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Zoology


Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Branches of Zoology

Anthrozoology · Apiology
Arachnology · Cetology
Conchology · Entomology
Ethology · Herpetology
Ichthyology · Malacology
Mammalogy · Myrmecology
Neuroethology · Ornithology
Planktology · Paleozoology
Primatology Anthrozoology is the study of human-animal interaction, also described as the science focusing on all aspects of the human-animal bond. ... Apiology (from Greek: api, bee; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the scientific study of honey bees, a subdiscipline of Melittology, which is itself a branch of entomology. ... Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related organisms such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. ... Cetology (from Greek: κητος, cetus, whale; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea. ... Conchology is the scientific study of shells of mollusks, a branch of malacology. ... Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the history of words. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Herpetology (from greek: ἑρπετόν, creeping animal and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ... Ichthyology (from Greek: ἰχθυ, ikhthu, fish; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ... Myrmecology is the scientific study of ants, a branch of entomology. ... Neuroethology (from Greek - neuron meaning from nerves, ethos meaning trait or character, and logos meaning words or study) is the scientific study of animal behaviour with its base in neurology. ... This article is about the field of zoology. ... Planktology is the study of plankton, various microorganisms that inhabit bodies of water. ... Paleozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of animal remains from archeological (or even geological) contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. ... Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ...

Notable Zoologists

Georges Cuvier · Charles Darwin
William Kirby · Carolus Linnaeus
Konrad Lorenz · Thomas Say
Alfred Russel Wallace · more...
Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... William Kirby. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Thomas Say. ... For the Cornish painter, see Alfred Wallis. ... This is a list of notable biologists. ...

History

pre-Darwin This article considers the history of zoology before the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ...


post-Darwin This article considers the history of zoology in the years up to 1912, since the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ...

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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised faeces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Studies of prehistoric hominins, their culture and their behaviour are the purview of two other disciplines, archaeology and paleoanthropology. Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A fossilized dinosaur footprint from a fossil trackway at Clayton Lake State Park, New Mexico. ... A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion. ... Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... Coprolite is the name given to the mineral that results when human or animal semen is fossilized. ... Palynomorph is the geological term used to describe a particle of a size between 5 - 500 micrometres, found in rock deposits (sedimentary rocks) and composed of organic material, such as chitin, pseudochitin and sporopollenin. ... [[{{{diversity_link}}}|Diversity]] {{{diversity}}} Binomial name {{{binomial}}} Trinomial name {{{trinomial}}} Type Species {{{type_species}}} Genera Pan (chimpanzees) Homo(humans) Paranthropus (extinct) Australopithecus (extinct) Sahelanthropus (extinct) Orrorin (extinct) Ardipithecus (extinct) Kenyanthropus (extinct) [[Image:{{{range_map}}}|{{{range_map_width}}}|]] Synonyms {{{synonyms}}} Hominini is the tribe of Homininae that only includes humans (Homo), chimpanzees (Pan), and their extinct... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ...

Contents

Background

Modern paleontology sets ancient life in its contexts by studying how long-term physical changes of global geography paleogeography and climate paleoclimate have affected the evolution of life, how ecosystems have responded to these changes and have adapted the planetary environment in turn and how these mutual responses have affected today's patterns of biodiversity. Hence, paleontology overlaps with geology (the study of rocks and rock formations) as well as with botany, biology, zoology and ecology – fields concerned with life forms and how they interact. Prehistoric life is a term used to refer to diverse organisms that inhabited Earth from the origin of life about 3. ... Paleogeography (sometimes spelled palaeogeography) is the study of the ancient geologic environments of the Earths surface as preserved in the stratigraphic record. ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the earth. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... For the song by Girls Aloud see Biology (song) Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, speech lit. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... For the journal, see Ecology (journal). ... Life on Earth redirects here. ...


The major subdivisions of paleontology include paleozoology (animals), paleobotany (plants) and micropaleontology (microfossils). Paleozoologists may specialise in invertebrate paleontology, which deals with animals without backbones or in vertebrate paleontology, dealing with fossils of animals with backbones, including fossil hominids (paleoanthropology). Micropaleontologists study microscopic fossils, including organic-walled microfossils whose study is called palynology. Paleozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of animal remains from archeological (or even geological) contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. ... Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. ... Micropaleontology, the study of microfossils, is a branch of paleontology. ... A Classification of Invertebrate Paleontology Kingdom Protoctista Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Sarcodina Subclass Rhizopoda Order Foraminifera Suborder Allogromiina Suborder Textulariina Suborder Fusulinina Suborder Miliolina Suborder Rotaliina Subclass Actinopoda Order Radiolaria Kingdom Monera Division Schizomycophyta (bacteria) Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Coelenterata / Cnidaria Phylum Bryzoa Phylum... Vertebrate paleontology seeks to discover the behavior, reproduction and appearance of extinct spined animals, through the study of their fossilized remains. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ...


There are many developing specialties such as paleobiology, paleoecology, ichnology (the study of tracks and burrows) and taphonomy (the study of what happens to organisms after they expire). Major areas of study include the correlation of rock strata with their geologic ages and the study of evolution of lifeforms. Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... Paleoecology uses data from fossils and subfossils to reconstruct the ecosystems of the past. ... Ichnology is the branch of paleontology dealing with the study of fossilized footprints, tracks and burrows. ... Taphonomy is the study of the fate of the remains of organisms after they die. ... Interstate road cut through limestone and shale strata in eastern Tennessee In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of rock or soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes it from contiguous layers. ... A geologic age is a time period on the geologic timescale delimited by major geologic or paleontologic events. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ...


Paleontology utilises the same classic binomial nomenclature scheme, devised for the biology of living things by the mid-18th century Swedish biologist Carolus Linnaeus and increasingly sets these species in a genealogical framework, showing their degrees of interrelatedness using the still somewhat controversial technique of 'cladistics'. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... It has been suggested that Clade be merged into this article or section. ...


The primary economic importance of paleontology lies in the use of fossils to determine the age and nature of the rocks that contain them or the layers above or below. This information is vital to the mining industry and especially the petroleum industry. Simply looking at the fossils contained in a rock remains one of the fastest and most accurate means of telling how old that rock is. This article is about mineral extractions. ... Petro redirects here. ...


Fossils were known by primitive humans and were sometimes identified correctly as the remains of ancient lifeforms. The organised study of paleontology dates from the late 18th century. For a more complete historical overview see the article History of paleontology. The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ...


Notable paleontologists

A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae.
A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae.

History includes a number of prominent paleontologists. Charles Darwin collected fossils of South American mammals during his trip on the Beagle and examined petrified forests in Patagonia. Mary Anning was a notable early paleontologist. She found several landmark fossils, in her home town of Lyme Regis. Although self-taught, she collected and described them in a very systematic way. William Buckland, Richard Owen, Gideon Mantell, Georges Cuvier and Thomas Huxley were important early pioneers, in the field of paleontology. Thomas Jefferson took a keen interest in mammoth bones. Edward Drinker Cope and Othniel Charles Marsh waged a famously fierce competition known as the Bone Wars in the late 19th century that involved some questionable practices, but which significantly advanced the understanding of the natural history of North America and vertebrate paleontology. Professor Earl Douglass of the Carnegie University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, opened the fossil quarry protected today by Dinosaur National Monument in Utah. Douglass' fossils are in several Natural History Museums. Meanwhile, Baron Franz Nopcsa, a pioneer paleobiologist, argued that dinosaurs might have been both warm-blooded and ancestral to birds. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x772, 70 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Paleontology ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (550x772, 70 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Paleontology ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Mary Anning (May 21, 1799 – March 9, 1847) was an early British fossil collector and paleontologist. ... , Lyme Regis (IPA: ) is a coastal town in West Dorset, England, situated 25 miles west of Dorchester and 25 miles east of Exeter. ... William Buckland (12 March 1784 - 24 August 1856) was a prominent English geologist and palaeontologist who wrote the first full account of a fossil dinosaur, a proponent of Old Earth creationism and Flood geology who later became convinced by the glaciation theory of Louis Agassiz. ... Sir Richard Owen KCB (July 20, 1804–December 18, 1892) was an English biologist, comparative anatomist and palaeontologist. ... Gideon Algernon Mantell (February 3, 1790 – November 10, 1852) was an English obstetrician, geologist and palaeontologist. ... Georges Cuvier Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier (August 23, 1769–May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist and zoologist. ... Thomas Henry Huxley, FRS (4 May 1825 – 29 June 1895) [1] was an English biologist, known as Darwins Bulldog for his advocacy of Charles Darwins theory of evolution. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Edward Drinker Cope Edward Drinker Cope (July 28, 1840–April 12, 1897) was an American paleontologist and comparative anatomist, as well as a noted herpetologist and ichthyologist. ... Othniel Charles Marsh (1831-1899) Othniel Charles Marsh (October 29, 1831 - March 18, 1899) was one of the pre-eminent paleontologists of the 19th century, who discovered and named many fossils found in the American West. ... Bone Wars - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Dinosaur National Monument is a U.S. National Monument located on the southeast flank of the Uinta Mountains on the border between the American states of Colorado and Utah at the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers. ... Baron Nopcsa Baron Franz Nopcsa von Felső-Szilvás (also Baron Nopcsa, Ferenc Nopcsa, Nopcsa Ferenc, Baron Franz Nopcsa, and Franz Baron Nopcsa) (May 3rd, 1877 to April 25, 1933) was a Hungarian-born aristocrat, adventurer, scholar, and paleontologist. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ...



Besides looking at mammal teeth and unearthing penguin skeletons, George Gaylord Simpson played a crucial role in bringing together ideas from biology, paleontology and genetics, to help create the 'Modern Synthesis' of evolutionary biology. His book "Tempo and Mode" is a classic in the field. Prominent names in invertebrate paleontology include Steven M. Stanley, Stephen Jay Gould, David Raup, Rousseau H. Flower and Jack Sepkoski, who have done much to expand our understanding of long-term patterns in the evolution of life on earth. Large names in the field of paleoanthropology include Louis, Mary and Richard Leakey, Raymond Dart, Robert Broom, C.K. 'Bob' Brain, Kenneth Oakley, Robert Ardrey and Donald Johanson. In recent times, Mongolian paleontologist Rinchen Barsbold has done much to expand our understanding of dinosaur and bird evolution. Paul Sereno of the Field Museum in Chicago has made several important dinosaur finds in areas such as the Sahara, where fossil hunting has been uncommon. Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 - October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... David M. Raup is a University of Chicago paleontologist. ... Rousseau H. Flower (1913–1988) was an extremely prolific 20th century paleontologist, known for his eccentric personality. ... J. John Sepkoski Jr. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Paleoanthropology, which combines the disciplines of paleontology and physical anthropology, is the study of ancient humans as found in fossil hominid evidence such as petrifacted bones and footprints. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mary Leakey (February 6, 1913 – December 9, 1996) was a British archaeologist, who, along with others, discovered the first skull of a fossil ape on Rusinga Island and also a noted robust Australopithecine called Zinjanthropus at Olduvai. ... Richard Erskine Frere Leakey (born 19 December 1944 in Nairobi, Kenya), is a Kenyan paleontologist and conservationist. ... Raymond Dart, holding the Taung Child skull Raymond Dart (February 4, 1893–22 November 1988) was an Australian anatomist and anthropologist best known for his discovery in 1924 of a fossil of Australopithecus at Taung in Northwestern South Africa. ... Image:Broom R.jpg Robert Broom Prof. ... Charles Kimberlin Brain (C. K. Bob Brain), born in Zimbabwe in 1931, is an eminent South African paleontologist who has studied and taught African Cave Taphonomy for more than fifty years. ... Kenneth Page Oakley (April 7, 1911-November 2, 1981) was an English physical anthropologist, geologist, and palaeontologist best known for his work in the relative dating of fossils by fluorine content. ... Robert Ardrey (b. ... Donald Carl Johanson (born June 28, 1943) is an American paleoanthropologist known for his discovery of the skeleton of a 3. ... Rinchen Barsbold is a Mongolian paleontologist and geologist. ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Paul Callistus Sereno (born October 11, 1957) is an American paleontologist who is the discoverer of several new dinosaur species on several continents. ... Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago The Field Museum of Natural History, in Chicago, Illinois, USA, sits on Lake Shore Drive next to Lake Michigan, part of a scenic complex known as Museum Campus Chicago. ...


See also

Region of Paleorrota. ... Timeline of paleontology 1770 - The fossilised bones of a huge animal (later identified as a Mosasaur) are found in a quarry near Maastricht in the Netherlands. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy is a 3-D scanning technique that allows non-invasive high definition scans of fossil embryos to be made. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... Prehistoric life is a term used to refer to diverse organisms that inhabited Earth from the origin of life about 3. ... A protected area with rich deposits of fossils is called a fossil park. ... Following is a list of Fossil Parks world wide by country: // There are two geological parks maintained by GSI. Saketi Fossil Park, Saketi, H.P. Nehru Park, Hyderabad, A.P. The park displays life size figures of dinosaurs like T-Rex. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Orders Saurischia    Sauropodomorpha    Theropoda Ornithischia Dinosaurs are giant reptiles that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for most of their 165-million year existence. ... Rockhounding is the recreational collecting of rocks and/or mineral specimens from their natural environment. ... Mary Anning (May 21, 1799 – March 9, 1847) was an early British fossil collector and paleontologist. ... Precambrian (3. ... Collecting fossilized sharks teeth is an easy way to begin collecting fossils. ... This is a very tentative list of vertebrate transitional fossils (fossil remains of a creature that exhibits primitive traits in comparison with more derived life-forms to which it is related). ... This is a list of notable fossils. ... List of fossil sites: // ^ http://www. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, this is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... The takahe is an example of a Lazarus taxon. ... In paleontology, an Elvis taxon (plural taxa) is a taxon which has been misidentified as having re-emerged in the fossil record after a period of extinction, but is not actually a descendant of the original taxon, instead having developed a similar morphology through convergent evolution. ... Paleobiology (sometimes spelled palaeobiology) is a growing and comparatively new discipline which combines the methods and findings of the natural science biology with the methods and findings of the earth science paleontology. ... The history of paleontology has been an ongoing effort to understand the history of life on Earth by understanding the fossil record left behind by living organisms. ... Bioerosion describes the erosion of hard ocean substrates by living organisms by a number of mechanisms. ... Taphonomy is the study of the fate of the remains of organisms after they die. ... Ichnology is the branch of paleontology dealing with the study of fossilized footprints, tracks and burrows. ...

References

  1. ^ Newman, Garfield, et al (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 0-07-088739-X. 

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