "Palestine and Trans-Jordan" when referring to the whole area of the Mandate. Nevertheless, the fact that "Palestine" was once considered to include lands on the east side of the Jordan River continues even today to have significance in political discourse. Download high resolution version (672x633, 58 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ... Download high resolution version (672x633, 58 KB)Map of the British Mandate of Palestine and Transjordan File links The following pages link to this file: British Mandate of Palestine ... Map of the territory of Transjordan The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River today The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest Asia flowing through the Great Rift Valley into the Dead Sea. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... History of Jordan. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Palestine Mandate: The Council of the League of Nations: July 24, 1922. ...


Between 1922 and 1947, the term "Palestine" referred to the geographical region bordered by (Trans-)Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and the Mediterranean Sea [5] [6].


UN Partition

The UN Partition Plan
The UN Partition Plan

Main article: 1947 UN Partition Plan Map showing the 1947 UN partition plan for Palestine Copyright: GFDL derivative work created by the uploader based on a portion of the public domain work http://www. ... Map showing the 1947 UN partition plan for Palestine Copyright: GFDL derivative work created by the uploader based on a portion of the public domain work http://www. ... On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ...


Under the 1947 UN Partition Plan, Palestine was to be divided into two states of approximately equal size, one for Jews and one for Arabs, as well as the city of Jerusalem, which was to be administered by the UN [7]. The Palestinian Arabs and the Arab states rejected the partition plan, and attacked the newly declared state of Israel in 1948. An independent Arab Palestine was declared by a Palestinian National Congress meeting in Gaza in September 1948; it defined its borders as those of the British Mandate, and its capital as Jerusalem[8]. A week later, the Jordan-backed rival First Palestinian Congress convened in Amman and denounced the Gaza "government". On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine, a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly, at the UN World Headquarters in New York. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Jerusalem and the Old City. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Proposals for a Palestinian state vary depending on ones views of Palestinian statehood, as well as various definitions of Palestine and Palestinian (see also State of Palestine). ... The Palestinian National Council (PNC) is the parliament in exile of the Palestinian people. ... The city of Gaza is the principal city in the Gaza Strip. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Amman (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān), the capital of the Kingdom of Jordan, is a city of more than 1. ...


Current status

West Bank
Enlarge
West Bank
Gaza Strip
Enlarge
Gaza Strip
Map of the State of Israel today
Enlarge
Map of the State of Israel today

Following 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and neighboring Arab states, Palestine disappeared as a distinct territory. It was divided between Israel, Egypt, Syria and Jordan. [9] [10] Download high resolution version (330x715, 22 KB)Replacement map of the West Bank from CIA Factbook - public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (330x715, 22 KB)Replacement map of the West Bank from CIA Factbook - public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A map of the Gaza Strip showing key towns and neighbouring countries. ... A map of the Gaza Strip showing key towns and neighbouring countries. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x715, 18 KB)An altered Image:Cia-is-map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (330x715, 18 KB)An altered Image:Cia-is-map. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


In addition to the UN-partitioned area, Israel captured 26% of the Mandate territory west of the Jordan river and annexed it to the new state. Jordan captured about 21% of the Mandate territory (which became known as the West Bank), including parts of Jerusalem that included the old city and eastern environments and separated the city into West and East Jerusalem. The Gaza Strip was captured by Egypt.


Known as al-Nakba (the catastrophe) to Palestinians, the 1948 war resulted in the destruction of over 500 Palestinian villages and the exodus of over 700,000 refugees. After 1948, the term "Palestine" was regularly used in political contexts. Various declarations, such as the 1988 proclamation of a State of Palestine by the PLO referred to a country called Palestine, defining its borders with differing degrees of clarity. Most recently, the Palestine draft constitution refers to borders based on the West Bank and Gaza Strip prior to the 1967 Six-Day War. This so-called Green Line follows the 1949 armistice line; the permanent borders are yet to be negotiated. Furthermore, since 1994, there has been a Palestinian Authority controlling varying portions of historic Palestine. The Palestinian Exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) is the refugee flight of some 711,000 Palestinian Arabs (UN estimate[1]) during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, and is called the Nakba (Arabic: النكبة), meaning disaster or cataclysm, by Palestinians. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים transliteration: Milhemet Sheshet Hayamim), also known as the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Six Days War, or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... The term Green Line is often used to refer to the 1949 Armistice lines established between Israel and its opponents (Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt) at the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


Literature

  • Mariam Shahin, Palestine - a Guide, Interlink Books 2005
  • Gideon Biger, Where was Palestine? Pre-World War I perception, AREA (Journal of the Institute of British Geographers) Vol 13, No. 2 (1981) 153-160.
  • Guy Le Strange, Palestine under the Moslems (1890; reprinted by Khayats, 1965)
  • N. J. Mandel, The Arabs and Zionism before World War I (University of Califormia Press, 1976)
  • H. Gerber, "Palestine" and other territorial concepts in the 17th century, International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol 30 (1998) pp 563-572
  • Y. Porath, The emergence of the Palestinian-Arab national movement, 1918-1929 (Cass, 1974)
  • B. Doumani, Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabal Nablus 1700-1900 (UC Press, 1995)

See also

Commons
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Palestine (region)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Palestine, region, Asia. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05 (2107 words)
Palestine is the Holy Land of Jews, having been promised to them by God; of Christians because it was the scene of Jesus’ life; and of Muslims because they consider Islam to be the heir of Judaism and Christianity and because Jerusalem is the site, according to Muslim tradition, of Muhammad’s ascent to heaven.
In N Palestine the ridge is interrupted by the Plain of Esdraelon (Jezreel) and the connecting valley of Bet Shean (Beisan), the most fertile part of the region.
B.C. Palestine was inhabited by herders and farmers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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