FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Paleolithic Continuity Theory

Indo-European topics

Indo-European languages
Albanian · Armenian  · Baltic
Celtic · Germanic  · Greek
Indo-Iranian (Iranian, Indo-Aryan)
Italic · Slavic  

extinct: Anatolian · Paleo-Balkans (Dacian ·
Thracian · Phrygian) Tocharian For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... The Indo-Iranian language group constitutes the easternmost extant branch of the Indo-European family of languages. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Hypothetical distribution of languages in Iron Age Italy during the sixth century BC. The Italic subfamily is a member of the Centum branch of the Indo-European language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Anatolian languages are a group of extinct Indo-European languages, which were spoken in Asia Minor, the best attested of them being the Hittite language. ... The Paleo-Balkan languages were the Indo-European languages which were spoken in the Balkans in ancient times: Dacian language Thracian language Illyrian language Paionian language Ancient Macedonian language The only remnant of them is Albanian, but it is still disputed which language was its ancestor. ... The Dacian language was an Indo-European language spoken by the ancient people of Dacia. ... The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times by the Thracians in South-Eastern Europe. ... The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, a people who probably migrated from Thrace to Asia Minor in the Bronze Age. ... Tocharian is one of the most obscure branches of the group of Indo-European languages. ...

Indo-European peoples
Albanians · Armenians
Balts · Celts · Germanic peoples
Greeks · Indo-Aryans ·
Iranians · Latins · Slavs

historical: Anatolians (Hittites, Luwians)  ·
Germanic tribes · Celts (Gauls, Galatians)
Italic peoples  · Indo-Iranians (Iranian tribes)
Illyrians  · Thracians  · Tocharians   For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... http://www. ... The Six Nations considered the heartland of the modern Celts Celtic nations are areas of Europe inhabited by members of Celtic cultures, specifically speakers of Celtic languages. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... The Indo-Aryans are a wide collection of peoples united by their common status as speakers of the Indo-Aryan (Indic) branch of the family of Indo-European and Indo-Iranian languages. ... The Latin peoples, also known as Romance peoples, are those European linguistic-cultural groups and their descendants all over the world that speak Romance languages. ... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Distribution of the Luwian language (after Melchert 2003) Luwian hieroglyphic inscription from the city of Carchemish. ... This are some historical Germanic Confederations 230 BC - Bastarnae, a mixture of Germanic tribes, at the Black Sea; they participated in the siege of Olbia (modern Odessa) in 220 BC. 109 BC - Huge confederation composed of the Germanic of Cimbri and Teutoni and the Celtic-Germanic Helvetii formed near Miltenberg... Celts, normally pronounced // (see article on pronunciation), refers primarily to the members of any of a number of peoples in Europe using the Celtic languages or descended from those who did. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Epistle to Galatians is a book of the Bible New Testament. ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... Map of the Sintashta-Petrovka culture (red), its expansion into the Andronovo culture during the 2nd millennium BC, showing the overlap with the BMAC in the south. ... Ancient Iranian peoples who settled Greater Iran in the 2nd millennium BC first appear in Assyrian records in the 9th century BC. They remain dominant throughout Classical Antiquity in Scythia and Persia. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... Thracian peltast, fifth to fourth century BC. Thracian Roman era heros (Sabazius) stele. ... The Tocharians or Tusharas as known in Indian literature were the easternmost speakers of an Indo-European language in antiquity, inhabiting the Tarim basin in what is now Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwestern Peoples Republic of China. ...

Proto-Indo-Europeans
Language · Society · Religion
 
Urheimat hypotheses
Kurgan hypothesis · Anatolia
Armenia · India · PCT
 
Indo-European studies

The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. It argues that the appearance of Indo-Europeans coincides with the first regional settlement of Homo sapiens in the Middle/Upper Paleolithic age. The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE) were a patrilineal society of the Bronze Age (roughly 5th to 4th millennium BC), probably semi-nomadic, relying on animal husbandry. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... Map of Indo European migrations from ca. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansion from the 7th to 5th millennia. ... Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...


Its main proponents are the Italian linguists Mario Alinei, Gabriele Costa and Cicero Poghirc as well as the German and Belgian prehistorians Alexander Häusler and Marcel Otte. Mario Alinei is Professor Emeritus at the University of Utrecht, where he taught from 1959 to 1987. ... Marcel Otte (born October 5, 1948) is a professor of Prehistory at the Université de Liège, Belgium. ...

Contents

Continuity Theory

The Continuity Theory proposes that Indo-European speakers arrived in Europe tens of millennia ago, and that by the end of the Ice Age, had already differentiated into Celtic/Italic/Slavic/Germanic/etc. speakers occupying territories within or close to their traditional homelands. It also suggests that the glaciers and pre-glacial basins that compartmentalised Europe during the Ice Age may actually have been the mechanisms for this process of differentiation of Indo-European into its component families. The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, a branch of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article is about the geological formation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ...


It is based on a synthesis of linguistic studies, the archaeogenetical studies of Brian Sykes indicating that some 80% of the genetic stock of Europeans goes back to the Paleolithic, as well as on archaeological data indicating European cultural continuity. Archaeogenetics, a term coined by Colin Renfrew, refers to the application of the techniques of molecular population genetics to the study of the human past. ... Bryan Sykes is Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Oxford. ...


Proponents point to a lack of archaeological evidence for an Indo-European invasion in the Bronze Age; to the lack of substantial genetic change since the Paleolithic; and to analogy with a theory of a Paleolithic origin of Uralic peoples and languages in Eurasia. Moreover, the continuity theory is much more parsimonious in comparison with classical approaches to the IE developments. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Geographical distribution of Samoyedic, Finnic, Ugric and Yukaghir languages  Yukaghir  Samoyedic  Ugric  Finnic The term Uralic peoples is used to describe peoples speaking a Uralic language. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


PCT critique for systematic bias German historiography and related 'wissenschaften'. This state sponsored systematic bias lay shadow, to this day, on understanding of European prehistory.


Criticism

The mainstream[citation needed] position of historical linguistics is that genetic continuity does not imply linguistic continuity[citation needed]. 2003 Nature have quite contrary quote Languages, like genes, provide vital clues about human history[1] Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ...


That theories of a literal "military conquest" have fallen into disfavour with most supporters of the theory of a Chalcolithic origin of Indo-European. What it mean Chalcolithic origin conception is a brige toward PCT from Kurgan h. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ... The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period, also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic) or Copper Age period, is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ...


The time frame proposed by PCT is far beyond mainstream estimates, by a factor of at least 500%,[citation needed] and the hypothesis is not taken seriously in Indo-European studies[citation needed]. Indo-European studies is a field of linguistics, dealing with the Indo-European languages. ...


Alinei's book was reviewed favourably by Jonathan Morris in Mother Tongue, a journal dedicated to the reconstruction of Paleolithic language, judging Alinei's theory as being Mother Tongue is the yearly periodical of the Association for the Study of Languages in Prehistory (ASLIP), appearing since 1995. ...

"both simpler than its rivals and more powerful in terms of the insights it provides into language in the Meso- and Palaeolithic. While his book contains some flaws I believe that it deserves to be regarded as one of the seminal texts on linguistic archaeology, although given its lamentable lack of citation in English-language circles, it appears that recognition will have to wait until a translation of the original Italian appears."[1]

Now as on 2007 the number of citation[2] is larger in English language papers. Perhaps some English-only speaking linguist learned Italian language.


References

  1. ^ Nature 426, 435-439 (27 November 2003) | doi:10.1038/nature02029; Received 18 July 2003; Accepted 22 August 2003
  2. ^ Google scholar count 3400 showe the highest dynamics comparatively to other linguistics theories.

See also

Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BCE Europe in ca. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Map showing the Neolithic expansions from the 7th to the 5th millennium BC Europe in ca. ... Urheimat (German: ur- original, ancient; Heimat home, homeland) is a linguistic term denoting the original homeland of the speakers of a proto-language. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Devaneya Pavanar (; ; also known as G. Devaneyan, Ñanamuttan Tevaneyan; lived 1902–1981), was a prominent Tamil author. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...

External links

  • continuitas.com principal PCT website
    • Review of Mario Alinei's - Origini delle Lingue d’Europa (Origins of the Languages of Europe) - by Jonathan Morris
  • PCT outline
  • An alternative model for the origins of European peoples and languages
  • The Paleolithic Indo-Europeans

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia search result (508 words)
The Continuity Theory proposes that Indo-European speakers arrived in Europe tens of millennia ago, and that by the end of the Ice Age, had already differentiated into Celtic/Italic/Germanic/etc. speakers occupying territories within or close to their traditional homelands.
Proponents point to a lack of archaeological evidence for an Indo-European invasion in the Bronze Age; to the lack of substantial genetic change since the Paleolithic; and to analogy with a theory of a Paleolithic origin of Uralic peoples and languages in Eurasia.
Critics reply that genetic continuity does not imply linguistic continuity and that theories of a literal "military conquest" have fallen into disfavour with most supporters of the theory of a Chalcolithic origin of Indo-European.
Wikipedia search result (1708 words)
Her theory has found genetic support in remains from the Neolithic culture of Scandinavia, where bone remains in Neolithic graves indicated that the megalith culture was either matrilocal or matrilineal as the people buried in the same grave were related through the women.
A modified form of this theory by JP Mallory, dating the migrations earlier to around 4000 BC and putting less insistence on their violent or quasi-military nature, is still widely held.
Yet another theory is connected with the Black Sea deluge theory, suggesting that PIE originated as the language of trade between early neolithic Black Sea tribes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m