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Encyclopedia > Palestine
A 2003 satellite image of the region.
A 2003 satellite image of the region.

Palestine (from Greek Παλαιστινη; Latin Palaestina; Hebrew ארץ־ישראל, formerly also פלשתינה Palestina; Arabic فلسطين Filasṭīn, Falasṭīn, Filisṭīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River and various adjoining lands. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,200 × 2,800 pixels, file size: 935 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from the Terra satellite shows the Mediterranean Sea (left) and portions of the Middle East. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,200 × 2,800 pixels, file size: 935 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from the Terra satellite shows the Mediterranean Sea (left) and portions of the Middle East. ... // Palestine and Palestinian as the name of a geographical area or an ethnic nation, carries a number of current and historical interpretations: Main article: Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian Palestine - also called the Holy Land, is a historic geographical region in the Middle East, on the southern east coast of... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


Different geographic definitions of Palestine have been used over the millennia, and these definitions themselves are politically contentious. In recent times, the broadest definition of Palestine has been that adopted by the British Mandate of Palestine, which includes present-day Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The narrowest definition used in contemporary politics embraces only the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip. The term Palestine and the related term Palestinian have several overlapping (and occasionally contradictory) definitions. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


Other English names for this region include: Canaan, Land of Israel, and Holy Land. // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz Yiśrāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Boundaries and name

The name and the borders of what is currently called Palestine have varied throughout history.


Ancient Egyptian texts called the entire Levantine coastal area along the Mediterranean Sea between modern Egypt and Turkey R-t-n-u (conventionally Retjenu). Retjenu was subdivided into three regions and the southern region, Djahy, shared approximately the same boundaries as Canaan, or modern-day Israel and the Palestinian territories.[citation needed] Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Retjenu (rṯnw; Reṯenu, Retenu), was an Ancient Egyptian name for Canaan and Syria. ... Djahy was the Egyptian designation for southern Retenu. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


During the Iron Age, the Kingdom of Israel of the United Monarchy may have reigned from Jerusalem over an area approximating modern-day Israel and the Palestinian territories, extending farther westward and northward to cover much (but not all) of the greater Land of Israel, although archaeological evidence for this period is very rare and disputed.[1][2] Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The Philistines dwelt in cities and controlled much of the coast, and the term 'Palestine' is cognate with the word Philistine,[3] That area was known in Greek sources from the mid 5th century BCE as Palaistina. When the Romans defeated the Jewish rebellion of 67-70 C.E., and merged the province of Judea with Galilee, Samaria and Idumaea, the name Palaestina was applied to the newly formed larger unit. The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


The ethnic affiliation of the Philistines is not yet clarified. Philistine names as preserved on inscriptions appear to 'contradict the notion that they were Greek-speakers'.[4] Yet some scholars now argue that they were a non-Semitic group, originating from Southern Greece, and closely related to early Mycenaean civilization.[5] Inhabiting a smaller area on the southern coast called Philistia, whose borders approximate the modern Gaza Strip, Philistia comprised a confederation of five city states: Gaza, Ashkelon, Ashdod on the coast and Ekron, and Gath inland.[6] The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Hebrew Founded in 1956 Government City (from 1968) District South Population 204,400 (2005) Jurisdiction 60,000 dunams (60 km²) Mayor Zvi Zilker Ashdod (Hebrew: ‎; Arabic: , Isdud), located in the Southern District of Israel towards the south of the Israeli Coastal Plain, is a city of over 200,000 people... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ... Gath (גת Hebrew: winepress), a common place name in ancient Israel and the surrounding regions. ...


Egyptian texts of the temple at Medinet Habu, record a people called the P-r-s-t (conventionally Peleset), one of the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III's reign. This is considered very likely to be a reference to the Philistines. The Hebrew name Peleshet (פלשת Pəléshseth), usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible to denote their southern coastal region.[citation needed] Mortuary Temple of Ramesses III, from the air. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... Usermaatre Meryamun Powerful one of Maat and Ra, Beloved of Amun Nomen Ramesse Hekaiunu Ra bore him, Ruler of Heliopolis Consort(s) Iset Ta-Hemdjert, Tiye Issue Ramesses IV, Ramesses VI, Ramesses VIII, Amun-her-khepeshef, Khaemwaset, Meryamun, Meryatum, Montuherkhopshef, Pareherwenemef, Pentawer, Duatentopet (?) Father Setnakht Mother Tiye-Mereniset Died... Hebrew redirects here. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


The Assyrian emperor Sargon II called the region the Palashtu in his Annals. By the time of Assyrian rule in 722 BCE, the Philistines had become 'part and parcel of the local population',[7][8] and prospered under Assyrian rule during the seventh century despite occasional rebellions against their overlords.[6] In 604 BCE, when Assyrian troops commanded by the Babylonian empire carried off significant numbers of the population into slavery, the distinctly Philistine character of the coastal cities dwindled away,[7][9] and the history of the Philistine people effectively ended.[6] Sargon II (right), king of Assyria (r. ... blah ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ...


In the 5th century BCE, the Greek historian and geographer Herodotus wrote in Greek of a "district of Syria, called Palaistinêi,"from which Latin: Palaestina and Palestine are derived,[10][11][12] as "a district of Syria". Syria, at that time, referred rather imprecisely to the region north to south from Asia Minor to Sinai, and west to east from the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. The boundaries of the "distinct" described by Herodotus are even more imprecise, as is the ethnic nature of its people; sometimes it denotes the coast north of Mount Carmel, and elsewhere it seems to extend down all the coast from Phoenicia to Egypt, and as far east as the Jordan River.[13] Josephus used the name Παλαιστινη generally for the smaller coastal area anciently inhabited by the Philistines, which most of his contemporaries prefer to call Philistia.[14] Ptolemy also used the term. In Latin, Pliny mentions a region of Syria that was "formerly called Palaestina" among the areas of the Eastern Mediterranean.[15] Philo uses the terms Palaestina and Canaan interchangeably, noting that the region's Jewish population is larger than that of any other single country.[16] (6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC - other centuries) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt Persians invade Greece twice (Persian Wars) Battle of Marathon (490) Battle of Salamis (480) Athenian empire formed and falls Peloponnesian War... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... A view of Mount Carmel in 1894 For other uses, see Mount Carmel (disambiguation). ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... This article is about the geographer, mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... Philo (20 BC - 50 AD), known also as Philo of Alexandria and as Philo Judaeus And as Yedidia, was a Hellenized Jewish philosopher born in Alexandria, Egypt. ...


During the Roman period, the Iudaea Province (including Samaria) comprised much of modern Palestine, although the Galilee and other northern areas remained administratively distinct. Later, following the Jewish rebellions in the 1st and 2nd centuries C.E., Rome united the entire Levant in a new province bearing its Greco-Latin name, Syria-Palaestina.[17][18] Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


During the Byzantine Period, this entire region (including Syria, Palestine, Samaria, and Galilee) was renamed Palaestina and then subdivided into Diocese I and II. The Byzantines also renamed an area of land including the Negev, Sinai, and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula as Palaestina Salutoris, sometimes called Palaestina III. Since the Byzantine Period, the Byzantine borders of Palaestina (I and II) have served as a name for the geographic area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. Byzantine redirects here. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... Arabia redirects here. ...


Holy texts

The Holy Land, or Palestine, showing not only the Ancient Kingdoms of Judah and Israel in which the 12 Tribes have been distinguished, but also the their placement in different periods having been done as indicated in the Holy Scriptures. Tobias Conrad Lotter, Geographer. Augsburg, Germany, 1759
The Holy Land, or Palestine, showing not only the Ancient Kingdoms of Judah and Israel in which the 12 Tribes have been distinguished, but also the their placement in different periods having been done as indicated in the Holy Scriptures. Tobias Conrad Lotter, Geographer. Augsburg, Germany, 1759

The Hebrew Bible calls the region Canaan (כּנען), while the area occupied by Israelites is designated Israel (Yisrael). The name "Land of the Hebrews" (ארץ העברים, Eretz Ha-Ivrim) is also found, as well as several poetical names: "land flowing with milk and honey", "land that [God] swore to your fathers to assign to you", "Holy Land", "Land of the Lord", and the "Promised Land".[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1676, 1785 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of ancient Israel and Judah Israelite Jewish history User:Humus sapiens/contribs ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1676, 1785 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of ancient Israel and Judah Israelite Jewish history User:Humus sapiens/contribs ... Lotter was the last name of a family of German printers, intimately connected with the Reformation. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... For other meanings for Augsburg: See Augsburg (disambiguation) , Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 11th century manuscript of the Hebrew Bible with Targum Hebrew Bible is a term that refers to the common portions of the Jewish canon and the Christian canons. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Main article: Land of Israel The Kingdom of David and Solomon. ...


The Land of Canaan is given a precise description in (Numbers 34:1) as including all of Lebanon, as well (Joshua 13:5). The wide area appears to have been the home of several small nations such as the Canaanites, Hebrews, Hittites, Amorrhites, Pherezites, Hevites and Jebusites. The Hittites (also Hethites) and Children of Heth, translating Hebrew HTY and BNY-HT are the second of the eleven Canaanite nations in the Hebrew Bible. ... Amorrhites is a name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in the Old Testament. ... Jebus redirects here. ...


According to Hebrew tradition, the land of Canaan is part of the land given to the descendants of Abraham, which extends from the Nile to the Euphrates River (Genesis 15:18). This land is said to include an area called Aram Naharaim, which includes Ur Kasdim in modern Turkey, where Abraham's father was born. For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Aramaea. ... Ur Kaśdim or Ur of the Chaldees (אור כשדים) is the town in the Hebrew Bible and related literature where Abraham was said to have been born. ...


In Exodus 13:17, "And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt." Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


The events of the Four Gospels of the Christian Bible take place entirely in the Holy Land. Gospels are a genre of ancient literature concerning the life of Jesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Christian...


In the Qur'an, the term الأرض المقدسة ("Holy Land", Al-Ard Al-Muqaddasah) [19] is mentioned at least seven times. It is clearly stated in the Qur'an (Chapter 5: 20-21) that the Holy Land was given to the Jewish people: "Moses said to his people: O my people! Remember the bounty of God upon you when He bestowed prophets upon you , and made you kings and gave you that which had not been given to anyone before you amongst the nations. O my people! Enter the Holy Land which God has written for you, and do not turn tail, otherwise you will be losers."[20] The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


History

Main articles: History of Israel, History of Palestine
A dwelling unearthed at Tell es-Sultan.
A dwelling unearthed at Tell es-Sultan.

This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Paleolithic and Neolithic periods (1000000 - 5000 BCE)

Human remains found at El-'Ubeidiya, 2 miles (3 km) south of Lake Tiberias date back as early as 500,000 ago.[21][22] The discovery of the "Palestine Man" in the Zuttiyeh Cave in Wadi Al-Amud near Safad in 1925 provided some clues to human development in the area.[21][23][24] // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The Sea of Galilee with the Jordan River flowing out of it to the south and into the Dead Sea The Sea of Galilee is Israels largest freshwater lake, approximately 53 kilometers (33 miles) in circumference, about 21 km (13 miles) long, and 13 km (8 miles) wide; it... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ...


In the caves of Shuqba in Ramallah and Wadi Khareitun in Bethlehem, stone, wood and animal bone tools were found and attributed to the Natufian culture (c. 12800 - 10300 BCE). Other remains from this era have been found at Tel Abu Hureura, Ein Mallaha, Beidha and Jericho.[21][25] Shuqba (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian village located 17. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...


Between 10000 and 5000 BCE, agricultural communities were established. Evidence of such settlements were found at Tell es-Sultan, Jericho and include mud-brick rounded and square dwellings, pottery shards, and fragments of woven fabrics.[26][27][28]


Chalcolithic period (4500 - 3000 BCE) and Bronze Age (3000 - 1200 BCE)

An 1882 rendering of Canaan, as divided among the Twelve Tribes, by the American Sunday-School Union of Philadelphia.
An 1882 rendering of Canaan, as divided among the Twelve Tribes, by the American Sunday-School Union of Philadelphia.

Along the Jericho-Dead Sea-Bir es-Saba-Gaza-Sinai route, a culture originating in Syria, marked by the use of copper and stone tools, brought new migrant groups to the region contributing to an increasingly urban fabric.[26][29][30] The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Download high resolution version (568x950, 76 KB)Map of Canaan http://www. ... Download high resolution version (568x950, 76 KB)Map of Canaan http://www. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... Beersheba or Beer Sheva (Hebrew באר שבע; Arabic بئر السبع Biʾr as-Sabʿ) is a city in Israel. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ...


By the early Bronze Age (3000 - 2200 BCE) independent Canaanite city-states situated in plains and coastal regions and surrounded by mud-brick defensive walls were established and most of these cities relied on nearby agricultural hamlets for their food needs.[26][31] Canaanite can describe anything pertaining to Canaan: in particular, its languages and inhabitants. ...


Archaeological finds from the early Canaanite era have been found at Tel Megiddo, Jericho, Tel al-Far'a (Gaza), Bisan, and Ai (Deir Dibwan/Ramallah District), Tel an Nasbe (al-Bireh) and Jib (Jerusalem). Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) â–¶ (help·info) (Hebrew: בֵּית שְׁאָן ; unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; official Israeli Arabic بيت شان Bayt Šān); Arabic بيسان â–¶ (help·info) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Ai (Hebrew: ; heap of ruins) refers to one or two places in ancient Israel: A city mentioned along with Heshbon by Jeremiah 49:3, whose location is currently unknown, and which may or may not be the same as: A Canaanite royal city which according to the Book of Joshua... al-Bireh or el-Bira (Arabic: ; ‎) is a Palestinian city adjacent to Ramallah in the central West Bank, 15 kilometers (9 mi) north of Jerusalem. ... al-Jib (Arabic: ) is a Palestinian village of 4,800 people[1], 10 kilometres northwest of Jerusalem[2] in the seam zone of the West Bank. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


The Canaanite city-states held trade and diplomatic relations with Egypt and Syria. Parts of the Canaanite urban civilization were destroyed around 2300 BCE, though there is no consensus as to why. Incursions by nomads from the east of the Jordan River who settled in the hills followed soon thereafter.[26][32] The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


In the Middle Bronze Age (2200 - 1500 BCE), Canaan was influenced by the surrounding civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, and Syria. Diverse commercial ties and an agriculturally based economy led to the development of new pottery forms, the cultivation of grapes, and the extensive use of bronze.[26][33] Burial customs from this time seemed to be influenced by a belief in the afterlife.[26][34] The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... // [[Image:]] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ...


Political, commercial and military events during the Late Bronze Age period (1450 - 1350 BCE) were recorded by ambassadors and Canaanite proxy rulers for Egypt in 379 cuneiform tablets known as the Amarna Letters.[35] The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking (at least in systematic and widespread use) consisted of techniques for smelting copper and tin from naturally occurring outcroppings of ore, and then alloying those metals in order to cast bronze. ... EA 161, letter by Aziru, leader of Amurru, (stating his case to pharaoh), one of the Amarna letters in cuneiform writing on a clay tablet. ...


By c. 1190 BCE, the Philistines arrived and mingled with the local population, losing their separate identity over several generations. [7][36] Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Iron Age (1200 - 330 BCE)

Pottery remains found in Ashkelon, Ashdod, Gat, Ekron and Gaza decorated with stylized birds provided the first archaeological evidence for Philistine settlement in the region. The Philistines are credited with introducing iron weapons and chariots to the local population.[37] Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the... Hebrew Founded in 1956 Government City (from 1968) District South Population 204,400 (2005) Jurisdiction 60,000 dunams (60 km²) Mayor Zvi Zilker Ashdod (Hebrew: ‎; Arabic: , Isdud), located in the Southern District of Israel towards the south of the Israeli Coastal Plain, is a city of over 200,000 people... GAT or Gat can have multiple meanings. ... The city of Ekron (Hebrew עֶקְרוֹן, Standard Hebrew Ê»Eqron, Tiberian Hebrew Ê»Eqrôn) was one of the five Philistine cities in southwestern Canaan. ...


Developments in Palestine between 1250 and 900 BCE have been the focus of debate between those who accept the Old Testament version on the conquest of Canaan by the Israelite tribes, and those who reject it.[38] Niels Peter Lemche, of the Copenhagen School of Biblical Studies, submits that the picture of ancient Israel "is contrary to any image of ancient Palestinian society that can be established on the basis of ancient sources from Palestine or referring to Palestine and that there is no way this image in the Bible can be reconciled with the historical past of the region."[39] The Copenhagen School of Biblical Studies, also known as The Minimalist School is a school of biblical exegesis, developing out of Higher Criticism, emphasizing that the bible should be read and analysed primarily as a collection of narratives and not as an accurate historical account of events in the prehistory...


Others point to David's Palace,[40][41][42] the sacrificial site at Shechem[43] and the Merneptah Stele,[44][45][46] and Mesha Stele[47][48][49] among others, as providing some archaeological evidence of a nation that bears a resemblance to the Biblical Israel.[citation needed] The Large Stone Structure is the name given to the remains of a large public building in central Jerusalem, south of the Old City, tentatively dated 10th to 9th century BCE. The name was given to the structure, as a result of its proximity with another site known as the... Mount Ebal, a mountain peak 940 meters above sea level just north of the West Bank city of Nablus. ... Shechem is a name of geographical places. ... The Merneptah Stele is the reverse of a stela erected by Amenhotep III written by Merneptah. ... The stele as photographed circa 1891 The Mesha Stele (popularized in the 19th century as the Moabite Stone) is a black basalt stone, bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC Moabite King Mesha, discovered in 1868. ...


Hebrew Bible period

Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BCE.      Kingdom of Judah      Kingdom of Israel      Philistine city-states      Phoenician states      Kingdom of Ammon      Kingdom of Edom      Kingdom of Aram-Damascus      Aramean tribes      Arubu tribes      Nabatu tribes      Assyrian Empire      Kingdom of Moab
Map of the southern Levant, c.830s BCE.      Kingdom of Judah      Kingdom of Israel      Philistine city-states      Phoenician states      Kingdom of Ammon      Kingdom of Edom      Kingdom of Aram-Damascus      Aramean tribes      Arubu tribes      Nabatu tribes      Assyrian Empire      Kingdom of Moab
See also: Archaeology of Israel
See also: History of ancient Israel and Judah

Though there is a debate over whether the Hebrews arrived to Canaan from Egypt, or emerged from among the local population existent there at the time, these events are generally dated to between the 13th and 12th centuries BCE.[38] Image File history File links Levant_830. ... Image File history File links Levant_830. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC 790s BC 780s BC Events and Trends 836 BC - Shalmaneser III of Egypt. ... The archaeology of Israel is researched intensively in the universities of the region and also attracts considerable international interest on account of the regions Biblical links. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ...


According to Biblical tradition, the United Kingdom of Israel was established by the Hebrew tribes with Saul as its first king in 1020 BCE. [50] In 1000 BCE, Jerusalem was made the capital of King David's kingdom and it is believed that the First Temple was constructed in this period by King Soloman.[50] By 930 BCE, the united kingdom split to form the northern Kingdom of Israel, and the southern Kingdom of Judah.[50] United Monarchy - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Saul (שאול המלך) (or Shaul) (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian  ; asked for) is identified in the Books of Samuel, 1 Chronicles and the Quran as the first king of the ancient Kingdom of Israel. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut YÉ™huda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ YÉ™hûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...


Archaeological evidence indicates that the late 13th, the 12th and the early 11th centuries BCE witnessed the foundation of perhaps hundreds of insignificant, unprotected village settlements, many in the mountains of Palestine. [39] From around the 11th century BCE, there was a reduction in the number of villages, though this was counterbalanced by the rise of certain settlements to the status of fortified townships.[39]


There was an at least partial Egyptian withdrawal from Palestine in this period, though it is likely that Bet Shean was an Egyptian garrison as late as the beginning of the 10th century BCE.[39] The socio-political system was characterized by local patrons fighting other local patrons, lasting until around the mid-9th century BCE when some local chieftains were able to create large political structures that exceeded the boundaries of those present in the Late Bronze Age.[39] Map of the Decapolis showing the location of (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) ▶ (help·info) (Hebrew: בֵּית שְׁאָן ; unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; official Israeli Arabic بيت شان Bayt Šān); Arabic بيسان ▶ (help·info) is a city in the North District in Israel. ...


Between 722 and 720 BCE, the northern Kingdom of Israel was destroyed by the Assyrian Empire and the Hebrew tribes - thereafter known as the (Lost Tribes) - were exiled. [50] In 586 BCE, Judah was conquered by the Babylonians and Jerusalem and the First Temple destroyed. [50] Most of the surviving Hebrews, and much of the other local population, were deported to Babylonia. [7][51] 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Solomons Temple was the first Jewish temple in Jerusalem which functioned as a religious focal point for worship and the sacrifices known as the korbanot in ancient Judaism. ... For other uses, see Babylonian captivity (disambiguation). ...


Persian rule (538 BCE)

After the Persian Empire was established, Jews were allowed to return to what their holy books had termed the Land of Israel, and having been granted some autonomy by the Persian administration, it was during this period that the Second Temple in Jerusalem was built.[7][52] Sebastia, near Nablus, was the northernmost province of the Persian administration in Palestine, and its southern borders were drawn at Hebron.[7][53] Some of the local population served as soldiers and lay people in the Persian administration, while others continued to agriculture. In 400 BCE, the Nabataeans made inroads into southern Palestine and built a separate civilization in the Negev that lasted until 160 BCE.[7][54] Persia redirects here. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz YiÅ›rāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... A stone (2. ... “Shomron” redirects here. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ...


Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...

Hellenistic rule (333 BCE)

Roman Iudaea Province in the 1st century CE as based on Robert W. Funk's The Acts of Jesus, Michael Grant's's Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels and John P. Meier's A Marginal Jew.

The Persian Empire fell to Greek forces of the Macedonian general Alexander the Great.[55][56] After his death, with the absence of heirs, his conquests were divided amongst his generals, while the region of the Jews ("Judah" or Judea as it became known) was first part of the Ptolemaic dynasty and then part of the Seleucid Empire.[57] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x790, 30 KB) Summary This is a map of First Century Palestine that I created using Illustrator CS2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (587x790, 30 KB) Summary This is a map of First Century Palestine that I created using Illustrator CS2. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... Persia redirects here. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ...


The landscape during this period was markedly changed by extensive growth and development that included urban planning and the establishment of well-built fortified cities.[55][53] Hellenistic pottery was produced that absorbed Philistine traditions. Trade and commerce flourished, particularly in the most Hellenized areas, such as Ascalon, Jaffa, [58] Jerusalem,[59] Gaza,[60] and ancient Nablus (Tell Balatah)[61] [55] The term Hellenistic (established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen) in the history of the ancient world is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks, however scattered geographically, to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of whatever ethnicity, and from the political dominance... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


The Jewish population in Judea was allowed limited autonomy in religion and administration.[62] In the second century BCE fascination in Jerusalem for Greek culture resulted in a movement to break down the separation of Jew and Gentile and some people even tried to disguise the marks of their circumcision.[63] Disputes between the leaders of the reform movement, Jason and Menelaus, eventually led to civil war and the intervention of Antiochus IV Epiphanes.[63] Subsequent persecution of the Jews led to the Maccabean Revolt under the leadership of the Hasmoneans, and the construction of a native Jewish kingship under the Hasmonean Dynasty .[63] After approximately a century of independence disputes between the Hasmonean rivals Aristobulus and Hyrcanus led to control of the kingdom by the Roman army of Pompey. The territory then became first a Roman client kingdom under Hyrcanus and then a Roman Province administered by the governor of Syria.[64] Jason of the Oniad family and brother to Onias III assumed the office of the High Priest in Jerusalem upon the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the throne of the Seleucid Empire. ... Menelaus was High Priest in Jerusalem from 171 BCE to about 161 BCE. He was the successor of Jason, the brother of Onias III. The sources are divided as to his origin. ... Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... Wojciech Stattlers Machabeusze (Maccabees), 1844 The Maccabees (Hebrew: מכבים or מקבים, Makabim) were Jewish rebels who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... The Hasmoneans (Hebrew: , Hashmonaiym, Audio) were the ruling dynasty of the Hasmonean Kingdom (140 BCE–37 BCE),[1] an autonomous Jewish state in ancient Israel. ... Aristobulus II was a king of Judea from the Hasmonean Dynasty. ... Hyrcanus II was the Jewish High Priest from about 79 to 40 BCE. He was the eldest son of Alexander Jannæus and Alexandra Salome. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Client state refers to the notion of one state being subservient to another. ...


Roman rule (63 BCE)

Palestine in the Time of Christ as rendered by as B.W. Johnson (1891) in The People's New Testament.
Palestine in the Time of Christ as rendered by as B.W. Johnson (1891) in The People's New Testament.

Though General Pompey arrived in 63 BCE, Roman rule was solidified when Herod, whose dynasty was of Idumean ancestry, was appointed as king.[55][65] Urban planning under the Romans was characterized by cities designed around the Forum - the central intersection of two main streets - the Cardo, running north-south and the Decumanus running east-west.[66] Cities were connected by an extensive road network developed for economic and military purposes. Among the most notable archaeological remnants from this era are Herodium (Tel al-Fureidis) to the south of Bethlehem[67] and Caesarea.[55][68] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (590 × 893 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fair use, produced in 1891. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 396 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (590 × 893 pixel, file size: 172 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Fair use, produced in 1891. ... Herod the Great. ... Edomite redirects here. ... For the crustacean genus Cardus, see Polychelidae. ... Palmyra in Syria In Roman city planning, a Decumanus Maximus was an east-west-oriented road in a Roman city, military camp, or colonia. ... Aerial photo of Herodium from the south west. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara...


Around the time that Jesus is believed to have been born, Roman Palestine was in a state of disarray and direct Roman rule was re-established.[55][69] The early Christians were oppressed and while most inhabitants became Romanized, others, particularly Jews, found Roman rule to be unbearable.[55][69] This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


As a result of the First Jewish-Roman War (66-73), Titus sacked Jerusalem destroying the Second Temple, leaving only supporting walls, including the Western Wall. In 135, following the fall of a Jewish revolt led by Bar Kokhba in 132–135, the Roman emperor Hadrian attempted the expulsion of Jews from Judea. His attempt was as unsuccessful as were most of Rome's many attempts to alter the demography of the Empire; this is demonstrated by the continued existence of the rabbinical academy of Lydda in Judea, and in any case large Jewish populations remained in Samaria and the Galilee.[17] Tiberias became the headquarters of exiled Jewish patriarchs. The Romans joined the province of Judea (which already included Samaria) together with Galilee to form a new province, called by the familiar name of Syria Palaestina.[17] Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Province Commanders Vespasian, Titus Simon Bar-Giora, Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala), Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000? 1,100,000? Casualties Unknown 1,100,000? (majority Jewish civilian casualties) Jewish-Roman wars First War – Kitos War – Bar Kokhba revolt The first... This article is about the year 66. ... This article is about the year 73. ... For other uses, see Titus (disambiguation). ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Judea Commanders Titus Flavius Vespasianus Simon Bar-Giora Yohanan mi-Gush Halav (John of Gischala) Eleazar ben Simon Strength 70,000 men 13,000 men, split among three factions Casualties Unknown 60,000–1,100,000 (mass civilian casualties) The Siege of Jerusalem in the... A stone (2. ... The Western Wall by night. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ...


The Emperor Hadrian (132 CE) renamed Jerusalem "Aelia Capitolina" and built temples there to honor Jupiter. Christianity was practiced in secret and the Hellenization of Palestine continued under Septimius Severus (193 - 211 CE).[55] New pagan cities were founded in Judea at Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), Diopolis (Lydd), and Nicopolis (Emmaus).[55][53] Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ... Eleutheropolis (city of the free) was the Greek name of a Roman city in Palestine, some 53 kms southwest of Jerusalem whose remains still straddle the ancient road to Gaza. ... Downtown area of Lod Lod (Hebrew לוֹד; Arabic اَلْلُدّْ al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda, Tiberian Hebrew לֹד Lōḏ) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Nicopolis (meaning in Greek: city of victory; see also List of traditional Greek place names) or Actia Nicopolis was an ancient city of Epirus, founded 31 BC by Octavian in memory of his victory over Antony and Cleopatra at Actium. ... Supper at Emmaus by Caravaggio, 1601 Emmaus is the name of two places in Palestine. ...


Byzantine (Eastern Roman Empire) rule (330-640 CE)

5th century CE: Byzantine Diocese of Palaestina I (Philistia, Judea and Samaria) and Palaestina II (Galilee and Perea)
5th century CE: Byzantine Diocese of Palaestina I (Philistia, Judea and Samaria) and Palaestina II (Galilee and Perea)

Emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity around 330 CE made Christianity the official religion of Palaestina. [70][71] After his mother Empress Helena identified the spot she believed to be where Christ was crucified, the Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem.[70] The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the Church of the Ascension in Jerusalem were also built during Constantine's reign.[70] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (707x839, 153 KB) Summary Geographical area of Palestine, as first defined by the Byzantine Empire at the end of the 4th century, according to the borders of the Diocese of Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (707x839, 153 KB) Summary Geographical area of Palestine, as first defined by the Byzantine Empire at the end of the 4th century, according to the borders of the Diocese of Palaestina Prima and Palaestina Secunda. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, called Church of the Resurrection (Anastasis) by Eastern Christians, is a Christian church now within the walled Old City of Jerusalem. ... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ... Church of the Ascension is a name shared by several churches in the United States: Church of the Ascension (Sandstone, Calgary), part of the Roman Catholic Church, Calgary, Alberta Church of the Ascension (Claymont, Delaware), part of the New Castle Parish of the Episcopal Diocese of Delaware Church of the...


Palestine thus became a center for pilgrims and ascetic life for men and women from all over the world.[70][53] Many monasteries were built including the Saint George Monastery in Wadi al-Qelt, Deir Qarantal and Deir Hijle near Jericho, and Deir Mar Saba and Deir Theodosius east of Bethlehem.[70] The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Mar Saba seen from the view point Mar Saba seen from the bottom of the gorge Mar Saba in the 19th century Mar Saba is a Greek Orthodox monastery located near Bethlehem, Israel (Palestine), and overlooks the Kidron River. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ...


In 352 CE, a Jewish revolt against Byzantine rule in Tiberias and other parts of the Galilee was brutally suppressed. The War against Gallus (351–352) was a Jewish revolt against the Roman Empire directed against the rule of Constantius Gallus, brother-in-law of Emperor Constantius II and Caesar of the East. ... For other uses, see Galilee (disambiguation). ...


In approximately 390 CE, Palaestina was further organised into three units: Palaestina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia (First, Second, and Third Palestine).[70][72] Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the coast, and Peraea with the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan — once part of Arabia — and most of Sinai with Petra as the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris. [70][73] “Shomron” redirects here. ... Perea (the country beyond), a portion of the kingdom of Herod the Great occupying the eastern side of the Jordan River valley, from about one third the way down from the Sea of Galilee to about one third the way down the eastern shore of the Dead Sea; it did... Caesarea Maritima Caesarea Maritima, also called Caesarea Palaestina from 133 A.D. onwards (originally called only Caesarea : kai Stratônos purgon, hê ktisantos autên Hêrôdou megaloprepôs kai limesin te kai naois kosmêsantos, Kaisareia metônomasthê [1]), was a city built by Herod the Great about... Jezreel Valley and Mount Tabor, Israel Jezreel Valley The Jezreel Valley ; ‎, Emek Yizrael, also known as the Plain of Esdraelon (Esdraelon is the Koine Greek rendering of Jezreel[1]), and as the Zirin Valley (Arabic: , Sahel Zirin), and as the Meadow of Amrs son (مرج بن عامر, Marj Ibn Amer), is... The oval forum and cardo of Gerasa (Jerash) The Decapolis (Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Syria and Judea (renamed Palestine in 135 AD). ... Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses of the word Sinai, please see: Sinai (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Jordanian site of Petra. ...


In 536 CE, Justinian I promoted the governor at Caesarea to proconsul (anthypatos), giving him authority over the two remaining consulars. Justinian believed that the elevation of the governor was appropriate because he was responsible for "the province in which our Lord Jesus Christ... appeared on earth".[74] This was also the principal factor explaining why Palestine prospered under the Christian Empire. The cities of Palestine, such as Caesarea Maritima, Jerusalem, Scythopolis, Neapolis, and Gaza reached their peak population in the late Roman period and produced notable Christian scholars in the disciplines of rhetoric, historiography, Eusebian ecclesiastical history, classicizing history and hagiography.[74] This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Caesarea Palaestina, also called Caesarea Maritima, a town built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 BC, lies on the sea-coast of Israel about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of a place previously called Pyrgos Stratonos (Strato or Stratons Tower, in Latin Turris Stratonis). ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ...


Byzantine administration of Palestine was temporarily suspended during the Persian occupation of 614–28, and then permanently after the Muslims arrived in 634 CE, defeating the empire's forces decisively at the Battle of Yarmouk in 636 CE. Jerusalem capitulated in 638 CE and Caesarea between 640 CE and 642 CE.[74] This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...


Arab Caliphate rule (638 - 1099 CE)

The Caliphate, 622-750      Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
The Caliphate, 622-750      Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

In 638 CE, Caliph Omar Ibn al-Khattab and Safforonius, the Byzantine governor of Jerusalem, signed Al-Uhda al-'Omariyya (The Umariyya Covenant), an agreement that stipulated the rights and obligations of all non-Muslims in Palestine.[70] Jews were permitted to return to Palestine for the first time since the 500-year ban enacted by the Romans and maintained by Byzantine rulers.[75][53] Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Sophronius of Jerusalem Sophronius (born 560 in Damascus - died March 11, 638 in Jerusalem) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Omar Ibn al-Khattab was the first conqueror of Jerusalem to enter the city on foot, and when visiting the site that now houses the Haram al-Sharif, he declared it a sacred place of prayer.[76][77] Cities that accepted the new rulers, as recorded in registrars from the time, were: Jerusalem, Nablus, Jenin, Acre, Tiberias, Bisan, Caesarea, Lajjun, Lydd, Jaffa, Imwas, Beit Jibrin, Gaza, Rafah, Hebron, Yubna, Haifa, Safad and Ashkelon.[75] The Temple Mount or Noble Sanctuary (Hebrew language: Har HaBayit, Arabic language: الحرم الشريف Al-Haram As-Sharif), is a hotly contested religious site in the old city of Jerusalem. ... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) â–¶ (help·info) (Hebrew: בֵּית שְׁאָן ; unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; official Israeli Arabic بيت شان Bayt Šān); Arabic بيسان â–¶ (help·info) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Downtown area of Lod Lod (Hebrew לוֹד; Arabic اَلْلُدّْ al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda, Tiberian Hebrew לֹד Lōḏ) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ruins of the former Palestinian town of Bayt Jibrin, inside the green line of Hebron Bayt Jibrin (Arabic: , also spelled Beit Jibrin) is a former Palestinian town located 21km northwest of the city of Hebron. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... Yavne (Hebrew יבנה, Arabic يبنة Yibnah) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Safed (Hebrew צפת Tzfat, Arabic صفد Safad, other English spellings Zefat,Safad,Tsfat etc. ...


Umayyad rule (661 - 750 CE)

Under Umayyad rule, the Byzantine province of Palaestina Prima became the administrative and military sub-province (jund) of Filastin - the Arabic name for Palestine from that point forward. [78] It formed part of the larger province of ash-Sham (Arabic for Greater Syria).[79] Jund Filastin (Arabic جند فلسطين, literally "the army of Palestine") was a region extending from the Sinai to the plain of Acre. Major towns included Rafah, Caesarea, Gaza, Jaffa, Nablus and Jericho.[80] Jund al-Urdunn (literally "the army of Jordan") was a region to the north and east of Filastin which included the cities of Acre, Bisan and Tiberias.[80] The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... The traditional Arabic term Bilad al-Sham (Arabic: بلاد الشام , also transliterated bilad-ush-sham etc. ... The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Caesarea is the name of several Roman cities and towns, including: Caesarea Antiochia, properly Antioch in Pisidia, near modern Yalvaç, Turkey Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, modern Kayseri, Turkey Caesarea Palaestina: modern Caesarea, in Israel Caesarea Philippi in the Golan Heights Iol Caesarea: modern Cherchell, in Algeria Caesarea Magna or Caesara... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... “Akko” redirects here. ... Map of the Decapolis showing the location of Bet Shean (here called by its Greek name, Scythopolis) Bet Shean (Hebrew בית שאן unofficially also spelled Beit Shean, Beth Shean; Arabic بيسان Baysān) is a city in the North... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ...


In 691, Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan ordered that the Dome of the Rock be built on the site where the Islamic prophet Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have begun his nocturnal journey to heaven, on the Temple Mount. About a decade afterward, Caliph Al-Walid I had the Al-Aqsa Mosque built.[81] Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount, or Mount Moriah The Dome of the Rock (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ...


It was under Umayyad rule that Christians and Jews were granted the official title of "Peoples of the Book" to underline the common monotheistic roots they shared with Islam.[75][82] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Abbasid rule (750 - 969 CE)

The Baghdad-based Abbasid Caliphs renovated and visited the holy shrines and sanctuaries in Jerusalem[83] and continued to build up Ramle.[75][84] Coastal areas were fortified and developed and port cities like Acre, Haifa, Caesarea, Arsuf, Jaffa and [[Ashkelon received monies from the state treasury.[85][citation needed] Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Arsuf (also known as Arsur or Apollonia) was a Crusader city and fortress located in what is now Israel, about 15 kilometres north of Tel Aviv. ...


A trade fair took place in Jerusalem every year on September 15 where merchants from Pisa, Genoa, Venice and Marseilles converged to acquire spices, soaps, silks, olive oil, sugar and glassware in exchange for European products.[85][citation needed] European Christian pilgrims visited and made generous donations to Christian holy places in Jerusalem and Bethlehem.[85][citation needed] Harun al-Rashid (786 - 809) established the Christian Pilgrims' Inn in Jerusalem, fulfilling Umar's pledge to Bishop Sophronious to allow freedom of religion and access to Jerusalem for Christian pilgrims.[86] is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Marseilles redirects here. ...


Fatimid rule (969 - 1099 CE)

From their base in Tunisia, the Fatimids, who claimed to be descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, conquered Palestine by way of Egypt in 969 CE.[85][87] Jerusalem, Nablus, and Askalan were expanded and renovated under their rule.[85][citation needed] The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Fatima may refer to: Fatima (name) a female personal name (see that article for a list of other people with the name) Fatima Zahra, daughter of prophet Muhammad, and wife of Ali, the 1st Imam of Shia Islam. ...


After the 10th century, the division into Junds began to break down. In 1071, the Isfahan-based Seljuk Turks captured Jerusalem only to hand it back in 1098.[85] Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... Seljuk Prince with Mongoloid features. ...

See also the Mideastweb map of "Palestine Under the Caliphs", showing Jund boundaries (external link).
An 1890 map of Palestine as described by medieval Arab geographers, with the junds of northern Jordan and southern Filastin
An 1890 map of Palestine as described by medieval Arab geographers, with the junds of northern Jordan and southern Filastin

Download high resolution version (979x1072, 213 KB)Map of Palestine during the Middle Ages according to the description of the Arab geographers, drawn by Geo. ... Download high resolution version (979x1072, 213 KB)Map of Palestine during the Middle Ages according to the description of the Arab geographers, drawn by Geo. ...

Crusader rule (1099 - 1187 CE)

See also: Crusade
See also: Kingdom of Jerusalem

Under the European rule, fortifications, castles, towers and fortified villages were built, rebuilt and renovated across Palestine largely in rural areas.[85][88] A notable urban remnant of the Crusader architecture of this era is found in Acre's old city.[85][89] This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ...


In July 1187, the Cairo-based Kurdish General Saladin commanded his troops to victory in the Battle of Hattin.[90][91] Saladin went on to take Jerusalem. An agreement granting special status to the Crusaders allowed them to continue to stay in Palestine and In 1229, Frederick II negotiated a 10-year treaty that placed Jerusalem, Nazareth and Bethlehem once again under Crusader rule.[90] For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... See: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194-1250, king 1211/12-1250, emperor since 1220) Frederick II of Austria (?-1246, duke of Austria 1230-1246) Frederick II of Sicily (1272-1337) - who called himself Frederick III - see the article for details. ... Hebrew נָצְרַת (Natzrat) (Standard) Náẓərat Arabic الناصرة (an-Nāṣira) Name Meaning Ancient word in Hebrew Government City District North Population 64,800[1] (2006) Jurisdiction 14 200 dunams (14. ...


In 1270, Sultan Baibars expelled the Crusaders from most of the country, though they maintained a base at Acre until 1291.[90] Thereafter, any remaining Europeans either went home or merged with the local population.[91][citation needed] al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...


Mamluk rule (1270 - 1516 CE)

Palestine formed a part of the Damascus Wilayah (district) under the rule of the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt and was divided into three smaller Sanjaks (subdivisions) with capitals in Jerusalem, Gaza, and Safad.[91][citation needed] Celebrated by Arab and Muslim writers of the time as the "blessed land of the Prophets and Islam's revered leaders,"[91] Muslim sanctuaries were "rediscovered" and received many pilgrims.[92] For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... A wilāyah (Arabic: ولاية) or vilayet (Turkish: vilâyet) or (ولایت in Persian) is an administrative division, usually translated as province. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Sanjak and Sandjak (other variants: sinjaq, sanjaq) are the most common English transliterations of the Turkish word Sancak, which literally means banner. In Arabic the sanjaks were also called liwas. ...


While the first half of the Mamluk era (1270 - 1382) saw the construction of many schools, lodgings for travellers (khans) and the renovation of mosques neglected or destroyed during the Crusader period,[92] the second half (1382 - 1517) was a period of decline as the Mamluks were engaged in battles with the Mongols in areas outside Palestine.[91][93] This article is about the title. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ...


In 1486, hostilities broke out between the Mamluks and the Ottoman Turks in a battle for control over western Asia. The Mamluk armies were eventually defeated by the forces of the Ottoman Sultan, Selim I, and lost control of Palestine after the 1516 battle of Marj Dabiq .[91][94] The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... Selim I (Ottoman: سليم الأول, Turkish:) (also known as the Grim or the Brave, Yavuz in Turkish, the long name is Yavuz Sultan Selim)(October 10, 1465 – September 22, 1520) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1512 to 1520. ... Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri was the last of the Mamluk Sultans. ...


Ottoman rule (1516 - 1917 CE)

Territory of the Ottoman Empire in 1890
Territory of the Ottoman Empire in 1890

After the Ottoman conquest, the name "Palestine" disappeared as the official name of an administrative unit, as the Turks often called their (sub)provinces after the capital. Since its 1516 incorporation in the Ottoman Empire, it was part of the vilayet (province) of Damascus-Syria until 1660, next of the vilayet of Saida (Sidon), briefly interrupted by the 7 March 1799 - July 1799 French occupation of Jaffa, Haifa, and Caesarea. During the siege of Acre in 1799, Napoleon prepared a proclamation declaring a Jewish state in Palestine. On 10 May 1832 it was one of the Turkish provinces annexed by Muhammad Ali's shortly imperialistic Egypt (nominally still Ottoman), but in November 1840 direct Ottoman rule was restored. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1684x1347, 243 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ottoman Empire Suleiman the Magnificent Turkey Eastern Question Turkish people History of the Turkish people List of Ottoman... Ottoman redirects here. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... Ottoman Empire, 1481-1683 The Ottoman Empire existed from 1299 to 1922 and, at the height of its power in the 16th century, it included nearly 20 million km² in Anatolia (Asia Minor), the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of south-eastern Europe, and the Caucasus. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ...


Still the old name remained in popular and semi-official use. Many examples of its usage in the 16th and 17th centuries have survived.[95] During the 19th century, the "Ottoman Government employed the term Arz-i Filistin (the 'Land of Palestine') in official correspondence, meaning for all intents and purposes the area to the west of the River Jordan which became 'Palestine' under the British in 1922".[96] Amongst the educated Arab public, Filastin was a common concept, referring either to the whole of Palestine or to the Jerusalem sanjaq alone[97] or just to the area around Ramle.[98] This page is about districts of the Ottoman Empire; for a region in Serbia and Montenegro, see Sandžak. ...


Ottoman rule over the region lasted until the Great War (World War I) when the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. During World War I, the Ottomans were driven from much of the area by the United Kingdom during the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article describes the process of dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, in particular its final years in the early part of the 20th century. ...


The 20th century

Palestine in British map 1924 the map now in the National Library of Scotland
Palestine in British map 1924 the map now in the National Library of Scotland

In European usage up to World War I, "Palestine" was used informally for a region that extended in the north-south direction typically from Raphia (south-east of Gaza) to the Litani River (now in Lebanon). The western boundary was the sea, and the eastern boundary was the poorly-defined place where the Syrian desert began. In various European sources, the eastern boundary was placed anywhere from the Jordan River to slightly east of Amman. The Negev Desert was not included.[99] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 570 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2604 × 2738 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 570 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2604 × 2738 pixel, file size: 2. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Litani River in red The Litani River (Arabic: نهر الليطاني; transliterated: Nahr al-Lytany) is an important waterway in southern Lebanon. ... For other meanings, see Amman (disambiguation) and Ammann. ... The Negev (נגב, Standard Hebrew Négev / Nágev, Tiberian Hebrew Néḡeḇ / Nāḡeḇ; Arabic النقب an-Naqab) is the desert region of southern Israel. ...


Under the Sykes-Picot Agreement of 1916, it was envisioned that most of Palestine, when freed from Ottoman control, would become an international zone not under direct French or British colonial control. Shortly thereafter, British foreign minister Arthur Balfour issued the Balfour Declaration of 1917, which laid plans for a Jewish homeland to be established in Palestine eventually. Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Arthur James Balfour. ...


The British-led Egyptian Expeditionary Force, commanded by Edmund Allenby, captured Jerusalem on 9 December, 1917 and occupied the whole of the Levant following the defeat of Turkish forces in Palestine at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918 and the capitulation of Turkey on 31 October.[100] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants British Empire Australia India New Zealand United Kingdom  France French Armenian Legion Arab insurgents  Ottoman Empire  German Empire Commanders Edmund Allenby Otto Liman von Sanders Strength 12,000 mounted troops, 57,000 infantry, 540 guns 3,000 mounted troops, 32,000 infantry, 402 guns Casualties 782 killed, 382 missing... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


British Mandate (1920–1948)

Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the Mandate for Palestine issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September 1923
Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the Mandate for Palestine issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September 1923

The British Mandate enacted English, Hebrew and Arabic as its three official languages. The land designated by the mandate was called Palestine in English, Falastin (فلسطين) in Arabic, and in Hebrew Palestina or Eretz Yisrael ((פלשתינה (א"י). Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Image File history File links BritishMandatePalestine1920. ... Image File history File links BritishMandatePalestine1920. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz YiÅ›rāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ...


In April 1920 the Allied Supreme Council (the USA, Great Britain, France, Italy and Japan) met at Sanremo and formal decisions were taken on the allocation of mandate territories. The United Kingdom accepted a mandate for Palestine, but the boundaries of the mandate and the conditions under which it was to be held were not decided. The Zionist Organization's representative at Sanremo, Chaim Weizmann, subsequently reported to his colleagues in London: The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ...

"There are still important details outstanding, such as the actual terms of the mandate and the question of the boundaries in Palestine. There is the delimitation of the boundary between French Syria and Palestine, which will constitute the northern frontier and the eastern line of demarcation, adjoining Arab Syria. The latter is not likely to be fixed until the Emir Feisal attends the Peace Conference, probably in Paris."[101]

In July 1920, the French drove Faisal bin Husayn from Damascus ending his already negligible control over the region of Transjordan, where local chiefs traditionally resisted any central authority. The sheikhs, who had earlier pledged their loyalty to the Sharif of Mecca, asked the British to undertake the region's administration. Herbert Samuel asked for the extension of the Palestine government's authority to Transjordan, but at meetings in Cairo and Jerusalem between Winston Churchill and Emir Abdullah in March 1921 it was agreed that Abdullah would administer the territory (initially for six months only) on behalf of the Palestine administration. In the summer of 1921 Transjordan was included within the Mandate, but excluded from the provisions for a Jewish National Home.[102] On 24 July, 1922 the League of Nations approved the terms of the British Mandate over Palestine and Transjordan. On 16 September the League formally approved a memorandum from Lord Balfour confirming the exemption of Transjordan from the clauses of the mandate concerning the creation of a Jewish national home and from the mandate's responsibility to facilitate Jewish immigration and land settlement.[103] With Transjordan coming under the administration of the British Mandate, the mandate's collective territory became constituted of 23% Palestine and 77% Transjordan. Transjordan was a very sparsely populated region (specially in comparison with Palestine proper) due to its relatively limited resources and largely desert environment. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... The Sharif of Mecca (الشریف المکة) was the traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca (Makkah) and Medina (Madinah). ... Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount Samuel (1870-1963) was a British politician and diplomat. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... The Balfour Declaration was a letter of November 2, 1917 from British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour, to Lord Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ...


The award of the mandates was delayed as a result of the United States' suspicions regarding Britain's colonial ambitions and similar reservations held by Italy about France's intentions. France in turn refused to reach a settlement over Palestine until its own mandate in Syria became final. According to Louis,

Together with the American protests against the issuance of mandates these triangular quarrels between the Italians, French, and British explain why the A mandates did not come into force until nearly four years after the signing of the Peace Treaty.... The British documents clearly reveal that Balfour's patient and skillful diplomacy contributed greatly to the final issuance of the A mandates for Syria and Palestine on September 29, 1923.[104]

Even before the Mandate came into legal effect in 1923 (text), British terminology sometimes used '"Palestine" for the part west of the Jordan River and "Trans-Jordan" (or Transjordania) for the part east of the Jordan River.[105][106] Map of the World with the Participants in World War I. The Allies are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in grey. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Palestine Mandate: The Council of the League of Nations: July 24, 1922. ...

A stamp from Palestine under the British Mandate
A stamp from Palestine under the British Mandate

In the years following World War II, Britain's control over Palestine became increasingly tenuous. This was caused by a combination of factors, including: ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (552x651, 459 KB) A palestinian stamp, probably from the 1940s,palestine under the british mandate, from my own collection. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

  • Rapid deterioration due to the attacks by the Irgun and Lehi on British officials, armed forces, and strategic installations. This caused severe damage to British morale and prestige, as well as increasing opposition to the mandate in Britain itself, public opinion demanding to "bring the boys home".[107]
  • World public opinion turned against Britain as a result of the British policy of preventing Holocaust survivors from reaching Palestine, sending them instead to Cyprus internment camps, or even back to Germany, as in the case of Exodus 1947.
  • The costs of maintaining an army of over 100,000 men in Palestine weighed heavily on a British economy suffering from post-war depression, and was another cause for British public opinion to demand an end to the Mandate.
  • US Congress was delaying a loan necessary to prevent British bankruptcy. The delays were in response to the British refusal to fulfill a promise given to Truman that 100,000 Holocaust survivors would be allowed to migrate to Palestine.

Finally in early 1947 the British Government announced their desire to terminate the Mandate, and passed the responsibility over Palestine to the United Nations. Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Exodus 1947 after British takeover (note damage to makeshift barricades). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


UN partition

UN partition plan, 1947
UN partition plan, 1947

On 29 November 1947, the United Nations General Assembly, with a two-thirds majority international vote, passed the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine (United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181), a plan to resolve the Arab-Jewish conflict by partitioning the territory into separate Jewish and Arab states, with the Greater Jerusalem area (encompassing Bethlehem) coming under international control. Jewish leaders (including the Jewish Agency), accepted the plan, while Palestinian Arab leaders rejected it and refused to negotiate. Neighboring Arab and Muslim states also rejected the partition plan. The Arab community reacted violently after the Arab Higher Committee declared a strike and burned many buildings and shops. As armed skirmishes between Arab and Jewish paramilitary forces in Palestine continued, the British mandate ended on May 15, 1948, the establishment of the State of Israel having been proclaimed the day before (see Declaration of the Establishment of the State of Israel). The neighboring Arab states and armies (Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, Egypt, Transjordan, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army, and local Arabs) immediately attacked Israel following its declaration of independence, and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War ensued. Consequently, the partition plan was never implemented. On 29 November 1947 the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine or United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, a plan to resolve the Arab-Israeli conflict in the British Mandate of Palestine, was approved by the United Nations General Assembly. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (627x1147, 32 KB) UN Partition Plan for Palestine, 1947. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (627x1147, 32 KB) UN Partition Plan for Palestine, 1947. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... The Jewish Agency for Israel also known as The Jewish Agency (or sochnut in Hebrew), was previously called the Jewish Agency for Palestine (during the British Mandate of Palestine) is an Israeli organisation that advocates for Israel and is composed mainly, but not entirely, of Jewish people. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ... The Army of the Holy War or Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) was a force of Palestinian irregulars in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War led by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. ... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising...


Current status

Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the 1949 Armistice Agreements between Israel and neighboring Arab states eliminated Palestine as a distinct territory. With the establishment of Israel, the remaining lands were divided amongst Egypt, Syria and Jordan. Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ...

The region as of today: Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights
The region as of today: Israel, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights

In addition to the UN-partitioned area it was allotted, Israel captured 26% of the Mandate territory west of the Jordan river. Jordan captured and annexed about 21% of the Mandate territory, known today as the West Bank. Jerusalem was divided, with Jordan taking the eastern parts, including the Old City, and Israel taking the western parts. The Gaza Strip was captured by Egypt. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 374 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1428 × 2289 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 374 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1428 × 2289 pixel, file size: 259 KB, MIME type: image/png) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Jerusalems Old City Walls encompass an area of barely 1 km². They were built in the 16th century (1535-1538) by the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Turks after they had been razed in 1219 by al-Muazzim. ...


For a description of the massive population movements, Arab and Jewish, at the time of the 1948 war and over the following decades, see Palestinian exodus and Jewish exodus from Arab lands. Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ...

Map of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 2007

From the 1960s onward, the term "Palestine" was regularly used in political contexts. Various declarations, such as the 15 November 1988 proclamation of a State of Palestine by the PLO referred to a country called Palestine, defining its borders based on the U.N. Resolution 242 and 383 and the principle of land for peace. The Green Line was the 1967 border established by many UN resolutions including those mentioned above. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 970 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This map is a modification, suggested as a replacement for, or in addition to, the one uploaded by ChrisO at http://en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 482 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (780 × 970 pixel, file size: 107 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This map is a modification, suggested as a replacement for, or in addition to, the one uploaded by ChrisO at http://en. ... ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: ;   or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a multi-party confederation and is the organization regarded since 1974 as the sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ...


In the course of the Six Day War in June 1967, Israel captured the West Bank from Jordan and Gaza from Egypt. The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


According to the CIA World Factbook,[108] of the ten million people living between Jordan and the Mediterranean Sea, about five million (49%) identify as Palestinian, Arab, Bedouin and/or Druze. One million of those are citizens of Israel. The other four million are residents of the West Bank and Gaza, which are under the jurisdiction of the Palestinian National Authority. World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ... Religions Druze Scriptures Rasail al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom) Languages Arabic. ... Arab citizens of Israel, Arabs of Israel or Arab population of Israel are terms used by Israeli authorities and Israeli Hebrew-speaking media to refer to non-Jewish Arabs who are citizens of the State of Israel. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ...


In the West Bank, 360,000 Israeli settlers live in a hundred scattered settlements with connecting corridors. The 2.5 million West Bank Palestinians live in four blocs centered in Hebron, Ramallah, Nablus, and Jericho. In 2005, all the Israeli settlers were evacuated from the Gaza Strip in keeping with Ariel Sharon's plan for unilateral disengagement, and control over the area was transferred to the Palestinian Authority. An Israeli settlement refers to a housing development for Israeli Jewish settlers in areas which came under the control of Israel as a result of the 1967 Six-Day War beyond the boundaries defined by the 1949 Armistice Agreements. ...


Demographics

Early demographics

Estimating the population of Palestine in antiquity relies on 2 methods - censuses and writings made at the times, and the scientific method based on excavations and statistical methods that consider the number of settlements at the particular age, area of each settlement, density factor for each settelment.


According to Joseph Jacobs, writing in the Jewish Encyclopedia[109] (1901-1906), the Pentateuch contains a number of statements as to the number of Jews that left Egypt, the descendants of the seventy sons and grandsons of Jacob who took up their residence in that country. Altogether, including Levites, there were 611,730 males over twenty years of age, and therefore capable of bearing arms; this would imply a population of about 3,154,000. The Census of David is said to have recorded 1,300,000 males over twenty years of age, which would imply a population of over 5,000,000. The number of exiles who returned from Babylon is given at 42,360. Tacitus declares that Jerusalem at its fall contained 600,000 persons; Josephus, that there were as many as 1,100,000. According to Israeli archeologist Magen Broshi, "... the population of Palestine in antiquity did not exceed a million persons. It can also be shown, moreover, that this was more or less the size of the population in the peak period--the late Byzantine period, around A.D. 600"[110] Similarly, a study by Yigal Shiloh of The Hebrew University suggests that the population of Palestine in the Iron Age could have never exceeded a million. He writes: "... the population of the country in the Roman-Byzantine period greatly exceeded that in the Iron Age...If we accept Broshi's population estimates, which appear to be confirmed by the results of recent research, it follows that the estimates for the population during the Iron Age must be set at a lower figure."[111] Joseph Jacobs (1854, Australia - 1916) was a British literary historian. ... The Jewish Encyclopedia was an encyclopedia originally published between 1901 and 1906 by Funk and Wagnalls. ... Look up Pentateuch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים) is one of Israels biggest and most important institutes of higher learning and research. ...


Shmuel Katz writes: [112] Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל כץ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ...

"When Jewish independence came to an end in the year 70, the population numbered, at a conservative estimate, some 5 million people. (By Josephus' figures, there were nearer 7 million.) Even sixty years after the destruction of the Temple, at the outbreak of the revolt led by Bar Kochba in 132, when large numbers had fled or been deported, the Jewish population of the country must have numbered at least 3 million, according to Dio Cassius' figures. Sixteen centuries later, when the practical possibility of the return to Zion appeared on the horizon, Palestine was a denuded, derelict, and depopulated country. The writings of travellers who visited Palestine in the late eighteenth and throughout the nineteenth century are filled with descriptions of its emptiness, its desolation. In 1738, Thomas Shaw wrote of the absence of people to fill - Palestine's fertile soil. In 1785, Constantine Francois Volney described the "rained" and "desolate" country. He had not seen the worst. Pilgrims and travellers continued to report in heartrending terms on its condition. Almost sixty years later, Alexander Keith, recalling Volney's description, wrote: "In his day the land had not fully reached its last degree of desolation and depopulation."[113] A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Dio Cassius Cocceianus (c. ... Thomas Shaw, Baron Shaw of Dunfermline (1850 - 28 June 1937) was a Scottish politician and judge. ... Arms of Constantin François de Chassebœuf Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney (February 3, 1757 - April 25, 1820) was a French philosopher, historian, orientalist, and politician. ... Alexander Keith Alexander Keith (October 5, 1795 – December 14, 1873) Born in Halkirk, Scotland, he immigrated to Canada in 1817 and founded the Alexander Keiths brewing company in 1820. ...

The table below represents estimates of the first century population of Palestine (as adapted from Byatt, 1973).

Authority Jews Total population1
Condor, C R[114] - 6 million
Juster, J[115] 5 million >5 million
Mazar, Benjamin[116] - >4 million
Klausner, Joseph[117] 3 million 3.5 million
Grant, Michael[118] 3 million not given
Baron, Salo W[119] 2-2.5 million 2.5-3 million
Socin, A[120] - 2.5-3 million
Lowdermilk, W C[121] - 3 million
Avi-Yonah, M[122] - 2.8 million
Glueck, N[123] - 2.5 million
Beloch, K J[124] 2 million not given
Grant, F C[125] - 1.5-2.5 million
Byatt, A[126] - 2.265 million
Daniel-Rops, H[127] 1.5 million 2 million
Derwacter, F M[128] 1 million 1.5 million
Pfeiffer, R H[129] 1 million not given
Harnack, A[130] 500,000 not given
Jeremias, J[131] 500,000-600,000 not given
McCown, C C[132] <500,000 <1 million

1. There is no consensus on the population of Palestine in the first century of the Common Era; estimates range from under 1 million to 6 million.


Demographics in the late Ottoman and British Mandate periods

In the middle of the first century of the Ottoman rule, i.e. 1550 A.D., Bernard Lewis in a study of Ottoman registers of the early Ottoman Rule of Palestine reports[133] For the founder of the River Island retail chain, see Bernard Lewis (entrepreneur). ...

From the mass of detail in the registers, it is possible to extract something like a general picture of the economic life of the country in that period. Out of a total population of about 300,000 souls, between a fifth and a quarter lived in the six towns of Jerusalem, Gaza, Safed, Nablus, Ramle, and Hebron. The remainder consisted mainly of peasants, living in villages of varying size, and engaged in agriculture. Their main food-crops were wheat and barley in that order, supplemented by leguminous pulses, olives, fruit, and vegetables. In and around most of the towns there was a considerable number of vineyards, orchards, and vegetable gardens. For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea...

By Volney's estimates in 1785, there were no more than 200,000 people in the country.[134] Arms of Constantin François de Chassebœuf Constantin François de Chassebœuf, comte de Volney (February 3, 1757 - April 25, 1820) was a French philosopher, historian, orientalist, and politician. ...


In his paper 'Demography in Israel/Palestine: Trends, Prospects and Policy Implications'[135] Sergio DellaPergola, drawing on the work of Bachi (1975), provides rough estimates of the population of Palestine west of the River Jordan by religion groups from the first century onwards summarised in the table below.

Year Jews Christians Muslims Total1
First half 1st century C.E. Majority - - ~2,500²
5th century Minority Majority - >1st century
End 12th century Minority Minority Majority >225
14th cent. before Black Death Minority Minority Majority 225
14th cent. after Black Death Minority Minority Majority 150
1533-1539 5 6 145 157
1690-1691 2 11 219 232
1800 7 22 246 275
1890 43 57 432 532
1914 94 70 525 689
1922 84 71 589 752
1931 175 89 760 1,033
1947 630 143 1,181 1,970

1. Figures in thousands. The total includes Druzes and other small religious minorities.
2. There is no consensus on the population of Palestine in the first century of the Christian Era; estimates range from under 1 million to 6 million. This article concerns the mid fourteenth century pandemic. ...


According to Alexander Scholch, the population of Palestine in 1850 had about 350,000 inhabitants, 30% of whom lived in 13 towns; roughly 85% were Muslims, 11% were Christians and 4% Jews[136]

Qazas Number of
Towns and
Villages
Number of Households
Muslims Christians Jews Total
1 Jerusalem
Jerusalem 1 1,025 738 630 2,393
Countryside 116 6,118 1,202
-
7,320
2 Hebron
Hebron 1 2,800
-
200 3,000
Countryside 52 2,820
-
-
2,820
3 Gaza
Gaza 1 2,690 65
-
2,755
Countryside 55 6,417
-
-
6,417
3 Jaffa
Jaffa 3 865 266
-
1,131
Ludd . 700 207
-
907
Ramla . 675 250
-
925
Countryside 61 3,439
-
-
3,439
4 Nablus
Nablus 1 1,356 108 14 1,478
Countryside 176 13,022 202
-
13,224
5 Jinin
Jinin 1 656 16
-
672
Countryside 39 2,120 17
-
2,137
6 Ajlun
Countryside 97 1,599 137
-
1,736
7 Salt
Salt 1 500 250
-
750
Countryside 12 685
-
-
685
8 Akka
Gaza 1 547 210 6 763
Countryside 34 1,768 1,021
-
2,789
9 Haifa
Haifa 1 224 228 8 460
Countryside 41 2,011 161
-
2,171
10 Nazareth
Nazareth 1 275 1,073
-
1,348
Countryside 38 1,606 544
-
2,150
11 Tiberias
Tiberias 1 159 66 400 625
Countryside 7 507
-
-
507
12 Safad
Safad 1 1,295 3 1,197 2,495
Countryside 38 1,117 616
-
1,733

Figures from Ben-Arieh, in Scholch 1985, p. 388.


According to Ottoman statistics studied by Justin McCarthy,[137] the population of Palestine in the early 19th century was 350,000, in 1860 it was 411,000 and in 1900 about 600,000 of which 94% were Arabs. In 1914 Palestine had a population of 657,000 Muslim Arabs, 81,000 Christian Arabs, and 59,000 Jews.[138] Ottoman redirects here. ... Dr. Justin A. McCarthy is an American demographer, Ottoman expert, and history professor at the University of Louisville in Louisville, Kentucky. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ...


According to Howard Sachar, the Arab population of Palestine was about 260,000 in 1882. This number had doubled by 1914 and reached 600,000 by 1920 and 840,000 by 1931. Thus, between 1922 and 1946 the Arab population of Palestine increased by 118 percent, the highest rate of population growth among all Arab lands except Egypt.[139] McCarthy estimates the non-Jewish population of Palestine at 452,789 in 1882, 737,389 in 1914, 725,507 in 1922, 880,746 in 1931 and 1,339,763 in 1946.[140] Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ...


Travelers' impressions of Nineteenth Century Palestine

Alphonse de Lamartine visited Palestine in 1835, "Outside the gates of Jerusalem we saw indeed no living object, heard no living sound, we found the same void, the same silence ... as we should have expected before the entombed gates of Pompeii or Herculaneam a complete eternal silence reigns in the town, on the highways, in the country ... the tomb of a whole people.[141] Portrait of Alphonse de Lamartine Lamartine in front of the Hôtel de Ville de Paris, on the 25 February 1848, by Philippoteaux Alphonse Marie Louise Prat de Lamartine (Alphonse-Marie-Louis de Prat de Lamartine) (October 21, 1790 - February 28, 1869) was a French writer, poet and politician, born...


Mark Twain wrote an account of his visit to Palestine in 1867, and wrote in chapters 46,49,52 and 56 of Innocents Abroad: "Palestine sits in sackcloth and ashes. Over it broods the spell of a curse that has withered its fields and fettered its energies. Palestine is desolate and unlovely -- Palestine is no more of this workday world. It is sacred to poetry and tradition, it is dreamland."(Chapter 56)[142] "There was hardly a tree or a shrub anywhere. Even the olive and the cactus, those fast friends of a worthless soil, had almost deserted the country".(Chapter 52)[143]"A desolation is here that not even imagination can grace with the pomp of life and action. We reached Tabor safely. We never saw a human being on the whole route".(Chapter 49) [144] "There is not a solitary village throughout its whole extent – not for thirty miles in either direction. ...One may ride ten miles hereabouts and not see ten human beings." ...these unpeopled deserts, these rusty mounds of barrenness..."(Chapter 46) [145] Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Innocents Abroad cover Innocents Abroad, or The New Pilgrims Progress was published by American author Mark Twain in 1869. ...


Kathleen Christison writes that "Twain's descriptions are high in Israeli government press handouts that present a case for Israel's redemption of a land that had previously been empty and barren. His gross characterizations of the land and the people in the time before mass Jewish immigration are also often used by U.S. propagandists for Israel."[146] For example she noted that Twain described the Samaritans of Nablus at length without mentioning the much larger Arab population at all.[147] The Arab population of Nablus at the time was about 20,000.[148] Kathleen Christison and her husband, William Christison, worked for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). ...


During the nineteenth century, many residents and visitors attempted to estimate the population without recourse to official data, and came up with a large number of different values. Estimates that are reasonably reliable are only available for the final third of the century, from which period Ottoman population and taxation registers have been preserved.[149]


After a visit to Palestine in 1891, Ahad Ha'am wrote: Asher Ginsberg (1856 - 1927), also known by the pen name Ahad Haam (Hebrew: one of the people, compare with L.L. Zamenhofs Unuel), was one of the great pre-state Zionist thinkers. ...

From abroad, we are accustomed to believe that Eretz Israel is presently almost totally desolate, an uncultivated desert, and that anyone wishing to buy land there can come and buy all he wants. But in truth it is not so. In the entire land, it is hard to find tillable land that is not already tilled; only sandy fields or stony hills, suitable at best for planting trees or vines and, even that after considerable work and expense in clearing and preparing them- only these remain unworked. ... Many of our people who came to buy land have been in Eretz Israel for months, and have toured its length and width, without finding what they seek.[150]

Lawrence Oliphant, who visited Palestine in 1887, wrote that Palestine's Valley of Esdraelon was "a huge green lake of waving wheat, with its village-crowned mounds rising from it like islands; and it presents one of the most striking pictures of luxuriant fertility which it is possible to conceive."[151]


The Dutch linguist and orientalist Adriaan Reland visited Palestine in 1695, made a population census, and came to the conclusion that Palestine was mostly empty with several existing communities of Jews and Christians. [152] Adriaan Reland (also known as Adriaen Reeland/Reelant, Hadrianus Relandus) (July 17, 1676, De Rijp - February 5, 1718, Utrecht [1]) was a Dutch scholar, cartographer and philologist. ...


According to Paul Masson, a French economic historian, "wheat shipments from the Palestinian port of Acre had helped to save southern France from famine on numerous occasions in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries."[153]


Walter C. Lowdermilk, Assistant Chief of the United States Soil Conservation Service has compared Palestine favorably to California:

The similarity of Southern California and Palestine is so close in climate, topography, soils and vegetation that the present condition of similarly placed areas in California is a reliable index of the early condition of the land of Palestine. Vegetation varied from desert scrub on lower slopes of the Jordan Valley and Dead Sea, to luxuriant forests of Cedars of Lebanon on the flanks of Mount Hermon, similar to the desert vegetation from Coachella Valley below sea level in Southern California to pine and fir forests on lower slopes of Mt. Baldy (10,000 feet) in the San Gabriel Range. Rainfall favours Palestine, for Jaffa gets more rain 2 1.5 inches) per annum than Los Angeles (15.2 inches), and the Mt. Hermon mountain land mass gets up to 70 inches of rain while Mt. Baldy only 50 inches. Other comparisons are striking. The region of the Jordan River, including Palestine and Trans-Jordan and the maritime slopes, is quite similar to California, but has an added advantage of its limestone country rock. The climates are alike, the natural vegetation, the physiographic features, except for the great limestone springs in Palestine. Similar crops may be grown. Differences are that soils of Palestine were uniformly better, that uplands have been badly eroded from misuse, and that slopes of Palestine favoured tree crops and were terraced where surface rock was ready at hand..".[154]

Researcher Abelson writes:[155]

In 1898, German Kaiser Wilhelm II also visited Palestine. He was appalled at the condition of the country. The Ottomans had stripped the forests for lumber and firewood. The Palestinian Arabs had let an old Roman aqueduct fall into ruin. The ultimate ecological curse was the ubiquitous herds of black goats. For nearly 2,000 years after the dispersion of the Jews, Arabs had allowed their goats to graze unfenced across Palestine. They had eaten the grass down to its roots, and the topsoil had eroded and blown away. The biblical land of milk and honey had become a dust bowl. Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ...

Palestine: The Original Sin, Meir Abelson

Official reports

The Report of the Palestine Royal Commission contains a description of Palestine's coastal plain in 1913: "The road leading from Gaza to the north was only a summer track suitable for transport by camels and carts...No orange groves, orchards or vineyards were to be seen until one reached [the Jewish village of] Yabna [Yavne]...Houses were all of mud. No windows were anywhere to be seen...The ploughs used were of wood...The yields were very poor...The sanitary conditions in the village were horrible. Schools did not exist...The western part, towards the sea, was almost a desert...The villages in this area were few and thinly populated. Many ruins of villages were scattered over the area, as owing to the prevalence of malaria, many villages were deserted by their inhabitants."[156]


In 1920, the League of Nations' Interim Report on the Civil Administration of Palestine stated that there were 700,000 people living in Palestine:

Of these 235,000 live in the larger towns, 465,000 in the smaller towns and villages. Four-fifths of the whole population are Moslems. A small proportion of these are Bedouin Arabs; the remainder, although they speak Arabic and are termed Arabs, are largely of mixed race. Some 77,000 of the population are Christians, in large majority belonging to the Orthodox Church, and speaking Arabic. The minority are members of the Latin or of the Uniate Greek Catholic Church, or--a small number--are Protestants. The Jewish element of the population numbers 76,000. Almost all have entered Palestine during the last 40 years. Prior to 1850 there were in the country only a handful of Jews. In the following 30 years a few hundreds came to Palestine. Most of them were animated by religious motives; they came to pray and to die in the Holy Land, and to be buried in its soil. After the persecutions in Russia forty years ago, the movement of the Jews to Palestine assumed larger proportions.[157]

By 1948, the population had risen to 1,900,000, of whom 68% were Arabs, and 32% were Jews (UNSCOP report, including bedouin). Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... A Bedouin man on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, (from the Arabic (), is a desert-dwelling Arab nomadic pastoralist, found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via the Western Desert, Sinai, and Negev to the Arabian Desert. ...


Genetic analyses of regional populations

Regions of the Y chromosome used in staining

According to various genetic studies, Jewish and Samaritan populations and various Palestinian populations overlap genetically because they share some of the same Neolithic ancestors. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (408x647, 64 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (408x647, 64 KB) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Samaritan (disambiguation). ...


Geneticists generally agree there was mixing in Middle East populations in prehistoric times. Nebel et al. (2000) doing Y-chromosome haplotype analysis for patrilineal ancestry of Jews and Palestinian Muslims "revealed a common gene pool for a large portion of Y chromosomes, suggesting a relatively recent common ancestry". The two modal haplotypes that comprise the Palestinian Arab clade were very infrequent among Jews, "reflecting divergence and/or admixture from other populations". Nebel et al. regard their findings in good agreement with historical evidence that suggest that "Part, or perhaps the majority, of the Muslim Arabs in this country descended from local inhabitants, mainly Christians and Jews, who had converted after the Islamic conquest in the seventh century AD... These local inhabitants, in turn, were descendants of the core population that had lived in the area for several centuries, some even since prehistoric times.[158] The Y chromosome is one of the sex-determining chromosomes in humans and most other mammals (the other is the X chromosome). ... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...


A subsequent study aimed at determining the genetic relationship among three Jewish communities (Ashkenazi, Sephardic, and Kurdish) by the same group described two Y-chromosomal haplotype groups, Eu9 and Eu10, that represent a major part of Middle East ancestry. Eu9 appears to originate from the northern Fertile Crescent, while Eu10 appears to come from the southern part of it. Jewish and Muslim Kurdish populations have high-frequency of Eu9 but generally lack Eu10, which is prevalent in Palestinian Muslims. The study proposes that This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ...

...the Y chromosomes in Palestinian Arabs and Bedouin represent, to a large extent, early lineages derived from the Neolithic inhabitants of the area and additional lineages from more-recent population movements. The early lineages are part of the common chromosome pool shared with Jews. According to our working model, the more-recent migrations were mostly from the Arabian Peninsula, as is seen in the Arab-specific Eu 10 chromosomes that include the modal haplotypes observed in Palestinians and Bedouin... The study demonstrates that the Y chromosome pool of Jews is an integral part of the genetic landscape of the region and, in particular, that Jews exhibit a high degree of genetic affinity to populations living in the north of the Fertile Crescent.[159]

The question of late Arab immigration to Palestine

Whether there was significant Arab immigration into Palestine after the beginning of Jewish settlement there in the late 19th century has been a matter of some controversy.


Howard Sachar estimates the number of Arabs who immigrated to Palestine between 1922 and 1946 at 100,000.[160] He argues that Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ...

The influx could be traced in some measure to the orderly government provided by the British; but far more, certainly, to the economic opportunities provided by Jewish settlement. The rise of the Yishuv benefited Arab life indirectly, by disproportionate Jewish contributions to the government revenue, and thereby to increase the mandatory expenditures on the Arab sector; and directly, by opening new markets for Arab produce and (until the civil war of 1936) new employment opportunities for the Arab labor. It was significant, for example, that the movement of Arabs within Palestine itself was largely to regions of Jewish concentration. Thus, Arab population increase during the 1930s was 87 percent in Haifa, 61 percent in Jaffa, 37 percent in Jerusalem. A similar growth was registered in Arab towns located near Jewish agricultural villages. The 25 percent rise in of Arab participation in industry could be traced exclusively to the needs of the large Jewish immigration.[161] Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ...

According to Martin Gilbert, 50,000 Arabs immigrated to Palestine from the neighboring lands between 1919 and 1939 "attracted by the improving agricultural conditions and growing job opportunities, most of them created by the Jews".[162] Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ...


American economist Gottheil argues that there likely was significant Arab immigration:

There is every reason to believe that consequential immigration of Arabs into and within Palestine occurred during the Ottoman and British mandatory periods. Among the most compelling arguments in support of such immigration is the universally acknowledged and practiced linkage between regional economic disparities and migratory impulses. The precise magnitude of Arab immigration into and within Palestine is, as Bachi noted, unknown. Lack of completeness in Ottoman registration lists and British Mandatory censuses, and the immeasurable illegal, unreported, and undetected immigration during both periods make any estimate a bold venture into creative analysis. In most cases, those venturing into the realm of Palestinian demography—or other demographic analyses based on very crude data—acknowledge its limitations and the tentativeness of the conclusions that may be drawn.[163]

As McCarthy explains, "... evidence for Muslim immigration into Palestine is minimal. Because no Ottoman records of that immigration have yet been discovered, one is thrown back on demographic analysis to evaluate Muslim migration."[164] On the other hand,[165] Roberto Bachi has concluded that there was a small but significant unrecorded Muslim immigration into Palestine estimated at around 900 people per year or approximately 13,500 in total between 1931 and 1945.[166] McCarthy argues that there is no significant Arab immigration into mandatory Palestine:

From analyses of rates of increase of the Muslim population of the three Palestinian sanjaks, one can say with certainty that Muslim immigration after the 1870s was small. Had there been a large group of Muslim immigrants their numbers would have caused an unusual increase in the population and this would have appeared in the calculated rate of increase from one registration list to another... Such an increase would have been easily noticed; it was not there.[167]

The argument that Arab immigration somehow made up a large part of the Palestinian Arab population is thus statistically untenable. The vast majority of the Palestinian Arabs resident in 1947 were the sons and daughters of Arabs who were living in Palestine before modern Jewish immigration began. There is no reason to believe that they were not the sons and daughters of Arabs who had been in Palestine for many centuries.[168]

McCarthy also concludes that there was no significant internal migration to Jewish areas attributable to better economic conditions:

Some areas of Palestine did experience greater population growth than others, but the explanation for this is simple. Radical economic change was occurring all over the Mediterranean Basin at the time. Improved transportation, greater mercantile activity, and greater industry had increased the chances for employment in cities, especially coastal cities... Differential population increase was occurring all over the Eastern Mediterranean, not just in Palestine... The increase in Muslim population had little or nothing to do with Jewish immigration. In fact the province that experienced the greatest Jewish population growth (by .035 annually), Jerusalem Sanjak, was the province with the lowest rate of growth of Muslim population (.009).[169]

Gad Gilbar has also concluded that the prosperity of the Palestine in the 45-50 years before World War I was a result of the modernization and growth of the economy owing to its integration with the world economy and especially with the economies of Europe. Although the reasons for growth were exogenous to Palestine the bearers were not waves of Jewish immigration, foreign intervention nor Ottoman reforms but "primarily local Arab Muslims and Christians."[170]


Demographer Uziel Schmelz, in his analysis of Ottoman registration data for 1905 populations of Jerusalem and Hebron kazas, found that most Ottoman citizens living in these areas, comprising about one quarter of the population of Palestine, were living at the place where they were born. Specifically, of Muslims, 93.1% were born in their current locality of residence, 5.2% were born elsewhere in Palestine, and 1.6% were born outside Palestine. Of Christians, 93.4% were born in their current locality, 3.0% were born elsewhere in Palestine, and 3.6% were born outside Palestine. Of Jews (excluding the large fraction who were not Ottoman citizens), 59.0% were born in their current locality, 1.9% were born elsewhere in Palestine, and 39.0% were born outside Palestine.[171]


Yehoshua Porath believes that the notion of "large-scale immigration of Arabs from the neighboring countries" is a myth "proposed by Zionist writers". He writes: Yehoshua Porath is Professor Emeritus of Middle East History at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. ...

As all the research by historian Fares Abdul Rahim and geographers of modern Palestine shows, the Arab population began to grow again in the middle of the nineteenth century. That growth resulted from a new factor: the demographic revolution. Until the 1850s there was no "natural" increase of the population, but this began to change when modern medical treatment was introduced and modern hospitals were established, both by the Ottoman authorities and by the foreign Christian missionaries. The number of births remained steady but infant mortality decreased. This was the main reason for Arab population growth. ... No one would doubt that some migrant workers came to Palestine from Syria and Trans-Jordan and remained there. But one has to add to this that there were migrations in the opposite direction as well. For example, a tradition developed in Hebron to go to study and work in Cairo, with the result that a permanent community of Hebronites had been living in Cairo since the fifteenth century. Trans-Jordan exported unskilled casual labor to Palestine; but before 1948 its civil service attracted a good many educated Palestinian Arabs who did not find work in Palestine itself. Demographically speaking, however, neither movement of population was significant in comparison to the decisive factor of natural increase.[172]

Daniel Pipes responds to Porath by saying that the argument that 'substantial immigration of Arabs to Palestine took place during the first half of the twentieth century is supported by an array of demographic statistics and contemporary accounts, the bulk of which have not been questioned by anyone.[173] Daniel Pipes in Copenhagen Daniel Pipes (born September 9, 1949) is an American historian and analyst who specializes in the Middle East. ... Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of human populations. ...


Current demographics

See also: Demographics of Israel, Demographics of the Palestinian territories, and Demographics of Jordan

According to Israel's Central Bureau of Statistics, as of May 2006, of Israel's 7 million people, 77% were Jews, 18.5% Arabs, and 4.3% "others".[174] Among Jews, 68% were Sabras (Israeli-born), mostly second- or third-generation Israelis, and the rest are olim — 22% from Europe and the Americas, and 10% from Asia and Africa, including the Arab countries.[175] This article discusses the demographics of Israel. ... The Palestinian territories, occupied — according to the United Nations terminology — since the 1967 Six-Day War, include the West Bank and the Gaza strip. ... Jordanians are mostly Arabs, except for a few small communities of Circassians, Chechens, Armenians, and Kurds which have adapted to Arab culture. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ... Sabra (Hebrew: צבר) is a slang term used to describe a native-born Israeli Jew. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... Arab States redirects here. ...


According to Palestinian evaluations, The West Bank is inhabited by approximately 2.4 million Palestinians and the Gaza Strip by another 1.4 million. According to a study presented at The Sixth Herzliya Conference on The Balance of Israel's National Security[176] there are 1.4 million Palestinians in the West Bank. This study was criticised by demographer Sergio DellaPergola, who estimated 3.33 million Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip combined at the end of 2005.[177] The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ...


According to these Israeli and Palestinian estimates, the population in Israel and the Palestinian Territories stands at 9.8-10.8 million.


Jordan has a population of around 6,000,000 (2007 estimate).[178][179] Palestinians constitute approximately half of this number.[180]


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... Mythological King Davids Kingdom at the time of his death Greater Israel (also Complete Land of Israel, Hebrew: ‎, Eretz Yisrael Hashlemah[1][2]) is a term that denotes Biblical boundaries of the Land of Israel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... The Land of Israel (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, Masoretic: ʼẸretz Yiśrāēl, Hebrew Academy: Éreẓ Yisrael, Yiddish: ) is the divinely ordained and given territory by God as an eternal inheritance to the Jewish people. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Over recorded history, there have been many names of the Levant. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ... ...

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References

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Sir Martin John Gilbert, CBE (born October 25, 1936 in London) is a British historian and the author of over seventy books, including works on the Holocaust and Jewish history. ... Middle East Quarterly (MEQ) is a quarterly journal devoted to subjects relating to the Middle East. ... Rashid Khalidi (1950 - ) is the Edward Said Professor of Arab Studies at Columbia University, and the head of Columbias Middle East Institute. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Samuel Katz (Hebrew: שמואל כץ Shmuel Katz), alias Mooki (Hebrew: מוקי) (born December 9, 1914) is an Israeli writer, historian and journalist. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is Full Professor of Philosophy and Chairman of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... Fabio Maniscalco is an Italian archaeologist, specialist about the protection of cultural property and essayist. ... Howard Morley Sachar (born in 1928) is a historian and an author. ... The Encyclopedia of World History is a classic single volume work detailing world history. ... Bartleby. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Palestine - Encyclopedia Article (2855 words)
As a geographical term, Palestine denotes a region in the Middle East, lying on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea.
Palestine subsequently became a part of the Arab Empire until its conquest by the Crusaders at the end of the 11th century.
Palestine is recognized as a state by many Arab and Islamic states, and as such Palestine is a member of the League of Arab States.
Palestine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5332 words)
Palestine (Hebrew: פלשתינה, Palestina; Arabic: فلسطين‎ Filastīn or Falastīn) is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River with various adjoining lands.
Jund Filastin (Arabic جند فلسطين, literally "the army or military district of Palestine") was a region extending from the Sinai to south of the plain of Acre.
Various declarations, such as the 1988 proclamation of a State of Palestine by the PLO referred to a country called Palestine, defining its borders with differing degrees of clarity, including the annexation of the whole of the State of Israel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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