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Encyclopedia > Paleolithic
This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE
This cranium, of Homo heidelbergensis, a Lower Paleolithic predecessor to Homo neanderthalensis, dates to between 400,000 BCE to 500,000 BCE

Contents

The Paleolithic is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. It covers virtually all of humanity's time on Earth, extending from 2.5 million years ago, with the introduction of stone tools by hominids such as Homo habilis, to the introduction of agriculture in around 10,000 BCE. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 620 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 1021 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Atapuerca skull-5. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 620 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 1021 pixel, file size: 155 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Atapuerca skull-5. ... Cranium can mean: The brain and surrounding skull, a part of the body. ... Binomial name †Homo heidelbergensis Schoetensack, 1908 Homo heidelbergensis (Heidelberg Man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo and the direct ancestor of Homo neanderthalensis in Europe. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... Ancient stone tools A stone tool is, in the most general sense, any tool made of stone. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Binomial name Leakey et al, 1964 Homo habilis (IPA ) (handy man, skillful person) is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2. ... Agriculture (encompassing farming, grazing, and the tending of orchards, vineyards and timberland) is the production of food, feed, fiber and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals. ... BCE is a TLA that may stand for: Before the Common Era, date notation equivalent to BC (e. ...


The term "Paleolithic", literally "Old Age of the Stone", was coined by archaeologist John Lubbock in 1865 and derives from the Greek "παλαιός", "paleos" ("old") and "λίθος", "lithos", ("stone"). The Paleolithic era ended with the Mesolithic, or in areas with an early neolithisation, the Epipaleolithic. John Lubbock. ... Not to be confused with Entomology, the scientific study of insects. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... The Neolithic Revolution was a term first suggested in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe as a description of the switch made by ancient peoples from nomadic, hunter-gatherer behaviour to a settled, agrarian way of life, during the neolithic period. ... The Epipalaeolithic (or Epi-Palaeolithic, Epipaleolithic, or Epi-Paleolithic) was a period in the development of human technology that immediately precedes the neolithic period, as an alternative to mesolithic. ...


The Paleolithic is characterized by the utilization of knapped stone tools, although humans at the time also used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were synthesized as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers; however these have not been preserved to any great degree. Modern leather-working tools Leather is a material created through the tanning of hides and skins of animals, primarily cattlehide. ...


Chronology

Traditionally, the Paleolithic is divided into three periods, the Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic and the Upper Paleolithic; the three ages mark technological and cultural advances in different human communities. The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ...

Paleolithic
Lower Paleolithic
Olduwan culture
Acheulean culture
Clactonian culture
Middle Paleolithic
Mousterian culture
Aterian culture
Upper Paleolithic
Châtelperronian culture
Aurignacian culture
Gravettian culture
Solutrean culture
Magdalenian culture

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... Chopper with a Simple edge. ... Acheulean hand-axes from Kent. ... The Clactonian is the name given by archaeologists to an industry of European flint tool manufacture which dates to the early part of the interglacial period known as the Hoxnian, the Mindell-Riss or the Holstein interglacial (300,000-200,000 years ago). ... The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Mousterian is a name given by archaeologists to a style of predominantly flint tools (or industry) associated primarily with Homo neanderthalensis and dating to the Middle Paleolithic, the middle part of the Old Stone Age. ... The Aterian industry is a name given by archaeologists to a type of stone tool manufacturing dating to the middle Palaeolithic in the region around the Atlas Mountains and the north west Sahara. ... The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. ... Châtelperronian was the earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France. ... Aurignacian is the name of a culture of the Upper Palaeolithic present in Europe and south west Asia. ... The Gravettian was an industry of the European Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Solutrean industry was an advanced flint tool making style of the Upper Palaeolithic. ... The Magdalenian, also spelt Magdalénien, refers to one of the later culture of the Upper Palaeolithic in western Europe. ...

Human evolution

Main article: Human evolution

Human evolution is the part of biological evolution concerning the emergence of humans as a distinct species. It is the subject of a broad scientific inquiry that seeks to understand and describe how this change and development occurred. The study of human evolution encompasses many scientific disciplines, most notably physical anthropology, linguistics and genetics. The term "human", in the context of human evolution, refers to the genus Homo, but studies of human evolution usually include other hominids, such as the australopithecines. // For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Physical anthropology, often called biological anthropology, studies the mechanisms of biological evolution, genetic inheritance, human adaptability and variation, primatology, primate morphology, and the fossil record of human evolution. ... Linguistics is the scientific study of language, which can be theoretical or applied. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Species Homo sapiens See text for extinct species. ... A hominid is any member of the biological family Hominidae (the great apes), including the extinct and extant humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. ... Species A. afarensis (Lucy) Formerly Australopithecus, now Paranthropus Australopithecines (genus Australopithecus) are a group of extinct Hominids that are closely related to humans. ...


Human genealogy

Timeline of human evolution

The timeline of human evolution outlines the major events in the development of humans species and the evolution of human's ancestors. This timeline does not explain the evolution of, for example, lions, dinosaurs or birds. It includes a more detailed explanation of other animals, species or genus, which are possible ancestors of Homo sapiens sapiens. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an ancestor (i. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Orders & Suborders Saurischia Sauropodomorpha Theropoda Ornithischia Thyreophora Ornithopoda Marginocephalia Dinosaurs were vertebrate animals that dominated the terrestrial ecosystem for over 160 million years, first appearing approximately 230 million years ago. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...


It begins with the time of the origin of life and presents a possible line of descendants that led to humans. This timeline is based on studies from paleontology, developmental biology, morphology and from anatomical and genetic data. The study of human evolution is a major component of anthropology. This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... Views of a Foetus in the Womb, Leonardo da Vinci, ca. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Greek anatome, from ana-temnein, to cut up), is the branch of biology that deals with the structure and organization of living things; thus there is animal anatomy (zootomy) and plant anatomy (phytonomy). ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Anthropology (from Greek: ἀνθρωπος, anthropos, human being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of humanity. ...


Simplified human genealogy

The timeline below shows a simplified genealogy of Paleolithic humanity:[1]


Climate

Currently agreed upon classifications as Paleolithic geoclimatic episodes
Age
(before)
America Atlantic Europe Maghreb Mediterranean Europe Central Europe
10,000 years Flandrian interglacial Flandriense Mellahiense Versiliense Flandrian interglacial
80,000 years Wisconsin Devensiense Regresión Regresión Wisconsin glaciation
140,000 years Sangamoniense Ipswichiense Ouljiense Tirreniense II y III Eemian interglacial
200,000 years Illinois Wolstoniense Regresión Regresión Wolstonian glaciation
450,000 years Yarmouthiense Hoxniense Anfatiense Tirreniense I Hoxnian interglacial
580,000 years Kansas Angliense Regresión Regresión Kansan glaciation
750,000 years Aftoniense Cromeriense Maarifiense Siciliense Cromerian interglacial
1,100,000 years Nebraska Beestoniense Regresión Regresión Beestonian stage
1,400,000 years interglaciar Ludhamiense Messaudiense Calabriense Donau-Günz

North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Flandrian interglacial or stage is the name given by geologists and archaeologists in the British Isles to the first, and so far only, stage of the Holocene, covering the period from around 10,000 years ago when the last ice age ended to the present day. ... The Wisconsin (in North America), Devensian (in the British Isles), Midlandian (in Ireland), Würm (in the Alps), and Weichsel (in northern central Europe) glaciations are the most recent glaciations of the Pleistocene epoch, which ended around 10,000 BCE. The general glacial advance began about 70,000 BCE, and... Two ice core temperature records; the Eemian is at a depth of about 1500-1800 meters in the lower graph The Eemian interglacial era (known as the Sangamon interglacial in North America, the Ipswichian interglacial in the UK, and the Riss-Würm interglacial in the Alps) is the second... The Wolstonian glaciation is a name for an ice age period which occurred between 200,000 and 125,000 years ago. ... The Hoxnian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... The Kansan Glaciation (known in UK as the Anglian Glaciation and sometimes referred to as the Illinoian Glaciation, Elster glaciation in northern Europe and the Mindel glaciation in the Alps) was a very severe glacial period in the Pleistocene. ... The Cromerian interglacial is a name for an interglacial period which occurred between 700,000 and 450,000 years ago. ... The Beestonian stage is the name for an early Pleistocene glacial stage used in the British Isles. ...

Way of life

Main article: Stone Age

The Old Stone Age or Paleolithic comprises more than a million years, and during this period major climatic and other changes occurred which affected the evolution of humans. Humans themselves evolved into their current morphological form during the later period of the Stone Age. Stone Age fishing hook. ...


Paleolithic man appears to have ranged widely and was distributed thinly but uniformly. The Paleolithic remains which have been found are astonishingly uniform everywhere. Implements of the same type have been found in what is now Britain, France, and the banks of the Nile.[2]


The economy of a typical Paleolithic society was primitive, with humans living a hunter-gatherer lifestyle. They obtained food, firewood and materials for their tools, clothes or cabins. In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ...


Tools

During the interglacial period about 100,000 years ago, some small family groups of Homo neanderthalensis wandered over Europe, leaving nothing but their flint implements.[2] Binomial name Homo neanderthalensis King, 1864 The Neanderthal or Neandertal was a species of genus Homo (Homo neanderthalensis) that inhabited Europe and parts of western Asia from about 230,000 to 29,000 years ago (in the Middle Palaeolithic, early Stone Age). ...


In general, the methods of fabrication for tools did not change a great deal during the Paleolithic, despite the number of cultures that existed through the era.


Society

An artist's rendering of a temporary wood house found at Terra Amata (in Nice, France) and dated to around 400,000 BCE.
An artist's rendering of a temporary wood house found at Terra Amata (in Nice, France) and dated to around 400,000 BCE.

Neanderthals seemed acquainted with the use of fire, and as the last glacial era approached in Europe they began to seek shelter under rock ledges and in caves, and leaving their remains for later discovery. More primitive men or society vanished, as the rudest type of Paleolithic implements vanished. Among their prey were the large mammals, as they brought their large bones to caves to crack for the marrow. Animal skins were being used. They were right-handed (the left side of the brain was larger).[2] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1125 × 804 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paleolithic Terra Amata ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 572 pixelsFull resolution (1125 × 804 pixel, file size: 40 KB, MIME type: image/gif) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Paleolithic Terra Amata ... Terra Amata is an archaeological site nearFrench town of Nice. ... Night view along the Promenade des Anglais This article is about the city. ...


Paleolithic humans were grouped in clans that ranged from 25 to 50 members; these clans were formed by several families.


Diet and nutrition

Paleolithic diets consisted primarily of animal flesh, fruits, and vegetables.


Notes and references

  1. ^ Human evolution. Archaelogy.info. Retrieved on 2007-04-09.
  2. ^ a b c Wells, H. G. (1920). The Outline of History. Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing Co., Inc., 57-58, 107. 

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 – August 13, 1946), better known as H. G. Wells, was an English writer best known for such science fiction novels as The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, The Invisible Man, The First Men in the Moon and The Island of Doctor Moreau. ...

See also

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The Abbassia Pluvial was an extended wet and rainy period in the climate history of North Africa. ... // For other uses, see time scale. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... This is a list of archaeological sites is sorted by country. ... The Mousterian Pluvial was an extended wet and rainy period in the climate history of North Africa. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) on the geologic timescale is the period from 1,808,000 to 11,550 years BP. The Pleistocene epoch had been intended to cover the worlds recent period of repeated glaciations. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... For the magazine about archaeology, see Archaeology (magazine). ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Names for archaeological periods vary enormously from region to region. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Paleolithic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (455 words)
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic (Greek παλαιός paleos=old and λίθος lithos=stone or the 'Old Stone Age') was the first period in the development of human technology of the Stone Age.
Lower Paleolithic (2,500,000 BC - 120,000 BC, approx.): This was the time of the hand axe-industries.
Upper Paleolithic (30,000 BC - 10,000 BC, approx.): The technological changes of the transition from Middle to Upper Paleolithic have led some to speculate that human language first fully developed at this time.
Paleolithic diet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2638 words)
As such, this early version of the paleolithic diet recommended such foods as skim milk, whole grain bread, brown rice, and potatoes prepared without fat, on the argument that such foods have the same nutritional properties as paleolithic foods.
It is common practice among paleolithic eaters that when cooking, unconventional cooking means should be avoided, such as the use of microwave ovens, and that foods are cooked just enough to kill any harmful bacteria that may be present.
One criticism of the Paleolithic diet is that it is possible that the human body has indeed evolved to some extent since early man. Small changes in the human body could still have occurred within the time frame from early in the paleolithic up until recent times.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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