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Encyclopedia > Paleobotany

Paleobotany (from the Greek words paleon = old and botanikos = of herbs) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of plant remains from geological contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and the history of life. A closely related field is palynology, the study of fossil and extant spores and pollen. Paleobotany includes the study of terrestrial plant fossils as well as the study of marine autotrophs, such as algae. A paleontologist carefully chips rock from a column of dinosaur vertebrae. ... Divisions Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering plants Adiantum pedatum (a fern... Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history and the processes that shape it. ... Pollen under microscope Palynology is the science that studies contemporary and fossil palynomorphs, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoans and scolecodonts, together with particulate organic matter (POM) and kerogen found in sedimentary rocks and sediments. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomea purpurea), hollyhock (Sildalcea malviflora), lily (Lilium auratum), primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... A fossil Ammonite Fossils are the mineralized remains of animals or plants or other traces such as footprints. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... A seaweed (Laurencia) up close: the branches are multicellular and only about 1 mm thick. ...


Paleobotany is important in the reconstruction of prehistoric ecological systems and climate, known as paleoecology and paleoclimatology respectively, and is fundamental to the study of plant development and evolution. Paleobotany has also become important to the field of archaeology, primarily for the use of phytoliths in relative dating and in paleoethnobotany, you doedd you flydndoedd ha ha ha ha aha ... Paleoclimatology is the study of climate change taken on the scale of the entire history of the Earth. ... Development has meaning in several contexts: Science and Engineering Biological development of embryos in the context of developmental biology Child development (physical emphasis) or post-natal human development (pediatrics, etc) Software engineering, the methodology and process of development of computer software Technology development in industry, as in Software development New... A speculative phylogenetic tree of all living things, based on rRNA gene data, showing the separation of the three domains, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. ... Archaeology or archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... A Phytolith is a rigid microscopic body that occurs in many plants. ... ... Ethnobotany is the study of the relationship between plants and people: ethno is the study of people and botany is the study of plants. ...

Contents


Overview of the Paleobotanical Record

Macroscopic remains of true vascular plants are first found in the fossil record during the Silurian Period. Some dispersed, fragmentary fossils of disputed affinity, primarily spores and cuticles, have been found in rocks from the Ordovician Period of Oman and are thought to derive from liverwort- or moss-grade fossil plants (Wellman et. al., 2003). Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... A fossil Ammonite Fossils (from Latin fossus, literally having been dug up) are the mineralized or otherwise preserved remains or traces (such as footprints) of animals, plants, and other organisms. ... The Silurian is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Ordovician period, about 443. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Ordovician period is the second of the six (seven in North America) periods of the Paleozoic era. ... Orders Need to be entered Liverworts are non-vascular plants in the Class Marchantiopsida, formerly known as the Hepaticae. ... Subclasses Sphagnidae Andreaeidae Tetraphidae Polytrichidae Archidiidae Buxbaumiidae Bryidae Moss gametophyte generation plants with a single sporophyte. ...


An important early land plant fossil locality is the Rhynie Chert, an Early Devonian sinter (hot spring) deposit composed primarily of silica found outside the town of Rhynie in Scotland. Rhynie chert is the name for fossiliferous material from a uniquely well-preserved layer in one site near the village of Rhynie, Aberdeenshire, Scotland. ... Disambiguation: Devonian is also an adjective relating to the English county of Devon or the people there. ... Green Dragon Spring at Norris Geyser A hot spring is a place where warm or hot groundwater issues from the ground on a regular basis for at least a predictable part of the year, and is significantly above the ambient ground temperature (which is usually around 55~57 F or... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one provokes me with impunity) Scotlands location within the United Kingdom Languages English, Gaelic, Scots Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK 78,782 km² 1. ...

An unpolished hand sample of the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert from Scotland.
An unpolished hand sample of the Lower Devonian Rhynie Chert from Scotland.

The Rhynie Chert is exceptional due to its preservation of several different clades of plants, from mosses and lycopods to more unusual, problematic forms. Many fossil animals, including arthropods and arachnids, are also found in the Rhynie Chert, and it offers a unique window on the history of early terrestrial life. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 859 KB) Summary Author: user Jpwilson Photo of an unpolished hand sample of the Rhynie Chert from Rhynie, Scotland. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 859 KB) Summary Author: user Jpwilson Photo of an unpolished hand sample of the Rhynie Chert from Rhynie, Scotland. ... This is an article about the plant. ... Lycopodium is a genus of clubmosses, also known as ground pines, in the family Lycopodiaceae, a family of fern-allies (see Pteridophyta). ... Subphyla and Classes Subphylum Trilobitomorpha Trilobita - Trilobites (extinct) Subphylum Chelicerata Arachnida - Spiders, Scorpions, etc. ... Orders Acarina Amblypygi Araneae Opiliones Palpigradi Pseudoscorpionida Ricinulei Schizomida Scorpiones Solifugae Uropygi The arachnids, Arachnida, are a class of invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. ...


Plant-derived macrofossils become abundant in the Late Devonian and include tree trunks, fronds, and roots. The earliest tree is Archaeopteris, which bears simple, fern-like leaves spirally arranged on branches atop a conifer-like trunk (Meyer-Berthaud et. al., 1999). Disambiguation: Devonian is also an adjective relating to the English county of Devon or the people there. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth A tree can be defined as a large, perennial, woody plant. ... A fern with simple (lobed or pinnatifid) blades, the dissection of each blade not quite reaching to the rachis. ... Roots is: The plural of Root Roots (album) Roots (TV miniseries), a mini-series based on a novel by Alex Haley Roots: The Saga of an American Family, a novel by Alex Haley Roots Canada Ltd. ... Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like ferns that many scientists believe to be the first tree. ... Classes Marattiopsida Osmundopsida Gleicheniopsida Pteridopsida A fern, or pteridophyte, is any one of a group of about 20,000 species of plants classified in the Division Pteridophyta, formerly known as Filicophyta. ... Leaves are an Icelandic five-piece alternative rock band who came to prominence in 2002 with their debut album, Breathe, drawing comparisons to groups such as Coldplay and Doves. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Trunk may be: Look up trunk in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Widespread coal swamp deposits across North America and Europe during the Carboniferous Period contain a wealth of fossils containing arborescent lycopods up to 30 meters tall, abundant seed plants, such as conifers and seed ferns, and countless smaller, herbaceous plants. Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground by underground mining or open-pit mining (strip mining). ... The Carboniferous is a major division of the geologic timescale that extends from the end of the Devonian period, about 359. ... Species See text. ... Coast Douglas-fir cone, from a tree grown from seed collected by David Douglas Gymnosperms are seed-bearing, vascular plants. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... Pteridospermatophyta, also called seed ferns, is an extinct gymnosperm division of the Plantae kingdom. ... This article is about the plants used in cooking and medicine. ...


Angiosperms (flowering plants) evolved during the Mesozoic, and flowering plant pollen and leaves first appear during the Early Cretaceous, approximately 130 million years ago. Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants (also angiosperms or Magnoliophyta) are one of the major groups of modern plants, comprising those that produce seeds in specialized reproductive organs called flowers, where the ovulary or carpel is enclosed. ... The Mesozoic is one of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic eon. ... The Cretaceous period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic period, about 146 million years ago (Ma), to the beginning of the Paleocene epoch of the Tertiary period (65. ...


Notable Paleobotanists

K.M. Count Sternberg Kaspar Maria von Sternberg (also: Caspar Maria, Count Sternberg, German: Kaspar Maria Graf Sternberg, Czech: hrabě Kašpar Maria Šternberk), 1761–1838, was a Bohemian theologian, mineralogist, geognost and botanist. ...

Paleobotany Textbooks

Stewart, W.N. and Rothwell, G.W. 1993. Paleobotany and the evolution of plants, Second edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. ISBN 0-521-38294-7


Taylor, T. N. and E. L. Taylor. 1993. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA. ISBN 0-13-651589-4


External links

  • Paleobotany Research Group, University M√ľnster, Germany.
  • The Biota of Early Terrestrial Ecosystems: The Rhynie Chert, University of Aberdeen, UK.
  • The Sternberg Project
  • http://www.strangescience.net/
  • http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/P/PA/PALAEOBOTANY.htm
  • http://iop.biodiversity.org.uk/
  • http://www.nhm.ac.uk/paleonet/

References

  • Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud, S.E. Scheckler, J. Wendt, "Archaeopteris is the Earliest Modern Tree." Nature, 398, 700-701 (22 April 1999) | doi:10.1038/19516
  • Charles H. Wellman, Peter L. Osterloff and Uzma Mohiuddin, "Fragments of the Earliest Land Plants." Nature, 425, 282-285 (18 September 2003) | doi: 10.1038/nature01884

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Paleobotany (2051 words)
Paleobotany has also become important to the field of archaeology, primarily for the use of phytoliths in relative dating and in paleoethnobotany, you doedd you flydndoedd ha ha ha ha aha...
Paleobotany is the study of fossil plants, including their origin, evolution, and diversification on earth.
Paleobotany also encompasses study of past climates and communities and provides a means to evaluate the nature, rate, and effect of climate change on plant communities over time scales that are otherwise inaccessible.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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